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Youth baseball

Sakiko Oyama, Andrew G Waldhelm, Araceli R Sosa, Ravina R Patel, Derick L Kalinowski
OBJECTIVE: Pitching technique is one of many factors that affect injury risk. Exhibiting excessive contralateral trunk tilt (CLT) during pitching has been linked to higher ball speed but also to increased joint loading. Deficit in trunk muscle strength has been suggested as an underlying cause of this movement pattern. The purpose of the study was to compare trunk muscle strength between youth baseball pitchers with varying degree of CLT during pitching. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study...
October 6, 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Scott W Cheatham, Kathryn Kumagai Shimamura, Morey J Kolber
The purpose of this study was to measure passive hip internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) range of motion (ROM) in collegiate baseball pitchers and compare to published youth and professional values. Measures were taken on the bilateral hips of 29 participants (mean age 20.0±1.4, range 18-22 years). Results identified no significant differences between the stance and stride hip in collegiate right handed pitchers for IR (p= 0.22, ES 0.23) and ER (p=.08, ES= 0.25). There was no significant difference in left handed pitchers for IR (p= 0...
September 2016: Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association
Toshiyuki Iwame, Tetsuya Matsuura, Naoto Suzue, Shinji Kashiwaguchi, Takenobu Iwase, Shoji Fukuta, Daisuke Hamada, Tomohiro Goto, Takahiko Tsutsui, Keizo Wada, Hiroshi Egawa, Akihiro Nagamachi, Koichi Sairyo
PURPOSE: Our aim was to examine the outcome of an elbow check-up system for youth baseball players. In particular, we investigated the nature of elbow injuries in youth baseball players with elbow pain and ultrasonographic findings of the capitellum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1605 players participating in the regional summer championship in July 2013 underwent a questionnaire survey, physical examination, ultrasound imaging, and radiographic examination...
2016: Journal of Medical Investigation: JMI
Steven F DeFroda, Charles A Thigpen, Peter K Kriz
Three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis is the gold standard for analyzing the biomechanics of the baseball pitching motion. Historically, 3D analysis has been available primarily to elite athletes, requiring advanced cameras, and sophisticated facilities with expensive software. The advent of newer technology, and increased affordability of video recording devices, and smartphone/tablet-based applications has led to increased access to this technology for youth/amateur athletes and sports medicine professionals...
September 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Nick B Murray, Georgia M Black, Rod J Whiteley, Peter Gahan, Michael H Cole, Andy Utting, Tim J Gabbett
PURPOSE: Throwing loads are known to be closely related to injury risk, however for logistic reasons, typically only pitchers have their throws counted, and then only during innings. Accordingly, all other throws made are not counted, and therefore estimates of throws made by players may be inaccurately recorded and under-reported. A potential solution to this is the use of wearable microtechnology to automatically detect, quantify, and report pitch counts in baseball. This study investigated the accuracy of baseball pitching and throwing detection in both practice and competition using a commercially available wearable microtechnology unit...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Alfred Atanda, Lauren W Averill, Maegen Wallace, Tim A Niiler, Levon N Nazarian, Michael G Ciccotti
BACKGROUND: Stress ultrasound (SUS) of the elbow has demonstrated changes in the anterior band of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) in professional and high school-aged pitchers. However, there have been no large reports correlating pitching history data with SUS changes in youth and adolescent baseball pitchers. HYPOTHESIS: Changes of the UCL on SUS will correlate with pitching volume in youth and adolescent baseball pitchers. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
William T Tsushima, Andrea M Siu, Nozomi Yamashita, Ross S Oshiro, Nathan M Murata
This replication study re-examined the neuropsychological effects of participation in high and low contact youth sports. Modeled after a recently published investigation, two contact sport groups of participants ages 12 to 18 were formed based on the rate of concussion in their respective sport, with the assumption that more head impacts and neuropsychological effects occur in high contact sports that have a greater number of reported concussions as compared with low contact sports. The preseason baseline ImPACT neuropsychological test scores and symptom scores of non-concussed youth athletes in a High Contact Sport (football, n = 139) and a Low Contact Sport (basketball, baseball, soccer, wrestling, volleyball, paddling, and cheerleading, n = 57) were compared...
August 25, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Kelsey J Picha, Josie L Harding, Kellie C Huxel Bliven
CONTEXT: The repetitive demands of throwing affect glenohumeral (GH) range of motion (ROM) and strength. Less is known about hip alterations in skeletally immature athletes. OBJECTIVE: To compare GH and hip ROM and strength between age, position, and side of youth baseball athletes. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Multicenter testing. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-two healthy baseball athletes...
June 2, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
Michael L Rossetti, Matthew Miltenberger, Jordan Hartey, Shala Davis, Chad Witmer, Emily Sauers
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Shayne Fehr, Derek Damrow, Christopher Kilian, Roger Lyon, Xue-Cheng Liu
BACKGROUND: Elbow pain and elbow injuries are common in youth baseball players. It is not clear whether pitching experience and/or age creates biomechanical differences at the elbow and whether these differences place an athlete at greater risk. HYPOTHESES: (1) Youth pitchers will have differing elbow kinematics with regard to flexion/extension, internal/external rotation, and pronation/supination when compared with nonbaseball athletes and (2) younger youth pitchers will have differing elbow kinematics when compared with older youth pitchers...
September 2016: Sports Health
Brittany Dowling, Glenn S Fleisig
Determining and understanding baseball batting mechanics at various competition levels may help players and coaches identify key kinematics crucial to being a successful hitter. The purpose of this study was to compare batting kinematics across competition levels. Kinematic and temporal data were analysed for 170 male batters (youth n = 33; high school n = 69; college n = 22; professional n = 46) using 3D motion capture (480 Hz). The results showed differences in angular positions between competition levels during the five phases of the swing, with the greatest differences seen between the youth and professional batters...
September 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Breann K Tisano, A Reed Estes
In the hypercompetitive environment of year round youth baseball, arm pain is commonplace. Although much research has been done about injuries in the overhead throwing athlete, the emphasis has been on the more elite levels, where athletes have reached full development. The anatomy of the skeletally immature athlete, including open physeal plates and increased tissue laxity, raises unique issues in the presentation and treatment of repetitive throwing injuries of the elbow and shoulder. With a focus on "little leaguers," this discussion evaluates five of the most common elbow and shoulder injuries-Little Leaguer's elbow, ulnar collateral ligament sprain or tear, osteochondritis dissecans/Panner's disease, Little Leaguer's shoulder, and multidirectional instability...
October 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jeffrey R Dugas, Benjamin B Bedford, John S Andrachuk, Anthony J Scillia, Kyle T Aune, E Lyle Cain, James R Andrews, Glenn S Fleisig
PURPOSE: To determine common mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in baseball players and to quantify the rate of return to play after primary surgical reconstruction and review intermediate clinical outcomes. METHODS: Surgical injuries involving the ACL in youth, high school, collegiate, and professional baseball players were queried for an 11-year period (2001 to 2011). Over the study period, 42 baseball players were identified who had undergone arthroscopically assisted primary ACL reconstruction by 1 of 3 attending surgeons...
May 5, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
Andrew T Pennock, Andrew Pytiak, Phillip Stearns, Joanna H Roocroft, Jerry Dwek, Peter Kruk, Tracey P Bastrom
BACKGROUND: Youth baseball has been associated with elbow pain and elbow abnormalities, leading to the implementation of throwing and pitching guidelines. The purpose of the current study was to examine elbow abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in asymptomatic Little League baseball players and to correlate these findings with the players' throwing history and physical examinations. METHODS: A prospective study of Little League players who were 10 to 13 years of age was performed...
May 4, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
Kristian J Pamias-Velázquez, Mariam M Figueroa-Negrón, Janiliz Tirado-Crespo, Ana L Mulero-Portela
BACKGROUND: Because of the problem of elbow and shoulder injuries in baseball pitchers between 9 and 14 years of age, the USA Baseball Medical & Safety Advisory Committee and the Department of Recreation and Sports in Puerto Rico developed injury prevention guidelines for pitchers. The purpose of this study was to determine the compliance of pitching coaches of 9- to 14-year-old Little League teams in Puerto Rico with the Administrative Order 2006-01 and the USA Baseball guidelines. HYPOTHESES: (1) The coaches will have a satisfactory level of compliance with the Administrative Order as well as with the USA Baseball guidelines and (2) both the level of education of the coach as well as the years of experience will correlate with the level of compliance...
May 2016: Sports Health
Glenn S Fleisig, Walter A Laughlin, Kyle T Aune, E Lyle Cain, Jeffrey R Dugas, James R Andrews
Controversy continues whether curveballs are stressful for young baseball pitchers. Furthermore, it is unproven whether professional baseball pitchers have fewer kinematic differences between fastballs and off-speed pitches than lower level pitchers. Kinematic and kinetic data were measured for 111 healthy baseball pitchers (26 youth, 21 high school, 20 collegiate, 26 minor league, and 18 major league level) throwing fastballs, curveballs, and change-ups in an indoor biomechanics laboratory with a high-speed, automated digitising system...
June 2016: Sports Biomechanics
Brandon J Erickson, Peter N Chalmers, Charles A Bush-Joseph, Anthony A Romeo
Major League Baseball (MLB) players are at significant risk for both chronic, repetitive overuse injuries as well as acute traumatic injuries. Pitchers have been shown to be at higher risk for sustaining injuries, especially upper extremity injuries, than position players. The past several MLB seasons have seen a dramatic rise in the number of ulnar collateral ligament reconstructions performed in MLB pitchers. Several recent prospective studies have identified risk factors for injuries to both the shoulder and elbow in MLB pitchers...
March 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Benton E Heyworth, Dennis E Kramer, Daniel J Martin, Lyle J Micheli, Mininder S Kocher, Donald S Bae
BACKGROUND: With rising participation in youth sports such as baseball, proximal humeral epiphysiolysis, or Little League shoulder (LLS), is being seen with increasing frequency. However, there remains a paucity of literature regarding the causes, natural history, or treatment outcomes of LLS. PURPOSE: To analyze the demographic, clinical, and diagnostic features of a population of LLS patients, with an emphasis on identifying underlying risk factors for the development and recurrence of LLS after nonoperative treatment...
June 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
William T Tsushima, Olga Geling, Monica Arnold, Ross Oshiro
This exploratory study was designed to examine the neuropsychological effects of sports-related head trauma-specifically, repetitive subconcussive impacts or head blows that do not result in a diagnosable concussion. The researchers compared the Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) neurocognitive test scores of 2 groups of nonconcussed youth athletes (n = 282), grouped according to the frequency of concussions in their respective sports, with the assumption that more subconcussive impacts occur in sports in which there are more reported concussions...
2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
Gretchen Oliver, Wendi Weimar
Literature has revealed the importance of quantifying resting scapular posture in overhead athletes as well as quantifying scapular kinematics during dynamic movement. Prior to this project much of the attention in throwing research had been focused on the position of the humerus without description of the positioning of the scapula. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to present scapular kinematics during pitching in youth baseball players. Twenty-five youth baseball players (age 11.3 + 1.0 years; body height 152...
December 22, 2015: Journal of Human Kinetics
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