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Jayanthi Gangiredla, Mark K Mammel, David W Lacher, Carmen Tartera, Scott A Jackson, Isha R Patel, Christopher A Elkins, Amit Mukherjee
Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative enteric pathogenic bacteria which has four species, Shigella dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei. Shigella species are clinically important bacteria because they cause shigellosis or dysentery. Here we report the genome sequences of 72 Shigella isolates from these four species.
November 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Valeria Ciancarella, Luigi Lembo-Fazio, Ida Paciello, Anna-Karin Bruno, Sébastien Jaillon, Sara Berardi, Marialuisa Barbagallo, Shiri Meron-Sudai, Dani Cohen, Antonio Molinaro, Giacomo Rossi, Cecilia Garlanda, Maria Lina Bernardini
Shigella spp. are pathogenic bacteria that cause bacillary dysentery in humans by invading the colonic and rectal mucosa where they induce dramatic inflammation. Here, we have analyzed the role of the soluble PRR Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a key component of the humoral arm of innate immunity. Mice that had been intranasally infected with S. flexneri were rescued from death by treatment with recombinant PTX3. In vitro PTX3 exerts the antibacterial activity against Shigella, impairing epithelial cell invasion and contributing to the bactericidal activity of serum...
December 7, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Emma Quinn, Zeina Najjar, Esther Huhtinen, Edward Jegasothy, Leena Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiological differences between culture-positive and culture-negative (but ipaH PCR-positive) cases of shigellosis in Sydney Local Health District (SLHD), NSW, to inform whether changes to the national case definition for shigellosis are required. METHODS: An audit of all cases of shigellosis (culture-positive vs. culture-negative/PCR-positive) in SLHD from 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2015 was conducted and demographic, clinical and risk factors were analysed and compared between these groups...
December 5, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Delfino Vubil, Sozinho Acácio, Llorenç Quintò, Clara Ballesté-Delpierre, Tacilta Nhampossa, Karen Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Pedro Alonso, James P Nataro, Tamer H Farag, Jordi Vila, Inacio Mandomando
Objectives: During the period from December 2007 to November 2012, the epidemiology of diarrhea caused by Shigella was studied among children <5 years of age residing in Manhiça District, Southern Mozambique. Materials and methods: Children from 0 to 5 years with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and less severe diarrhea (LSD) were enrolled along with matched controls (by age, gender, and neighborhood). Age-stratified logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify clinical features and risk factors associated with Shigella positivity in cases of diarrhea...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Riya Mukherjee, Debanjan Dutta, Mousumi Patra, Biplab Chatterjee, Tarakdas Basu
We reported earlier about nano-formulation of tetracycline through its entrapment within calcium-phosphate nano-particle (CPNP) and about killing of pathogenic bacterium Shigella flexnari 2a, resistant to tetracycline (and 9 other antibiotics), by the nanonized antibiotic (Tet-CPNP). Here, we report on therapeutic role of Tet-CPNP against deadly diarrheal disease 'shigellosis' in mice, caused by Shigella infection. Our findings revealed that occurrence of mushy-stool excretion, colon-length shortening, weight-loss and bacterial colonization in gastrointestinal tract of mice due to shigellosis was significantly reduced by Tet-CPNP treatment...
November 15, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Min Jung Kim, Young-Hye Moon, Heejoo Kim, Semi Rho, Young Kee Shin, Manki Song, Richard Walker, Cecil Czerkinsky, Dong Wook Kim, Jae-Ouk Kim
Shigella is a highly prevalent bacterium causing acute diarrhea and dysentery in developing countries. Shigella infections are treated with antibiotics but Shigellae are increasingly resistant to these drugs. Vaccination can be a countermeasure against emerging antibiotic-resistant shigellosis. Because of the structural variability in Shigellae O-antigen polysaccharides (Oag), cross-protective Shigella vaccines cannot be derived from single serotype-specific Oag. We created an attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a strain with one rather than multiple Oag units by disrupting the Oag polymerase gene (Δ wzy ), which broadened protective immunogenicity by exposing conserved surface proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Paramita Sarkar, Tultul Saha, Irshad Ali Sheikh, Subhra Chakraborty, Joydeep Aoun, Manoj Kumar Chakrabarti, Vazhaikkurichi M Rajendran, Nadia A Ameen, Shanta Dutta, Kazi Mirajul Hoque
Whether zinc(Zn2+ ) regulates barrier functions by modulating tight junction (TJ) proteins when pathogens such as Shigella alter epithelial permeability is still un-resolved. We investigated the potential benefits of Zn2+ in restoring impaired barrier function in vivo in Shigella infected mouse tissue and in vitro T84 cell monolayers. Basolateral Shigella infection triggered time dependent decrease in trans-epithelial resistance (TER) followed by an increase in paracellular permeability of FITC-labelled dextran and altered ion selectivity...
November 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Salama A Ouf, Ramy S Yehia, Ahmed S Ouf, Rania F Abdul-Rahim
Water quality and bacterial contamination from 18 drinking water municipal plants in three locations at Giza governorate were investigated. The average total count of bacteria detected after four stages of treatments in the investigated plants was 32 CFU/1 mL compared to 2330 cfu/mL for raw water, with a reduction percentage of 98.6. Although there is a relatively high removal percent of bacterial contamination from the water sources, however, several bacterial pathogens were identified in the produced water prepared for drinking including Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Shigella spp...
October 29, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Yeong-Jun Song, Hae-Kwan Cheong, Myung Ki, Ji-Yeon Shin, Seung-Sik Hwang, Mira Park, Moran Ki, Jiseun Lim
Research has shown the effects of climatic factors on shigellosis; however, no previous study has evaluated climatic effects in regions with a winter seasonality of shigellosis incidence. We examined the effects of temperature and precipitation on shigellosis incidence in Korea from 2002⁻2010. The incidence of shigellosis was calculated based on data from the Korean Center for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC, Cheongju, Korea), and a generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the associations between the incidence and climatic factors...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
James A Platts-Mills, Jie Liu, Elizabeth T Rogawski, Furqan Kabir, Paphavee Lertsethtakarn, Mery Siguas, Shaila S Khan, Ira Praharaj, Arinao Murei, Rosemary Nshama, Buliga Mujaga, Alexandre Havt, Irene A Maciel, Timothy L McMurry, Darwin J Operario, Mami Taniuchi, Jean Gratz, Suzanne E Stroup, James H Roberts, Adil Kalam, Fatima Aziz, Shahida Qureshi, M Ohedul Islam, Pimmada Sakpaisal, Sasikorn Silapong, Pablo P Yori, Revathi Rajendiran, Blossom Benny, Monica McGrath, Benjamin J J McCormick, Jessica C Seidman, Dennis Lang, Michael Gottlieb, Richard L Guerrant, Aldo A M Lima, Jose Paulo Leite, Amidou Samie, Pascal O Bessong, Nicola Page, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Carl Mason, Sanjaya Shrestha, Ireen Kiwelu, Estomih R Mduma, Najeeha T Iqbal, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Tahmeed Ahmed, Rashidul Haque, Gagandeep Kang, Margaret N Kosek, Eric R Houpt
BACKGROUND: Optimum management of childhood diarrhoea in low-resource settings has been hampered by insufficient data on aetiology, burden, and associated clinical characteristics. We used quantitative diagnostic methods to reassess and refine estimates of diarrhoea aetiology from the Etiology, Risk Factors, and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study. METHODS: We re-analysed stool specimens from the multisite MAL-ED cohort study of children aged 0-2 years done at eight locations (Dhaka, Bangladesh; Vellore, India; Bhaktapur, Nepal; Naushero Feroze, Pakistan; Venda, South Africa; Haydom, Tanzania; Fortaleza, Brazil; and Loreto, Peru), which included active surveillance for diarrhoea and routine non-diarrhoeal stool collection...
December 2018: Lancet Global Health
Sarah S Long
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Jafari Davod, Dehghan Nayeri Fatemeh, Hossein Honari, Ramin Hosseini
Shigella dysenteriae causing shigellosis is one of the diseases that threaten the health of human society in the developing countries. In Shigella, IpaD gene is one of the key pathogenic genes causing strong mucosal immune system reactions. Anthrax disease is caused by Bacillus anthracis. PA protective antigen is one of the subunits in anthrax toxin complex responsible for the transfer of other subunits into the cytosol of host cells. The 20 kDa subunit of PA (PA20) has the property of immunogenicity. CTxB or B subunit of Vibrio cholerae toxin (CT) is a non-toxic protein and has the function to transfer toxic subunit into cytosol of the host cells by binding to GM1 receptor...
September 22, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Ilia Belotserkovsky, Philippe J Sansonetti
Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) are gram-negative bacteria responsible for bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) in humans, which is characterized by invasion and inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. Different EIEC and Shigella subgroups rose independently from commensal E. coli through patho-adaptive evolution that included loss of functional genes interfering with the virulence and/or with the intracellular lifestyle of the bacteria, as well as acquisition of genetic elements harboring virulence genes...
September 15, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
E O Utenkova, O N Lyubeznova, E V Noskova, V V Noskova
The article compares the flow of intestinal infections in elderly and young people. Analyzed the medical records of 172 persons 60-85 years and 82 history persons 20-40 years with salmonellosis, shigellosis and rotavirus gastroenteritis. It is revealed that bacterial intestinal infections, salmonellosis and shigellosis, those over 60 years of age have the clinical differences and flow is heavier than in patients 20-40 years. Clinic of rotaviral gastroenteritis is not age-appropriate. Knowledge of clinic of intestinal infections in persons of elderly and senile age should your doctor for early diagnosis and proper treatment of patients of this category...
2018: Advances in Gerontology, Uspekhi Gerontologii
Wang Liu, Yan Zhou, Tao Peng, Ping Zhou, Xiaojun Ding, Zilin Li, Haoyu Zhong, Yue Xu, She Chen, Howard C Hang, Feng Shao
Shigella flexneri, an intracellular Gram-negative bacterium causative for shigellosis, employs a type III secretion system to deliver virulence effectors into host cells. One such effector, IcsB, is critical for S. flexneri intracellular survival and pathogenesis, but its mechanism of action is unknown. Here, we discover that IcsB is an 18-carbon fatty acyltransferase catalysing lysine Nε -fatty acylation. IcsB disrupted the actin cytoskeleton in eukaryotes, resulting from Nε -fatty acylation of RhoGTPases on lysine residues in their polybasic region...
September 2018: Nature Microbiology
Anna Allué-Guardia, Sara S K Koenig, Pablo Quirós, Maite Muniesa, James L Bono, Mark Eppinger
Shigella sonnei is responsible for the majority of shigellosis infections in the US with over 500,000 cases reported annually. Here, we present the complete genome of the clinical multidrug resistant (MDR) strain 866, which is highly susceptible to bacteriophage infections. The strain has a circular chromosome of 4.85 Mb and carries a 113 kb MDR plasmid. This IncB/O/K/Z-type plasmid, termed p866, confers resistance to five different classes of antibiotics including ß-lactamase, sulfonamide, tetracycline, aminoglycoside, and trimethoprim...
September 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Mohammad Reza Hashemzadeh, Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad, Reza Salman Yazdi, Reza Aflatoonian
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) from gram negative bacteria stimulate toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in immune cells. Recent reports state that bone marrow-derived cells such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) also express TLR proteins. Numerous researches have studied the effect of a number of LPSs on TLR4 expression, but no data exists on the effect of LPSs from different strains of one bacterial genus on TLR4 expression. In this study, we investigate the effects of various concentrations of LPS from different Shigella strains on TLR4 expression in human bone marrow (hBM)-MSCs...
September 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
Rajat Dhakal, Qinning Wang, Ruiting Lan, Peter Howard, Vitali Sintchenko
PURPOSE: Both Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) can cause enterocolitis, but they have a distinct epidemiology and public health relevance. Current culture-independent testing (CIT) methods to identify Shigella in faecal samples rely on the ipaH gene as the target, which is also found in EIEC genomes. The aim of this study was to design an assay that can identify EIEC in cultures from CIT ipaH-positive samples. METHODOLOGY: Shigella and EIEC genomes were screened to find unique regions present in EIEC genomes using a comparative genomics approach and differentiating genetic loci that are suitable PCR targets were identified...
September 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
M S Riddle, W H Chen, C D Kirkwood, C A MacLennan
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhoeal disease caused by viral, bacterial and parasitic infections is a major global health problem; in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) it is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity in children under 5. Some of these infections also impact large segments of populations in high-income countries (HICs), as well as individuals who travel overseas for work, business or pleasure. AIMS: The aim of this review is to describe the current landscape of licensed enteric vaccines, potential new vaccines on the horizon, and the challenges of development and utilization of vaccines against enteric pathogens...
October 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Anna Jarząb, Danuta Witkowska, Edmund Ziomek, Bartosz Setner, Aleksandra Czajkowska, Małgorzata Dorot, Zbigniew Szewczuk, Andrzej Gamian
In earlier works we have described that mice immunized with outer membrane protein OmpC survive the challenge with live Shigella flexnerii 3a. We have also identified conformational epitope of this protein, that was recognized by mice antibodies. The aim of current work was to investigate whether synthetic OmpC epitope homologs can elicit immunological response sufficient in protecting mice against shigellosis. Several linear peptides containing RYDERY motif were synthesized and conjugated to poly-lysine. These conjugates appeared to be poor immunogens and to boost the immunological response an addition of the adjuvant (MPL) was required...
July 25, 2018: Vaccine
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