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E O Utenkova, O N Lyubeznova, E V Noskova, V V Noskova
The article compares the flow of intestinal infections in elderly and young people. Analyzed the medical records of 172 persons 60-85 years and 82 history persons 20-40 years with salmonellosis, shigellosis and rotavirus gastroenteritis. It is revealed that bacterial intestinal infections, salmonellosis and shigellosis, those over 60 years of age have the clinical differences and flow is heavier than in patients 20-40 years. Clinic of rotaviral gastroenteritis is not age-appropriate. Knowledge of clinic of intestinal infections in persons of elderly and senile age should your doctor for early diagnosis and proper treatment of patients of this category...
2018: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Wang Liu, Yan Zhou, Tao Peng, Ping Zhou, Xiaojun Ding, Zilin Li, Haoyu Zhong, Yue Xu, She Chen, Howard C Hang, Feng Shao
Shigella flexneri, an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium causative for shigellosis, employs a type III secretion system to deliver virulence effectors into host cells. One such effector, IcsB, is critical for S. flexneri intracellular survival and pathogenesis, but its mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we discover that IcsB is an 18-carbon fatty acyltransferase catalysing lysine Nε -fatty acylation. IcsB disrupted the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotes, resulting from Nε -fatty acylation of RhoGTPases on lysine residues in their polybasic region...
July 30, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Anna Allué-Guardia, Sara S K Koenig, Pablo Quirós, Maite Muniesa, James L Bono, Mark Eppinger
Shigella sonnei is responsible for the majority of shigellosis infections in the United States with over 500,000 cases reported annually. Here we present the complete genome of the clinical multidrug resistant (MDR) strain 866, which is highly susceptible to bacteriophage infections. The strain has a circular chromosome of 4.85 Mb and carries a 113 kb MDR plasmid. This IncB/O/K/Z-type plasmid, termed p866, confers resistance to five different classes of antibiotics including ß-lactamase, sulphonamide, tetracycline, aminoglycoside, and trimethoprim...
July 30, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Mohammad Reza Hashemzadeh, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Reza Salman Yazdi, Reza Aflatoonian
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from gram negative bacteria stimulate toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in immune cells. Recent reports state that bone marrow-derived cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) also express TLR proteins. Numerous researches have studied the effect of a number of LPSs on TLR4 expression, but no data exists on the effect of LPSs from different strains of one bacterial genus on TLR4 expression. In this study, we investigate the effects of various concentrations of LPS from different Shigella strains on TLR4 expression in human bone marrow (hBM)-MSCs...
July 2, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Rajat Dhakal, Qinning Wang, Ruiting Lan, Peter Howard, Vitali Sintchenko
PURPOSE: Both Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) can cause enterocolitis, but they have a distinct epidemiology and public health relevance. Current culture-independent testing (CIT) methods to identify Shigella in faecal samples rely on the ipaH gene as the target, which is also found in EIEC genomes. The aim of this study was to design an assay that can identify EIEC in cultures from CIT ipaH-positive samples. METHODOLOGY: Shigella and EIEC genomes were screened to find unique regions present in EIEC genomes using a comparative genomics approach and differentiating genetic loci that are suitable PCR targets were identified...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Mark S Riddle, Wilbur H Chen, Carl D Kirkwood, Calman A MacLennan
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrheal disease caused by viral, bacterial and parasitic infections is a major global health problem with substantial mortality and morbidity in children under 5 in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). A number of these infections also impact large segments of populations in high-income countries (HICs), as well as individuals who travel overseas for work, business or pleasure. AIMS: The aim of this review is to describe the current landscape of licensed enteric vaccines, potential new vaccines on the horizon, and the challenges of development and utilization of vaccines against enteric pathogens...
June 28, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Anna Jarząb, Danuta Witkowska, Edmund Ziomek, Bartosz Setner, Aleksandra Czajkowska, Małgorzata Dorot, Zbigniew Szewczuk, Andrzej Gamian
In earlier works we have described that mice immunized with outer membrane protein OmpC survive the challenge with live Shigella flexnerii 3a. We have also identified conformational epitope of this protein, that was recognized by mice antibodies. The aim of current work was to investigate whether synthetic OmpC epitope homologs can elicit immunological response sufficient in protecting mice against shigellosis. Several linear peptides containing RYDERY motif were synthesized and conjugated to poly-lysine. These conjugates appeared to be poor immunogens and to boost the immunological response an addition of the adjuvant (MPL) was required...
July 25, 2018: Vaccine
Lauren M Terry, Clare R Barker, Martin R Day, David R Greig, Timothy J Dallman, Claire Jenkins
PURPOSE: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles of 754 strains of Shigella dysenteriae isolated between 2004 and 2017 from UK travellers reporting symptoms of gastrointestinal (GI) disease were reviewed to look for evidence of emerging AMR associated with travellers' diarrhoea. METHODOLOGY: A travel history was provided for 72.7 % (548/754) of cases, of which 90.9 % (498/548) reported travel outside the UK within 7 days of onset of symptoms, and 9.1 % (50/498) reported no travel in that time frame...
August 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Levon D Movsisyan, Elisabeth Schäfer, Andreas Nguyen, Frederik R Ehrmann, Anatol Schwab, Thomas Rossolini, Daniel Zimmerli, Björn Wagner, Hamina Daff, Andreas Heine, Gerhard Klebe, François Diederich
The intestinal disease shigellosis caused by Shigella bacteria affects over 120 million people annually. There is an urgent demand for new drugs as resistance against common antibiotics emerges. Bacterial tRNA-guanine transglycosylase (TGT) is a druggable target and controls the pathogenicity of Shigella flexneri. We report the synthesis of sugar-functionalized lin-benzoguanines addressing the ribose-33 pocket of TGT from Zymomonas mobilis. Ligand binding was analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry and X-ray crystallography...
July 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Helen Heffernan, Rosemary Woodhouse, Chris Hewison, Jillian Sherwood
AIM: We undertook a national survey to provide current information on antimicrobial resistance among Shigella isolated in New Zealand. METHODS: Diagnostic laboratories are requested to refer all Shigella isolates to the Institute of Environmental Science and Research (ESR) for epidemiological typing as part of the national surveillance of shigellosis. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 263 non-duplicate Shigella isolates referred to ESR in 2015 and 2016 was tested...
June 22, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
Benjamin J Koestler, Cara M Ward, Shelley M Payne
Shigella is an enteroinvasive human pathogen that infects the colonic epithelium and causes Shigellosis, an infectious diarrheal disease. There is no vaccine for the prevention or treatment of Shigellosis and antibiotic-resistant strains of Shigella are increasing, emphasizing the need for a deeper understanding of Shigella pathogenesis in order to design effective antimicrobial therapies. Small animal models do not recapitulate Shigellosis, therefore tissue-cultured cells have served as model systems to study Shigella pathogenesis...
May 24, 2018: Current Protocols in Microbiology
Frederik Rainer Ehrmann, Jorna Kalim, Toni Pfaffeneder, Bruno Bernet, Christoph Hohn, Elisabeth Schäfer, Thomas Botzanowski, Sarah Cianférani, Andreas Heine, Klaus Reuter, François Diederich, Gerhard Klebe
The enzyme tRNA-guanine transglycosylase, a target to fight Shigellosis, recognizes tRNA only as a homodimer and performs full nucleobase exchange at the wobble position. Active-site inhibitors block the enzyme function by competitively replacing tRNA. In solution, the wild-type homodimer dissociates only marginally, whereas mutated variants show substantial monomerization in solution. Surprisingly, one inhibitor transforms the protein into a twisted state, whereby one monomer unit rotates by approximately 130°...
June 21, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Adi Behar, Kate Susan Baker, Ravit Bassal, Analia Ezernitchi, Lea Valinsky, Nicholas R Thomson, Daniel Cohen
Whole-genome sequencing unveiled host and environment-related insights to Shigella sonnei transmission within cyclic epidemics during 2000-2012 in Israel. The Israeli reservoir contains isolates belonging to S. sonnei lineage III but of different origin, shows loss of tetracycline resistance genes, and little genetic variation within the O antigen: highly relevant for Shigella vaccine development.
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Moon H Nahm, Jigui Yu, Hailey P Weerts, Heather Wenzel, Chitradevi S Tamilselvi, Lakshmi Chandrasekaran, Marcela F Pasetti, Sachin Mani, Robert W Kaminski
Shigella is an important cause of diarrhea worldwide, with serotypes Shigella flexneri 2a, S. flexneri 3a, and Shigella sonnei demonstrating epidemiological prevalence. Many development efforts are focused on Shigella lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-based vaccines, as O antigen-specific conjugate vaccines are immunogenic and efficacious. Immunization with Shigella vaccines containing LPS can elicit antibodies capable of killing Shigella in a serotype-specific manner. Thus, to facilitate Shigella vaccine development, we have developed a serum bactericidal assay (SBA) specific for three Shigella serotypes that measures killing of target bacteria at multiple serum dilutions and in the presence of exogenous complement...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
G Adamker, T Holzer, I Karakis, M Amitay, E Anis, S R Singer, Z Barnett-Itzhaki
Shigellosis causes significant morbidity and mortality in developing and developed countries, mostly among infants and young children. The World Health Organization estimates that more than one million people die from Shigellosis every year. In order to evaluate trends in Shigellosis in Israel in the years 2002-2015, we analysed national notifiable disease reporting data. Shigella sonnei was the most commonly identified Shigella species in Israel. Hospitalisation rates due to Shigella flexenri were higher in comparison with other Shigella species...
August 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Phoebe C M Williams, James A Berkley
BACKGROUND: Shigella remains the primary cause of diarrhoea in paediatric patients worldwide and accounts for up to 40,000 deaths per year. Current guidelines for the treatment of shigellosis are based on data which are over a decade old. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, an updated review of the appropriate empirical therapy for shigellosis in children is necessary, taking into account susceptibility patterns, cost and the risk of adverse events. METHODS: A systematic review of the current published literature on the treatment of shigella dysentery was undertaken in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)...
November 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Lutz Ehlkes, Maja George, Donald Knautz, Florian Burckhardt, Klaus Jahn, Manfred Vogt, Philipp Zanger
IntroductionThe 2015 refugee crisis raised concerns about an import of infectious diseases affecting the German population. Aims: To evaluate public and individual health benefits of stool screening, and explore whether importation of enteric pathogens by newly-arrived asylum seekers impacts on the host population. Methods : We used data from mandatory stool screening to determine the overall, age, sex, and country-specific prevalence of enteric bacteria and helminths. We used surveillance data to assess whether the number of incoming asylum seekers influenced notifications of salmonellosis and shigellosis in Rhineland-Palatinate...
May 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
A Lam, S Woods, N Ndubuka
Background: Timely reporting of communicable diseases is necessary to enable a prompt response to mitigate and control outbreaks. This is especially true among First Nations communities due to a number of factors, including unique social determinants of health, which can contribute to rapid disease transmission. Objective: To assess the timeliness of reporting for 12 notifiable communicable diseases in the Northern Inter-Tribal Health Authority, which includes 33 First Nations on-reserve communities in Northern Saskatchewan, Canada, and to assess whether there were differences in reporting times depending on degree of remoteness of community, season or year...
June 1, 2017: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
Kate S Baker, Timothy J Dallman, Nigel Field, Tristan Childs, Holly Mitchell, Martin Day, François-Xavier Weill, Sophie Lefèvre, Mathieu Tourdjman, Gwenda Hughes, Claire Jenkins, Nicholas Thomson
Shigella are globally important diarrhoeal pathogens that are endemic in low-to-middle income nations and also occur in high income nations, typically in travellers or community-based risk-groups. Shigella phylogenetics reveals population structures that are more reliable than those built with traditional typing methods, and has identified sublineages associated with specific geographical regions or patient groups. Genomic analyses reveal temporal increases in Shigella antimicrobial resistance (AMR) gene content, which is frequently encoded on mobile genetic elements...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
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