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Electroencephalogram and EEG

Guangying Pei, Jinglong Wu, Duanduan Chen, Guoxin Guo, Shuozhen Liu, Mingxuan Hong, Tianyi Yan
Electroencephalogram (EEG) neurofeedback improves cognitive capacity and behaviors by regulating brain activity, which can lead to cognitive enhancement in healthy people and better rehabilitation in patients. The increased use of EEG neurofeedback highlights the urgent need to reduce the discomfort and preparation time and increase the stability and simplicity of the system's operation. Based on brain-computer interface technology and a multithreading design, we describe a neurofeedback system with an integrated design that incorporates wearable, multichannel, dry electrode EEG acquisition equipment and cognitive function assessment...
October 11, 2018: Sensors
Eduardo López-Larraz, Thiago C Figueiredo, Ainhoa Insausti-Delgado, Ulf Ziemann, Niels Birbaumer, Ander Ramos-Murguialday
The electroencephalogram (EEG) constitutes a relevant tool to study neural dynamics and to develop brain-machine interfaces (BMI) for rehabilitation of patients with paralysis due to stroke. However, the EEG is easily contaminated by artifacts of physiological origin, which can pollute the measured cortical activity and bias the interpretations of such data. This is especially relevant when recording EEG of stroke patients while they try to move their paretic limbs, since they generate more artifacts due to compensatory activity...
October 4, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Thomas Lehoux, Julie Carrier, Roger Godbout
Autism is a developmental disorder with a neurobiological aetiology. Studies of the autistic brain identified atypical developmental trajectories that may lead to an impaired capacity to modulate electroencephalogram activity during sleep. We assessed the topography and characteristics of non-rapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram slow waves in 26 boys aged between 6 and 13 years old: 13 with an autism spectrum disorder and 13 typically developing. None of the participants was medicated, intellectually disabled, reported poor sleep, or suffered from medical co-morbidities...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Matthew P Light, Thalia N Casimire, Catherine Chua, Viachaslau Koushyk, Omar E Burschtin, Indu Ayappa, David M Rapoport
RATIONALE: Home sleep apnea testing (HSAT) typically does not include electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring for sleep assessment. In patients with insomnia and low sleep efficiency, overestimation of the sleep period can result from absence of EEG, which will reduce sleep disordered breathing (SDB) indices and may lead to a false-negative result. OBJECTIVE: To validate a single channel frontal EEG for scoring sleep versus wake against full EEG during polysomnography, and then to examine the utility of adding this single channel EEG to standard HSAT to prevent false-negative results...
October 11, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
Hideaki Kanemura, Fumikazu Sano, Tetsuo Ohyama, Masao Aihara
PURPOSE: The main purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of levetiracetam (LEV) with the older antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for preventing atypical evolution in children with Rolandic epilepsy (RE). Accordingly, the present study compared the efficacy of older AEDs (carbamazepine (CBZ) and valproate sodium (VPA)) with LEV in reducing rolandic discharges (RDs) on interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) in children with RE. METHODS: Patients in this heterogenous study were subdivided into CBZ, VPA and LEV groups in accordance with the initial monotherapy...
October 3, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Paul-Antoine Libourel, Baptiste Barrillot, Sébastien Arthaud, Bertrand Massot, Anne-Laure Morel, Olivier Beuf, Anthony Herrel, Pierre-Hervé Luppi
It is crucial to determine whether rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and slow-wave sleep (SWS) (or non-REM sleep), identified in most mammals and birds, also exist in lizards, as they share a common ancestor with these groups. Recently, a study in the bearded dragon (P. vitticeps) reported states analogous to REM and SWS alternating in a surprisingly regular 80-s period, suggesting a common origin of the two sleep states across amniotes. We first confirmed these results in the bearded dragon with deep brain recordings and electro-oculogram (EOG) recordings...
October 2018: PLoS Biology
Seungchan Lee, Younghak Shin, Anil Kumar, Minhee Kim, Heung-No Lee
A portable hybrid brain monitoring (HBM) system is proposed to perform simultaneous 16-channel electroencephalogram (EEG) and 8-channel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) measurements. An EEG of sufficient resolution and latency-less reliable bio-optical measurements were simultaneously obtained by basing the architecture-optimized frontend on ADS1299 and ADS8688A-analog frontend (AFE) integrated circuits (ICs). Suppression of the noise and crosstalk generated by the digital circuit components and flashing NIR light sources was maximized through linear regulator-based fully isolated circuit design...
August 27, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Zi-Fang Zhao, You Wan
Pain is a complex neural function involving cognition, sensory, emotion, and memory. Imaging studies have shown that multiple brain regions are actively engaged in the processing of pain. However, roles of each brain regions and their contribution to pain are still largely unknown. Recent studies with electrophysiology especially high-density electroencephalogram (EEG) or multichannel recordings techniques have provided more insights into the dynamics of pain signature. The accumulations of the evidence could facilitate our understanding of pain and provide potential methods for objective pain evaluation and treatment of chronic pain...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Andrey V Bocharov, Gennady G Knyazev, Alexander N Savostyanov, Tatiana N Astakhova, Sergey S Tamozhnikov
In this study, we aimed to compare the oscillatory dynamics accompanying self-referential and non-self-referential stimulus-independent thoughts. Electroencephalograms were recorded in 30 healthy participants who were asked to press buttons classifying their spontaneous thoughts as self-referential or non-self-referential. EEG data were analyzed using independent component analysis in conjunction with dipole localization. Self-referential thoughts, as compared to non-self-referential thoughts, were accompanied by more pronounced decrease of theta, alpha, and beta spectral power in the anterior hub of the default-mode network, in the left lateral prefrontal, motor/somatosensory, and temporal cortices...
October 10, 2018: Cognitive Neuroscience
Surbhi, Jeremy C Borniger, Kathryn L G Russart, Ning Zhang, Ulysses J Magalang, Randy J Nelson
Immune signaling is known to regulate sleep. miR-155 is a microRNA that regulates immune responses. We hypothesized that miR-155 would alter sleep regulation. Thus, we investigated the potential effects of miR-155 deletion on sleep-wake behavior in adult female homozygous miR-155 knockout (miR-155KO ) mice and littermate controls (WT). Mice were implanted with biotelemetry units and EEG/EMG biopotentials were recorded continuously for three baseline days. miR-155KO mice had decreased bouts of NREM and REM sleep compared with WT mice, but no differences were observed in the length of sleep bouts or total time spent in sleep-wake states...
October 9, 2018: Chronobiology International
Antonia Fleischmann, Stefanie Pilge, Tobias Kiel, Stephan Kratzer, Gerhard Schneider, Matthias Kreuzer
Different anesthetic agents induce burst suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG) at very deep levels of general anesthesia. EEG burst suppression has been identified to be a risk factor for postoperative delirium (POD). EEG based automated detection algorithms are used to detect burst suppression patterns during general anesthesia and a burst suppression ratio (BSR) is calculated. Unfortunately, applied algorithms do not give information as precisely as suggested, often resulting in an underestimation of the patients' burst suppression level...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
E D Goldstein, N Ertekin-Taner, A Stephens, M M Carrasquillo, B Boeve, W O Tatum, A M Feyissa
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study is to evaluate standard scalp EEG findings in patients with posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), an atypical variant of Alzheimer's disease (AD). CLINICAL RATIONALE: PCA is a topographically selective variant of AD. Patients with typical AD have an increased likelihood of seizures, which may negatively impact overall functional performance and cognition. It is currently unknown what the typical EEG findings are for patients with PCA...
October 1, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Sarah L Eagleman, Don A Vaughn, David R Drover, Caitlin M Drover, Mark S Cohen, Nicholas T Ouellette, M Bruce MacIver
While geriatric patients have a high likelihood of requiring anesthesia, they carry an increased risk for adverse cognitive outcomes from its use. Previous work suggests this could be mitigated by better intraoperative monitoring using indexes defined by several processed electroencephalogram (EEG) measures. Unfortunately, inconsistencies between patients and anesthetic agents in current analysis techniques have limited the adoption of EEG as standard of care. In attempts to identify new analyses that discriminate clinically-relevant anesthesia timepoints, we tested 1/ f frequency scaling as well as measures of complexity from nonlinear dynamics...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Y Liu, D C Han, Y L Hu, L M Chen, J C Li, Y W Su, C X Hu
Objective: To summarize the clinical presentations and imaging features of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) in 5 newborns. Methods: The clinical data of 5 newborns with CVST admitted to Department of Neonatology of Maternal and Children Hospital of Hubei Province from February 2017 to April 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. The risk factors, clinical presentations, imaging manifestations and treatment of CVST were investigated. Results: Of the 5 full term neonates, 4 were males and 1 female, with 4 aged less than 7 days and 1 more than 7 days; one with the history of maternal gestational diabetes mellitus, one with maternal gestational hypertension...
October 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Hanna Hixson, Katie L Burkhouse, Stephanie M Gorka, Heide Klumpp
Decreased reward responsiveness, as demonstrated utilizing the event-related potential (ERP) component the reward positivity (RewP), is an established correlate of internalizing psychopathologies (IPs), such as depressive and anxiety disorders. Although IPs are highly comorbid with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and despite evidence that AUDs are also characterized by aberrant reward processing styles, no studies have examined how AUD history impacts the RewP among adults with IPs. The current preliminary study sought to examine this question in a sample of 65 adults with 1) current IPs (i...
October 4, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Syed Muhammad Muneeb Anjum, Christopher Käufer, Rüdiger Hopfengärtner, Inken Waltl, Sonja Bröer, Wolfgang Löscher
Intracerebral infection of C57BL/6 mice with Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) replicates many features of viral encephalitis-induced epilepsy in humans, including neuroinflammation, early (insult-associated) and late (spontaneous) seizures, neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, and cognitive and behavioral alterations. Thus, this model may be ideally suited to study mechanisms involved in encephalitis-induced epilepsy as potential targets for epilepsy prevention. However, spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) occur too infrequently to be useful as a biomarker of epilepsy, e...
October 3, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Jashobanta Sahu, Pradeep Pankajakshan Nair, Vaibhav Wadwekar, Rajeshwari Aghoram
PURPOSE: In our personal experience, headache is a frequent complaint in Persons with epilepsy (PWE) receiving antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), carbamazepine (CBZ) in particular. There is hardly any systematic study on AEDs-associated headache. We assessed the association of new-onset interictal headache in PWE with CBZ compared with other AEDs and factors associated with it. METHODS: Two thousand PWE on AEDs were screened, and 165 persons having new-onset interictal headache were identified...
October 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Xiuhua Bozarth, Kimberly Foss, Heather C Mefford
We report a female patient with a novel, heterozygous, de novo in-frame deletion in the CASK gene (c.2179-2181 del GTA, p.Val727del) who presents with early onset infantile spasms, hypsarrhythmia on electroencephalogram (EEG), and frontal lobe abnormalities on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without microcephaly and pontocerebellar hypoplasia. This is the first case report of an in-frame deletion in the CASK gene causing early onset infantile spasms and supratentorial focal brain malformation on brain MRI in the literature...
October 5, 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Samuel Kohtala, Wiebke Theilmann, Marko Rosenholm, Leena Penna, Gulsum Karabulut, Salla Uusitalo, Kaija Järventausta, Arvi Yli-Hankala, Ipek Yalcin, Nobuaki Matsui, Henna-Kaisa Wigren, Tomi Rantamäki
Rapid antidepressant effects of ketamine become most evident when its psychotomimetic effects subside, but the neurobiological basis of this "lag" remains unclear. Laughing gas (N2 O), another NMDA-R (N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor) blocker, has been reported to bring antidepressant effects rapidly upon drug discontinuation. We took advantage of the exceptional pharmacokinetic properties of N2 O to investigate EEG (electroencephalogram) alterations and molecular determinants of antidepressant actions during and immediately after NMDA-R blockade...
October 4, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Jean-Arthur Micoulaud-Franchi, Thomas Fovet
In this comment, we propose a theoretical framework for disentangling the potentially multiple elements driving the effects of electroencephalogram (EEG)-neurofeedback (EEG-nf) to clarify the roadmap for research in the field. Three questions are identified: (a) Do EEG-nf effects originate from a placebo effect related to the technological environment of a neurofeedback session? (b) Do EEG-nf effects originate from a nonspecific effect of cognitive brain training during neurofeedback? If so, a cognitive training would be underpinned by the brain activity regulation loop but this training would not be specifically related to the neurophysiological biomarker chosen...
October 2018: American Psychologist
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