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Yeong-Jun Song, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Myung Ki, Ji-Yeon Shin, Seung-Sik Hwang, Mira Park, Moran Ki, Jiseun Lim
Research has shown the effects of climatic factors on shigellosis; however, no previous study has evaluated climatic effects in regions with a winter seasonality of shigellosis incidence. We examined the effects of temperature and precipitation on shigellosis incidence in Korea from 2002⁻2010. The incidence of shigellosis was calculated based on data from the Korean Center for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC, Cheongju, Korea), and a generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the associations between the incidence and climatic factors...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
James A Platts-Mills, Jie Liu, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Furqan Kabir, Paphavee Lertsethtakarn, Mery Siguas, Shaila S Khan, Ira Praharaj, Arinao Murei, Rosemary Nshama, Buliga Mujaga, Alexandre Havt, Irene A Maciel, Timothy L McMurry, Darwin J Operario, Mami Taniuchi, Jean Gratz, Suzanne E Stroup, James H Roberts, Adil Kalam, Fatima Aziz, Shahida Qureshi, M Ohedul Islam, Pimmada Sakpaisal, Sasikorn Silapong, Pablo P Yori, Revathi Rajendiran, Blossom Benny, Monica McGrath, Benjamin J J McCormick, Jessica C Seidman, Dennis Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant, Aldo A M Lima, Jose Paulo Leite, Amidou Samie, Pascal O Bessong, Nicola Page, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Carl Mason, Sanjaya Shrestha, Ireen Kiwelu, Estomih R Mduma, Najeeha T Iqbal, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Tahmeed Ahmed, Rashidul Haque, Gagandeep Kang, Margaret N Kosek, Eric R Houpt
BACKGROUND: Optimum management of childhood diarrhoea in low-resource settings has been hampered by insufficient data on aetiology, burden, and associated clinical characteristics. We used quantitative diagnostic methods to reassess and refine estimates of diarrhoea aetiology from the Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study. METHODS: We re-analysed stool specimens from the multisite MAL-ED cohort study of children aged 0-2 years done at eight locations (Dhaka, Bangladesh; Vellore, India; Bhaktapur, Nepal; Naushero Feroze, Pakistan; Venda, South Africa; Haydom, Tanzania; Fortaleza, Brazil; and Loreto, Peru), which included active surveillance for diarrhoea and routine non-diarrhoeal stool collection...
October 1, 2018: Lancet Global Health
Sarah S Long
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Jafari Davod, Dehghan Nayeri Fatemeh, Hossein Honari, Ramin Hosseini
Shigella dysenteriae causing shigellosis is one of the diseases that threaten the health of human society in the developing countries. In Shigella, IpaD gene is one of the key pathogenic genes causing strong mucosal immune system reactions. Anthrax disease is caused by Bacillus anthracis. PA protective antigen is one of the subunits in anthrax toxin complex responsible for the transfer of other subunits into the cytosol of host cells. The 20 kDa subunit of PA (PA20) has the property of immunogenicity. CTxB or B subunit of Vibrio cholerae toxin (CT) is a non-toxic protein and has the function to transfer toxic subunit into cytosol of the host cells by binding to GM1 receptor...
September 22, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Ilia Belotserkovsky, Philippe J Sansonetti
Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) are gram-negative bacteria responsible for bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) in humans, which is characterized by invasion and inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. Different EIEC and Shigella subgroups rose independently from commensal E. coli through patho-adaptive evolution that included loss of functional genes interfering with the virulence and/or with the intracellular lifestyle of the bacteria, as well as acquisition of genetic elements harboring virulence genes...
September 15, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
E O Utenkova, O N Lyubeznova, E V Noskova, V V Noskova
The article compares the flow of intestinal infections in elderly and young people. Analyzed the medical records of 172 persons 60-85 years and 82 history persons 20-40 years with salmonellosis, shigellosis and rotavirus gastroenteritis. It is revealed that bacterial intestinal infections, salmonellosis and shigellosis, those over 60 years of age have the clinical differences and flow is heavier than in patients 20-40 years. Clinic of rotaviral gastroenteritis is not age-appropriate. Knowledge of clinic of intestinal infections in persons of elderly and senile age should your doctor for early diagnosis and proper treatment of patients of this category...
2018: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Wang Liu, Yan Zhou, Tao Peng, Ping Zhou, Xiaojun Ding, Zilin Li, Haoyu Zhong, Yue Xu, She Chen, Howard C Hang, Feng Shao
Shigella flexneri, an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium causative for shigellosis, employs a type III secretion system to deliver virulence effectors into host cells. One such effector, IcsB, is critical for S. flexneri intracellular survival and pathogenesis, but its mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we discover that IcsB is an 18-carbon fatty acyltransferase catalysing lysine Nε -fatty acylation. IcsB disrupted the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotes, resulting from Nε -fatty acylation of RhoGTPases on lysine residues in their polybasic region...
September 2018: Nature Microbiology
Anna Allué-Guardia, Sara S K Koenig, Pablo Quirós, Maite Muniesa, James L Bono, Mark Eppinger
Shigella sonnei is responsible for the majority of shigellosis infections in the US with over 500,000 cases reported annually. Here, we present the complete genome of the clinical multidrug resistant (MDR) strain 866, which is highly susceptible to bacteriophage infections. The strain has a circular chromosome of 4.85 Mb and carries a 113 kb MDR plasmid. This IncB/O/K/Z-type plasmid, termed p866, confers resistance to five different classes of antibiotics including ß-lactamase, sulfonamide, tetracycline, aminoglycoside, and trimethoprim...
September 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Mohammad Reza Hashemzadeh, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Reza Salman Yazdi, Reza Aflatoonian
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from gram negative bacteria stimulate toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in immune cells. Recent reports state that bone marrow-derived cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) also express TLR proteins. Numerous researches have studied the effect of a number of LPSs on TLR4 expression, but no data exists on the effect of LPSs from different strains of one bacterial genus on TLR4 expression. In this study, we investigate the effects of various concentrations of LPS from different Shigella strains on TLR4 expression in human bone marrow (hBM)-MSCs...
September 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Rajat Dhakal, Qinning Wang, Ruiting Lan, Peter Howard, Vitali Sintchenko
PURPOSE: Both Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) can cause enterocolitis, but they have a distinct epidemiology and public health relevance. Current culture-independent testing (CIT) methods to identify Shigella in faecal samples rely on the ipaH gene as the target, which is also found in EIEC genomes. The aim of this study was to design an assay that can identify EIEC in cultures from CIT ipaH-positive samples. METHODOLOGY: Shigella and EIEC genomes were screened to find unique regions present in EIEC genomes using a comparative genomics approach and differentiating genetic loci that are suitable PCR targets were identified...
September 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
M S Riddle, W H Chen, C D Kirkwood, C A MacLennan
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhoeal disease caused by viral, bacterial and parasitic infections is a major global health problem; in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) it is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity in children under 5. Some of these infections also impact large segments of populations in high-income countries (HICs), as well as individuals who travel overseas for work, business or pleasure. AIMS: The aim of this review is to describe the current landscape of licensed enteric vaccines, potential new vaccines on the horizon, and the challenges of development and utilization of vaccines against enteric pathogens...
June 28, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Anna Jarząb, Danuta Witkowska, Edmund Ziomek, Bartosz Setner, Aleksandra Czajkowska, Małgorzata Dorot, Zbigniew Szewczuk, Andrzej Gamian
In earlier works we have described that mice immunized with outer membrane protein OmpC survive the challenge with live Shigella flexnerii 3a. We have also identified conformational epitope of this protein, that was recognized by mice antibodies. The aim of current work was to investigate whether synthetic OmpC epitope homologs can elicit immunological response sufficient in protecting mice against shigellosis. Several linear peptides containing RYDERY motif were synthesized and conjugated to poly-lysine. These conjugates appeared to be poor immunogens and to boost the immunological response an addition of the adjuvant (MPL) was required...
July 25, 2018: Vaccine
Lauren M Terry, Clare R Barker, Martin R Day, David R Greig, Timothy J Dallman, Claire Jenkins
PURPOSE: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of 754 strains of Shigella dysenteriae isolated between 2004 and 2017 from UK travellers reporting symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) disease were reviewed to look for evidence of emerging AMR associated with travellers' diarrhoea. METHODOLOGY: A travel history was provided for 72.7 % (548/754) of cases, of which 90.9 % (498/548) reported travel outside the UK within 7 days of onset of symptoms, and 9.1 % (50/498) reported no travel in that time frame...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Levon D Movsisyan, Elisabeth Schäfer, Andreas Nguyen, Frederik R Ehrmann, Anatol Schwab, Thomas Rossolini, Daniel Zimmerli, Björn Wagner, Hamina Daff, Andreas Heine, Gerhard Klebe, François Diederich
The intestinal disease shigellosis caused by Shigella bacteria affects over 120 million people annually. There is an urgent demand for new drugs as resistance against common antibiotics emerges. Bacterial tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT) is a druggable target and controls the pathogenicity of Shigella flexneri. We report the synthesis of sugar-functionalized lin-benzoguanines addressing the ribose-33 pocket of TGT from Zymomonas mobilis. Ligand binding was analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry and X-ray crystallography...
July 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Helen Heffernan, Rosemary Woodhouse, Chris Hewison, Jillian Sherwood
AIM: We undertook a national survey to provide current information on antimicrobial resistance among Shigella isolated in New Zealand. METHODS: Diagnostic laboratories are requested to refer all Shigella isolates to the Institute of Environmental Science and Research (ESR) for epidemiological typing as part of the national surveillance of shigellosis. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 263 non-duplicate Shigella isolates referred to ESR in 2015 and 2016 was tested...
June 22, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Benjamin J Koestler, Cara M Ward, Shelley M Payne
Shigella is an enteroinvasive human pathogen that infects the colonic epithelium and causes Shigellosis, an infectious diarrheal disease. There is no vaccine for the prevention or treatment of Shigellosis and antibiotic-resistant strains of Shigella are increasing, emphasizing the need for a deeper understanding of Shigella pathogenesis in order to design effective antimicrobial therapies. Small animal models do not recapitulate Shigellosis, therefore tissue-cultured cells have served as model systems to study Shigella pathogenesis...
August 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Frederik Rainer Ehrmann, Jorna Kalim, Toni Pfaffeneder, Bruno Bernet, Christoph Hohn, Elisabeth Schäfer, Thomas Botzanowski, Sarah Cianférani, Andreas Heine, Klaus Reuter, François Diederich, Gerhard Klebe
The enzyme tRNA-guanine transglycosylase, a target to fight Shigellosis, recognizes tRNA only as a homodimer and performs full nucleobase exchange at the wobble position. Active-site inhibitors block the enzyme function by competitively replacing tRNA. In solution, the wild-type homodimer dissociates only marginally, whereas mutated variants show substantial monomerization in solution. Surprisingly, one inhibitor transforms the protein into a twisted state, whereby one monomer unit rotates by approximately 130°...
August 6, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Adi Behar, Kate Susan Baker, Ravit Bassal, Analia Ezernitchi, Lea Valinsky, Nicholas R Thomson, Daniel Cohen
Whole-genome sequencing unveiled host and environment-related insights to Shigella sonnei transmission within cyclic epidemics during 2000-2012 in Israel. The Israeli reservoir contains isolates belonging to S. sonnei lineage III but of different origin, shows loss of tetracycline resistance genes, and little genetic variation within the O antigen: highly relevant for Shigella vaccine development.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Moon H Nahm, Jigui Yu, Hailey P Weerts, Heather Wenzel, Chitradevi S Tamilselvi, Lakshmi Chandrasekaran, Marcela F Pasetti, Sachin Mani, Robert W Kaminski
Shigella is an important cause of diarrhea worldwide, with serotypes Shigella flexneri 2a, S. flexneri 3a, and Shigella sonnei demonstrating epidemiological prevalence. Many development efforts are focused on Shigella lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based vaccines, as O antigen-specific conjugate vaccines are immunogenic and efficacious. Immunization with Shigella vaccines containing LPS can elicit antibodies capable of killing Shigella in a serotype-specific manner. Thus, to facilitate Shigella vaccine development, we have developed a serum bactericidal assay (SBA) specific for three Shigella serotypes that measures killing of target bacteria at multiple serum dilutions and in the presence of exogenous complement...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
G Adamker, T Holzer, I Karakis, M Amitay, E Anis, S R Singer, Z Barnett-Itzhaki
Shigellosis causes significant morbidity and mortality in developing and developed countries, mostly among infants and young children. The World Health Organization estimates that more than one million people die from Shigellosis every year. In order to evaluate trends in Shigellosis in Israel in the years 2002-2015, we analysed national notifiable disease reporting data. Shigella sonnei was the most commonly identified Shigella species in Israel. Hospitalisation rates due to Shigella flexenri were higher in comparison with other Shigella species...
August 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
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