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Brain biopsy

Urs Benck, Matthias Jung, Bernd Krüger, Anja Grimm, Christel Weiss, Benito A Yard, Frank Lehner, Anja Kiessling, Lutz Fischer, Anja Gallinat, Axel Kleespies, Thomas Lorf, Robert Sucher, Christian Mönch, Marcus N Scherer, Axel Rahmel, Peter Schemmer, Bernhard K Krämer, Peter Schnuelle
Treatment of the brain-dead donor (DBD) with low-dose dopamine improves the outcomes after kidney and heart transplantation. This study investigates the course of liver allografts from multi-organ donors enrolled in the randomized dopamine trial between 2004 and 2007 (clinicalTrials. gov Identifier: NCT00115115). Twohundred sixty-four hemodynamically stable DBDs were randomly assigned to receive low-dose dopamine. Dopamine was infused at 4 μg/kg/min for a median duration of 6.0 hours (IQR 4.4-7.5 hours). We assessed the outcomes of 212 liver transplants performed at 32 European centers...
August 13, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Mansoureh Hashemi, Alireza Zali, Javad Hashemi, Saeed Oraee-Yazdani, Akhtar Akbari
Strong 14-3-3 zeta protein expression plays an important role in tumorigenesis, including in the maintenance of cell growth, resistance increase, and the prevention of apoptosis. In this study, we focus on two targets: (1) the expression of 14-3-3 zeta in the different grades of human astrocytoma (II-IV), (2) suppression of 14-3-3 zeta protein expression in glioblastoma derived astrocytes by 14-3-3 zeta shRNA lentiviral particles. The tissues of human astrocytoma were provided from 30 patients (ten of each grade of astrocytoma)...
August 12, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Alex Wagemakers, Dagmar Hepp, Joep Killestein, Laura Peferoen, Wim Ang
We present a case of acute syphilitic meningitis in a 28-year old HIV-infected patient, presenting with a seizure. MRI revealed a meningeal lesion with cortical involvement, and the patient described previous treatment for syphilis. Final diagnosis was established by PCR and spirochete staining on a brain biopsy, upon which the patient was successfully treated with benzylpenicillin.
2018: IDCases
Josefin Hansson, Lars Mjörnstedt, Per Lindnér
BACKGROUND: The state of the evidence is unclear regarding the impact of cold ischaemia time (CIT) on the outcome of kidney transplantation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CIT on the short and long-term function of kidneys transplanted at the Sahlgrenska University Hospital in 2007-2009 from donors after brain death (DBDs). METHODS: This study was designed as a retrospective analysis of data from local and national transplantation registers...
August 10, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
Christopher D Bennett, Sarah E Kohe, Simrandip K Gill, Nigel P Davies, Martin Wilson, Lisa C D Storer, Timothy Ritzmann, Simon M L Paine, Ian S Scott, Ina Nicklaus-Wollenteit, Daniel A Tennant, Richard G Grundy, Andrew C Peet
Paediatric brain tumors are becoming well characterized due to large genomic and epigenomic studies. Metabolomics is a powerful analytical approach aiding in the characterization of tumors. This study shows that common cerebellar tumors have metabolite profiles sufficiently different to build accurate, robust diagnostic classifiers, and that the metabolite profiles can be used to assess differences in metabolism between the tumors. Tissue metabolite profiles were obtained from cerebellar ependymoma (n = 18), medulloblastoma (n = 36), pilocytic astrocytoma (n = 24) and atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (n = 5) samples using HR-MAS...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michal Lubomski, Joanne Sy, Michael Buckland, Andie S Lee, Bethan Richards, Elizabeth Thompson, Michael Fulham, Nora Breen, Kirsty Morris, G Michael Halmagyi
Leptomeningitis is a rare central nervous system manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis, generally in patients with established chronic rheumatoid disease. We report a 41-year-old man without previous rheumatoid arthritis or psychiatric disorder who presented with an acute neuropsychiatric disturbance and polyarthralgia. His MR scan of brain showed asymmetric bifrontal leptomeningitis, confirmed on (18F)-fluoro-D-glucose-positron emission tomography. Other investigations showed highly positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide...
August 10, 2018: Practical Neurology
E W Nabofa, A R A Alada
Previous studies on the ability of caffeine to enhance endurance and boost performance have focused on theenergy substrates that are utilized by the skeletal muscle and the brain but nothing of such has been reported on cardiactissue. This study was designed to investigate the effect of caffeine on cardiac tissue metabolism in the rabbit. The study wascarried out on adult male New Zealand rabbits divided into 3 groups (n=5). Group I rabbits served as control and were given0.5ml/Kg of normal saline while group II and III rabbits were administered with 2mg/Kg and 6mg/kg of caffeine respectivelyfor 28 days...
June 30, 2018: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Flavia Niccolini, Heather Wilson, Stephanie Hirschbichler, Tayyabah Yousaf, Gennaro Pagano, Alexander Whittington, Silvia P Caminiti, Roberto Erro, Janice L Holton, Zane Jaunmuktane, Marcello Esposito, Davide Martino, Ali Abdul, Jan Passchier, Eugenii A Rabiner, Roger N Gunn, Kailash P Bhatia, Marios Politis
PURPOSE: To assess disease-related patterns of in vivo pathology in 11 patients with Corticobasal Syndrome (CBS) compared to 20 healthy controls and 33 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients due to Alzheimer's disease. METHODS: We assessed tau aggregates with [18 F]AV1451 PET, amyloid-β depositions with [18 F]AV45 PET, and volumetric microstructural changes with MRI. We validated for [18 F]AV1451 standardised uptake value ratio (SUVRs) against input functions from arterial metabolites and found that SUVRs and arterial-derived distribution volume ratio (DVRs) provide equally robust measures of [18 F]AV1451 binding...
August 8, 2018: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Vijay Sundar Ilangovan, V R Roopesh Kumar, Vijay Sankaran, K R Suresh Bapu, Sunil Kapilavayi
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive intracranial tumor and diffusely infiltrates the surrounding brain tissue. Despite their malignant nature, extraneural metastases from glioblastomas are rare with an estimated incidence of <2%. We present a case of a 9-year-old boy with exophytic brainstem GBM who developed cervical node metastases. He had undergone gross total excision of GBM in January 2017. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme. The patient underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy as per hospital protocol...
April 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Fen Wang, Dongmei Guo, Zheng Liu, Aihong Zhou, Cuibai Wei, Jianping Jia
Neurosarcoidosis is relatively rare and has diverse manifestations. The clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome for neurosarcoidosis in China are poorly understood. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features, laboratory and imaging results, treatment, and outcomes in patients who met the criteria for definite or probable neurosarcoidosis in Xuan Wu Hospital of Capital Medical University from 2000 to 2015. Eight patients were included in this study, accounting for 5.84% of all cases with sarcoidosis...
August 7, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Danielle Bury, Camilo L M Morais, Maria Paraskevaidi, Katherine M Ashton, Timothy P Dawson, Francis L Martin
Much effort is currently being placed into developing new blood tests for cancer diagnosis in the hope of moving cancer diagnosis earlier and by less invasive means than current techniques, e.g., biopsy. Current methods are expected to diagnose and begin treatment of cancer within 62 days of patient presentation, though due to high volume and pressures within the NHS in the UK any technique that can reduce time to diagnosis would allow reduction in the time to treat for patients. The use of vibrational spectroscopy, notably infrared (IR) spectroscopy, has been under investigation for many years with varying success...
August 1, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Alexander Riad, Stefan Gross, Jeannine Witte, Rico Feldtmann, Katharina B Wagner, Yvonne Reinke, Kerstin Weitmann, Klaus Empen, Daniel Beug, Dirk Westermann, Diana Lindner, Karin Klingel, Marcus Dörr, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Stephan B Felix
BACKGROUND: Myeloid differentiation factor-2 (MD-2) has been shown to be an important modulator of the innate immune system, but its role in cardiac diseases is unknown. We investigated whether MD-2 plays a role as risk predictor and contributor in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 174 patients with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF <45%) due to DCM. Coronary artery disease and severe valvular diseases were excluded in all patients by angiography or echocardiography...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Lothar Burghaus, Christoph Kabbasch, Martina Deckert, Maximilian I Ruge, Gereon R Fink, Karl-Josef Langen, Norbert Galldiks
Primary central nervous system vasculitis is confined to the brain and spinal cord. While serological markers of inflammation are usually normal, conventional angiography may confirm the diagnosis. The diagnostic method of choice is central nervous system biopsy. A 57-year-old man suffered from a first generalized epileptic seizure. MRI revealed a contrast-enhancing lesion, and O-(2-[F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine amino acid PET displayed increased metabolic activity, both findings highly suggestive of a malignant glioma...
September 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Akira Chiba, Takashi Toya, Hideaki Mizuno, Junji Tokushige, Fumihiko Nakamura, Kumi Nakazaki, Mineo Kurokawa
With the introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs), prognosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) has improved dramatically. However, treatment for blast phase (BP) CML remains a challenge. CML infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS) is particularly rare and no effective treatment strategy has been established. The present case reports a 30-year-old man presenting with sensory deafness. Marked leukocytosis with p210 BCR-ABL1 mRNA positivity and Philadelphia chromosome detected by bone marrow biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of CML...
August 4, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
Dieter Henrik Heiland, Gerrit Haaker, Ralf Watzlawik, Daniel Delev, Waseem Masalha, Pamela Franco, Marcia Machein, Ori Staszewski, Oliver Oelhke, Nils Henrik Nicolay, Oliver Schnell
INTRODUCTION: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults with peak incidence in patients older than 65 years. These patients are mostly underrepresented in clinical trials and often undertreated due to concomitant diseases. Recently, different therapeutic approaches for elderly patients with GBM were discussed. To date, there is no defined standard treatment. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the functional and oncological outcome in surgical treatment of elderly patients...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Kaustubh Limaye, Edgar A Samaniego, Harold P Adams
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Primary central nervous system angiitis (PCNSA) is a rare disease. Varying clinical pictures coupled with lack of sensitive and specific diagnostic tests lead to challenges in management of these patients. This unfortunately may lead to both under- or over-diagnosis and unnecessary treatment. It is important to recognize the different conditions that may mimic the clinical and radiologic presentation. We present a contemporary literature review that should update physicians who encounter this patient population...
August 4, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Joseph B Meleca, Andrea Hanick, Eric Lamarre, Paul C Bryson
OUTCOME OBJECTIVES: METHODS: Case Report, April 2016. RESULTS: A 27-year-old female presented with a three-week history of flu-like symptoms including sore throat, myalgia and insidious nasal congestion. Her hospital course was complicated by pancytopenia, extensive GI bleed of unknown origin and fever. Radiographic studies revealed multifocal centrilobular ground-glass lung nodules, splenomegaly, frontal and paranasal sinus opacification and mucosal thickening and inflammatory process of false and true vocal cords with concentric multi-level narrowing...
July 25, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Michael Devlin, Andrew Swayne, Martin Newman, Cullen O'Gorman, Helen Brown, Benjamin Ong, Thomas Robertson, Caroline Airey, Stefan Blum
This report will detail a case of immune-mediated encephalitis in the context of daclizumab therapy. Daclizumab is a humanised monoclonal antibody which, prior to its recent worldwide withdrawal due to safety concerns, was utilised as a disease-modifying therapy in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. The withdrawal of this therapy was prompted by concerns over 12 cases of serious immune-mediated adverse reactions in the central nervous system. We report an additional case, including clinical data and results of neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and brain biopsy...
August 3, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Kaylyn Sinicrope, Tracy Batchelor
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma restricted to the central nervous system. Stereotactic biopsy is the gold-standard for diagnosis of PCNSL. Extent of disease evaluation for newly diagnosed PCNSL patients includes brain imaging, eye examination, cerebrospinal fluid assessment, body imaging, and bone marrow biopsy. Methotrexate-based chemotherapy is the standard induction for PCNSL patients. Optimal consolidation therapy for PCNSL has not been defined, with several options feasible, including chemotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy, and autologous stem cell transplantation or whole-brain radiation therapy...
August 2018: Neurologic Clinics
Eduardo L Latouche, Christopher B Arena, Jill W Ivey, Paulo A Garcia, Theresa E Pancotto, Noah Pavlisko, Scott S Verbridge, Rafael V Davalos, John H Rossmeisl
High-frequency irreversible electroporation is a nonthermal method of tissue ablation that uses bursts of 0.5- to 2.0-microsecond bipolar electric pulses to permeabilize cell membranes and induce cell death. High-frequency irreversible electroporation has potential advantages for use in neurosurgery, including the ability to deliver pulses without inducing muscle contraction, inherent selectivity against malignant cells, and the capability of simultaneously opening the blood-brain barrier surrounding regions of ablation...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
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