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Electroencephalogram and EEG

Eunsil Kim, Eu Gene Park, Jiwon Lee, Munhyang Lee, Jihye Kim, Jeehun Lee
Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a rare autoimmune disorder manifesting as seizures, movement disorders, and psychiatric changes. However, there have been few case reports concerning this disorder in South Korean children. The current case report describes a pediatric patient with anti-NMDAR encephalitis. A 13-year-old female patient developed clonic movements of the right arm followed by aphasia, paresthesia, and right-sided hemiparesis. The electroencephalogram (EEG) results indicated electroclinical seizures arising from the left temporal area...
June 2018: Journal of Epilepsy Research
Aiko K Thompson, Hannah Carruth, Rachel Haywood, N Jeremy Hill, William A Sarnacki, Lynn M McCane, Jonathan R Wolpaw, Dennis J McFarland
People can learn over training sessions to increase or decrease sensorimotor rhythms (SMRs) in the electroencephalogram (EEG). Activity-dependent brain plasticity is thought to guide spinal plasticity during motor skill learning; thus, SMR training may affect spinal reflexes and thereby influence motor control. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effects of learned mu (8-13 Hz) SMR modulation on the flexor carpi radialis (FCR) H-reflex in 6 subjects with no known neurological conditions and 2 subjects with chronic incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI)...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Narges Radman, Juliane Britz, Karin Buetler, Brendan S Weekes, Lucas Spierer, Jean-Marie Annoni
Word retrieval in bilingual speakers partly depends on executive control systems in the left prefrontal cortex - including dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that DLPFC modulates word production of words specifically in a second language (L2) by measuring the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (anodal-tDCS) over the DLPFC on picture naming and word translation and on event-related potentials (ERPs) and their sources. Twenty-six bilingual participants with "unbalanced" proficiency in two languages were given 20 min of 1...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yusong Zhang, Yunli Liu, Jian Xu, Qi Sun, Fang Yu, Jia Cheng, Biwen Peng, Wanhong Liu, Zheman Xiao, Jun Yin, Song Han, Xiaohua He
Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP4) is a cell surface serine peptidase widely expressed in the brain. Recent studies suggest that DPP4 contributes to the development of febrile seizures (FS); however, the underlying mechanism is still unclear. Thus, we investigated the role of DPP4 in the progression of FS at the molecular and electrophysiological levels using FS models in vivo and in vitro. Herein, we found that both the mRNA and protein levels of DPP4 were upregulated in the FS model. Administration of the pharmacological DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin suppressed the hyperthermia-induced neuronal excitability as determined via whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in vitro...
August 4, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Genevieve Z Steiner, Francesca M Fernandez, Madilyn Coles, Diana Karamacoska, Emma Barkus, Samantha J Broyd, Nadia Solowij, Owen T Watson, Christine L Chiu, Joanne M Lind, Robert J Barry
The COMT Val158Met polymorphism affects the availability of synaptic dopamine in the prefrontal cortex and has been widely studied as a genetic risk factor for psychosis. Schizotypy is associated with an increased risk of psychosis, with some studies implicating similar neurobiological mechanisms to schizophrenia. The present study sought to interrogate the link between the COMT Val158Met polymorphism and schizotypy using electroencephalogram (EEG) to identify neurophysiological mechanisms underpinning psychosis risk...
July 31, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
M Aleman, L R R Costa, C Crowe, P H Kass
BACKGROUND: Neuroglycopenia refers to a shortage of glucose in the brain resulting in neuronal dysfunction and death if left untreated. Presumed neuroglycopenia has not been described in horses. OBJECTIVE: To report neurological signs in horses with presumed neuroglycopenia as the result of severe hypoglycemia. ANIMALS: Ninety horses (hours to 28 years of age) diagnosed with hypoglycemia (blood glucose concentration < 75 mg/dL [< 4.2 mmol/L])...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Brandon Frank, Landon Hurley, Travis M Scott, Pat Olsen, Patricia Dugan, William B Barr
In this study, we employed a kernel support vector machine to predict epilepsy localization and lateralization for patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy (n = 228). We assessed the accuracy to which indices of verbal memory, visual memory, verbal fluency, and naming would localize and lateralize seizure focus in comparison to standard electroencephalogram (EEG). Classification accuracy was defined as models that produced the least cross-validated error (CVϵ). In addition, we assessed whether the inclusion of norm-based standard scores, demographics, and emotional functioning data would reduce CVϵ...
August 3, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Curtis K H Chu, Thomson W L Wong
This study examined the real-time objective measurement of conscious postural control ("reinvestment") in older adults when standing on a compliant surface using electroencephalogram (EEG) coherence. Twenty-nine older adults participated in the study and their Alpha2 T3-Fz and Alpha2 T4-Fz EEG coherence during standing at three different positions on foam including wide-base standing on foam (WBF), narrow-base standing on foam (NBF) and tandem standing on foam (TAF) were measured. Participants were also required to respond to a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) to determine their perceived task difficulty after each standing position...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Jichi Chen, Hong Wang, Chengcheng Hua
This paper proposes a comprehensive approach to explore whether functional brain network (FBN) changes from the alert state to the drowsy state and to find out ideal neurophysiology indicators able to detect driver drowsiness in terms of FBN. A driving simulation experiment consisting of two driving tasks is designed and conducted using fifteen participant drivers. Collected EEG signals are then decomposed into multiple frequency bands by wavelet packet transform (WPT). Based on this, two novel FBN approaches, synchronization likelihood (SL) and minimum spanning tree (MST) are combined and applied to feature recognition and classification system...
August 3, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
H Edmund Pigott, Rex Cannon, Mark Trullinger
BACKGROUND: Sham-controlled neurofeedback (NFB) trials consistently find no separation on ADHD outcome measures leading many to conclude that NFB's beneficial effects are due to placebo. METHOD: We deconstruct the NFB training methodology and findings of six sham-controlled trials that assessed for evidence of learning. RESULTS: All six studies found no evidence NFB subjects learned to self-modulate the targeted electroencephalogram (EEG)...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Attention Disorders
M Serdar Bascil
Machine computer interfaces (MCI) are assistive technologies enabling paralyzed peoples to control and communicate their environments. This study aims to discover and represents a new approach on MCI using left/right motions of voluntary jaw movements stored in electroencephalogram (EEG). It extracts brain electrical activities on EEG produced by voluntary jaw movements and converts these activities to machine control commands. Jaw-operated machine computer interface is a new way of MCI entitled as jaw machine interface (JMI) provides new functionality for paralyzed people to assist available environmental devices using their jaw motions...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Yuki Amano, Ayataka Fujimoto, Tohru Okanishi, Mitsuyo Nishimura, Hideo Enoki
PURPOSE: Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a leading cause of epilepsy, with seizures affecting almost 80-90% of children. We used the concordance between magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and dense array electroencephalography (dEEG) findings to detect epileptic focus in a patient with TSC. METHODS: A 9-year-old boy with TSC exhibited daily choking spells. As we could not detect the seizure onset area with conventional scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) and long-term video monitoring, we performed dEEG and captured his regular seizures...
August 1, 2018: Brain & Development
Zuyi Yu, Weidong Zhou, Fan Zhang, Fangzhou Xu, Shasha Yuan, Yan Leng, Yang Li, Qi Yuan
Visual inspection of electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings for epilepsy diagnosis is very time-consuming. Therefore, much research is devoted to developing a computer-assisted diagnostic system to relieve the workload of neurologists. In this study, a kernel version of the robust probabilistic collaborative representation-based classifier (R-ProCRC) is proposed for the detection of epileptic EEG signals. The kernel R-ProCRC jointly maximizes the likelihood that a test EEG sample belongs to each of the two classes (seizure and non-seizure), and uses the kernel function method to map the EEG samples into the higher dimensional space to relieve the problem that they are linearly non-separable in the original space...
August 4, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Dror Haor, Roman Joffe, Reuven Shavit, Ziv Peremen, Yaki Stern, Amir B Geva
Electroencephalogram (EEG) has evolved to be a well-established tool for imaging brain activity. This progress is mainly due to the development of high-resolution (HR) EEG methods. One class of HR-EEG is the cortical potential imaging (CPI), which aims to estimate the potential distribution on the cortical surface, which is much more informative than EEG. Even though these methods exhibit good performance, most of them have inherent inaccuracies that originate from their operating principles that constrain the solution or require a complex calculation process...
August 3, 2018: Brain Topography
Nihan Çarçak, Melis Yavuz, Tuğba Eryiğit Karamahmutoğlu, Akif Hakan Kurt, Meral Urhan Küçük, Filiz Yılmaz Onat, Kansu Büyükafsar
Rho/Rho-kinase (ROCK) signaling contributes to neuroinflammation, epileptogenesis, and seizures in convulsive-type epilepsies. However, this pathway has not been investigated in absence epilepsy. We investigated RhoA activity in genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasburg (GAERS) and the effects of ROCK inhibitors Y-27632 and fasudil on spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) of GAERS. ROCK level and activity were measured by Western blot analysis in the brain areas involved in absence seizures (i.e., cortex and thalamus) and hippocampus...
August 2, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Eric Azabou, Vincent Navarro, Nathalie Kubis, Martine Gavaret, Nicholas Heming, Alain Cariou, Djillali Annane, Fréderic Lofaso, Lionel Naccache, Tarek Sharshar
BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) is a well-established tool for assessing brain function that is available at the bedside in the intensive care unit (ICU). This review aims to discuss the relevance of electroencephalographic reactivity (EEG-R) in patients with impaired consciousness and to describe the neurophysiological mechanisms involved. METHODS: We conducted a systematic search of the term "EEG reactivity and coma" using the PubMed database...
August 2, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Arpa Suwannarat, Setha Pan-Ngum, Pasin Israsena
BACKGROUND: One of the most promising applications for electroencephalogram (EEG)-based brain computer interface is for stroke rehabilitation. Implemented as a standalone motor imagery (MI) training system or as part of a rehabilitation robotic system, many studies have shown benefits of using them to restore motor control in stroke patients. Hand movements have widely been chosen as MI tasks. Although potentially more challenging to analyze, wrist and forearm movement such as wrist flexion/extension and forearm pronation/supination should also be considered for MI tasks, because these movements are part of the main exercises given to patients in conventional stroke rehabilitation...
August 2, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Alejandra Rosales-Lagarde, Erika E Rodriguez-Torres, Benjamín A Itzá-Ortiz, Pedro Miramontes, Génesis Vázquez-Tagle, Julio C Enciso-Alva, Valeria García-Muñoz, Lourdes Cubero-Rego, José E Pineda-Sánchez, Claudia I Martínez-Alcalá, Jose S Lopez-Noguerola
In Older Adults (OAs), Electroencephalogram (EEG) slowing in frontal lobes and a diminished muscle atonia during Rapid Eye Movement sleep (REM) have each been effective tracers of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), but this relationship remains to be explored by non-linear analysis. Likewise, data provided by EEG, EMG (Electromyogram) and EOG (Electrooculogram)-the three required sleep indicators-during the transition from REM to Non-REM (NREM) sleep have not been related jointly to MCI. Therefore, the main aim of the study was to explore, with results for Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) and multichannel DFA (mDFA), the Color of Noise (CN) at the NREM to REM transition in OAs with MCI vs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Camilo Gouet, César A Gutiérrez Silva, Bruno Guedes, Marcela Peña
Recent studies with children and adults have shown that the abilities of the Approximate Number System (ANS), which operates from early infancy and allows estimating the number of elements in a set without symbols, are trainable and transferable to symbolic arithmetic abilities. Here we investigated the brain correlates of these training effects, which are currently unknown. We trained two Groups of first grade children, one in performing nonsymbolic additions with dot arrays (Addition-Group) and another one in performing color comparisons of the same arrays (Color-Group)...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Nora V de Camp, Silke Dietze, Markus Klaßen, Jürgen Bergeler
The method allows the recording of high-quality electroencephalograms (EEGs) from freely moving piglets directly in the pigpen. We use a one-channel telemetric electroencephalography system in combination with standard self-adhesive hydrogel electrodes. The piglets are calmed down without the use of sedatives. After their release into the pigpen, the piglets behave normally-they drink and sleep in the same cycle as their siblings. Their sleep phases are used for the EEG recordings.
July 13, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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