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Brain biopsy

Alexandra Kreps, Karen Paltoo, Isabel McFarlane
Background: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease with a wide range of clinical features and variable clinical course. SLE tends to affect women during childbearing years and is characterized by multi-organ involvement. Cardiac complications in SLE, which have been described to occur in about 50% of the cases, contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in this population. We describe a patient with SLE and established lupus nephritis who subsequently developed cardiac manifestations including valvular abnormalities, arrythmia and end stage heart failure...
2018: American journal of medical case reports
Marc Dinkin, Ehud Lavi, Jacqueline Winterkorn, Cristiano Oliveira, Alexander E Merkler
BACKGROUND: To describe a case of optic neuropathy associated with intravascular lymphoma (IVL). METHODS: Case report and review of the literature. RESULTS: A case of asymmetric binocular vision loss is described, preceded by transient vision loss. Associated optic perineural enhancement and enhancing and diffusion-positive cortical lesions were observed on magnetic resonance imaging. Biopsy of the cerebellum revealed exclusively intraluminal neoplastic B-cells consistent with IVL...
October 23, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Kun Yang, Jiu Chen, Jing Xiang, Hongyi Liu, Yuanjie Zou, Wenwu Kan, Yong Liu, LixinLi
OBJECTIVE: To quantify low to high frequency range of abnormalbrain activities and assess the histopathological and clinical correlation in patients with glioma. METHODS: Twenty-fivegliomapatientsand 20healthy controls were examined with amagnetoencephalography (MEG) system. MEG data collected in 6 frequency bands, including 1-4 Hz, 4-8 Hz, 8-12 Hz, 12-30 Hz, 30-45 Hz, and 55-75 Hz, were analyzed by neuropathology to assess neuromagnetic signatures of glioma grade...
December 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Amit Azriel, Andrew Gogos, TeWhiti Rogers, Samuel Moscovici, Patrick Lo, Katharine Drummond
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem, autosomal dominant disorder with a wide clinical spectrum. The most common brain tumor associated with TSC is the low grade subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Reports of high grade primary brain tumors in patients with TSC are rare. TSC1/2 mutation has been identified in glioblastoma (GBM) even though it probably does not increase the overall risk for GBM in patients with TSC. We present a 58-year-old patient with known TSC, admitted for new neurological symptoms, diagnosed with a large heterogeneous tumor involving most of the corpus callosum...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Carlo Salvarani, Robert D Brown, Teresa J H Christianson, John Huston, Jonathan M Morris, Caterina Giannini, Gene G Hunder
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, laboratory, and imaging features and course of patients with primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) presenting with an intracranial tumor-like mass (TLM). METHODS: We retrospectively studied a cohort of 191 consecutive patients with PCNSV seen at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN over a 35-year period (1982-2017). 13/191 patients presented with a TLM. We compared the findings in these 13 patients with those from the 178 without this presentation...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Yeonhee Lee, Yae-Jean Kim, Heeyeon Cho
BK virus is a known cause of renal failure in kidney transplant recipients, but there is little data regarding its effect on native kidneys in heart transplant patients. Here, we describe the case of a child who underwent heart transplantation and was later diagnosed with BK virus with multiorgan involvement. This patient was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy at 4 months of age and underwent heart transplantation at the age of 5 years. Before transplantation, the patient suffered from cardiac arrest and fungal pyelonephritis...
December 11, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Pascale Fabbro-Peray, Sonia Zouaoui, Amélie Darlix, Michel Fabbro, Johan Pallud, Valérie Rigau, Hélène Mathieu-Daude, Faiza Bessaoud, Fabienne Bauchet, Adeline Riondel, Elodie Sorbets, Marie Charissoux, Aymeric Amelot, Emmanuel Mandonnet, Dominique Figarella-Branger, Hugues Duffau, Brigitte Tretarre, Luc Taillandier, Luc Bauchet
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma is the most frequent primary malignant brain tumor. In daily practice and at whole country level, oncological care management for glioblastoma patients is not completely known. OBJECTIVES: To describe oncological patterns of care, prognostic factors, and survival for all patients in France with newly-diagnosed and histologically confirmed glioblastoma, and evaluate the impact of extended temozolomide use at the population level. METHODS: Nationwide population-based cohort study including all patients with newly-diagnosed and histologically confirmed glioblastoma in France in 2008 and followed until 2015...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
William Dawes, Hani J Marcus, Martin Tisdall, Kristian Aquilina
Tumours located within the brainstem comprise approximately a tenth of all paediatric brain tumours. Surgical biopsy of these tumours is technically challenging and has historically been associated with considerable risk. To this end, robot-assisted surgery theoretically allows for increased accuracy and precision. In this study we report our experience using the Neuromate robot (Renishaw, Gloucestershire, UK) to perform robot-assisted stereotactic biopsy in children with tumours located within the brainstem...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Robotic Surgery
Marta Saint-Gerons, Silvia Muñoz, Jurij R Bilyk
A 51-year-old woman with a previous history of rheumatoid arthritis experienced painless and progressive visual loss in the left eye for three weeks. Fundus examination revealed optic disc pallor in her left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and orbits showed enhancement of the pachymeninges and hypersignal at the left optic nerve. Meningeal biopsy was performed. Immunohistochemical staining for IgG4 revealed several IgG4-positive plasma cells, which in some areas reached the number of 50 cells/ high-power field...
December 3, 2018: Survey of Ophthalmology
Murat Sütçü, Hacer Aktürk, Sezen Gülümser-Şişko, Manolya Acar, Oğuz Bülent Erol, Ayper Somer, Bilge Bilgiç, Nuran Salman
Sütçü M, Aktürk H, Gülümser-Şişko S, Acar M, Erol OB, Somer A, Bilgiç B, Salman N. Granulomatous amebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba in an immuncompetent child. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 340-343. Acanthamoeba may lead to granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) with high mortality rates generally in patients with immunosupression and/or chronic disease. Here, we present a rare GAE case, who was a previously healthy child. A Georgian 9 year old boy presented with focal seizure on his left arm and confusion...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Nobuo Sanjo, Yurie Nose, Yukiko Shishido-Hara, Saneyuki Mizutani, Yoshiki Sekijima, Hitoshi Aizawa, Toru Tanizawa, Takanori Yokota
OBJECTIVE: In the present study, we analyzed the inflammatory profiles of brain tissues obtained from patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) due to John Cunningham (JC) virus infection to identify potential prognostic factors. METHODS: The study included seven patients (two men, five women) who had been pathologically diagnosed with PML, and all of whom were HIV negative. Fixed brain samples were analyzed via hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and Klüver-Barrera (KB) staining...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Pradeep Thapa, Ashwini Kalshetty, Sandip Basu
The aim of this study was to explore the clinical efficacy of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in tumor detection in patients with proven or suspected carcinoma of unknown primary origin (CUP) and making a subgroup-specific analysis. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional survey of patients with CUP syndrome who were referred for 18 F-FDG PET-CT studies over a 2-year period. FDG-PET-CT scans were performed in compliance with the standard whole-body protocol, i...
October 2018: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Maria Dantas Costa Lima Godoy, Marco Aurélio Fornazieri, Richard L Doty, Fábio de Rezende Pinna, José Marcelo Farfel, Glaucia Bento Dos Santos, Mariana Molina, Renata E L Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata E P Leite, Claudia K Suemoto, Lea T Grinberg, Carlos A G Pasqualucci, Richard Louis Voegels, Ricardo Nitrini, Wilson Jacob Filho
OBJECTIVES: The clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are preceded by a long asymptomatic period associated with "silent" deposition of aberrant paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and amyloid-beta proteins in brain tissue. Similar depositions have been reported within the olfactory epithelium (OE), a tissue that can be biopsied in vivo. The degree to which such biopsies are useful in identifying AD is controversial. This postmortem study had 3 main goals: first, to quantify the relative densities of AD-related proteins in 3 regions of the olfactory neuroepithelium, namely, the nasal septum, middle turbinate, and superior turbinate; second, to establish whether such densities are correlated among these epithelial regions as well as with semi-quantitative ratings of general brain cortex pathology; and third, to evaluate correlations between the protein densities and measures of antemortem cognitive function...
December 2, 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Daniel G Eichberg, Justin K Achua, Eduardo Locatelli, Ricardo J Komotar, Ali J Ghods
BACKGROUND: Primary diffuse leptomeningeal melanomatosis (PDLM) is an extremely rare pathologic condition that can mimic several other neurologic disease states. METHODS: We report a rare case of PDLM without evidence of a primary focus. Additionally, we performed a comprehensive review of the literature to describe all previously reported cases of PDLM. RESULTS: In the presented case, making the diagnosis of PDLM was difficult. A brain and frontal dural biopsy was nondiagnostic...
November 26, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Yuya Kano, Hiroyasu Inoue, Keita Sakurai, Mari Yoshida, Yoshiharu Miura, Kazuo Nakamichi, Masayuki Saijo, Hiroyuki Yuasa
A 75-year-old man presented with dysarthria and left facial paralysis. Brain diffusion-weighted MRI revealed a high-signal intensity in the right precentral gyrus, and he was hospitalized under the diagnosis of cerebral infarction. His symptoms worsened and brain MRI findings were consistent with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) JC virus (JCV) was undetectable in the DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test four times, but brain biopsy revealed typical PML histopathology...
November 29, 2018: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Fanny M Elahi, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Marie Altendahl, Adam M Staffaroni, Evan Fletcher, Teresa J Filshtein, Maria M Glymour, Bruce L Miller, Jason D Hinman, Charles DeCarli, Edward J Goetzl, Joel H Kramer
Background and Objective: In the aging brain, increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage and white matter hyperintensity (WMH) on MRI are frequently presumed secondary to cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) or endotheliopathy. We investigate this association in vivo by quantifying protein cargo from endothelial-derived exosomes (EDE), and comparing levels between two groups of functionally normal elders with and without WMH. In addition, we study associations of EDE proteins with upstream and downstream factors, such as inflammation and neurodegenerative changes, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Patrick R Maloney, Brandon McCutcheon, Jeffrey Janus, Mark Jentoft, Timothy Kaufmann, Daniel Honore Lachance, Jamie J Van Gompel, Mohamad Bydon
We report a case of a middle-aged woman with a diffuse, nonenhancing, progressively atrophic T2-hyperintense lesion involving the left frontotemporal lobes and insula found to be synchronous high-grade sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) after initial endonasal resection. In 2014, a 47-year old woman underwent resection of a left-sided high-grade ethmoidal neuroendocrine carcinoma after presentation with weight gain and increased levels of serum and urine cortisol. Concurrent with the initial presentation, she was noted to have a nonenhancing, hyperintense signal change on T2-weighted images on the left frontotemporal lobes and insula thought to be paraneoplastic...
October 2018: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
Joshua D Bernstock, Zachary Wright, Asim K Bag, Florian Gessler, G Yancey Gillespie, James M Markert, Gregory K Friedman, James M Johnston
OBJECTIVE: G207, an engineered HSV-1, is a promising therapeutic option for CNS tumors. The first-ever pediatric Phase 1 trial of continuous-infusion delivery of G207 via intratumoral catheters for recurrent/progressive malignant brain tumors is ongoing. Herein, we describe surgical techniques for the accurate placement of catheters in multiple supratentorial locations and perioperative complications associated with such procedures. METHODS: A prospective study of G207 in children with recurrent malignant supratentorial tumors is ongoing...
November 24, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Josefine Radke, Randi Koll, Esther Gill, Lars Wiese, Angela Schulz, Alfried Kohlschütter, Markus Schuelke, Christian Hagel, Werner Stenzel, Hans H Goebel
Objective: The neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are genetic degenerative disorders of brain and retina. NCL with juvenile onset (JNCL) is genetically heterogeneous but most frequently caused by mutations of CLN3. Classical juvenile CLN3 includes a rare protracted form, which has previously been linked to autophagic vacuolar myopathy (AVM). Our study investigates the association of AVM with classic, non-protracted CLN3. Methods: Evaluation of skeletal muscle biopsies from three, non-related patients with classic, non-protracted and one patient with protracted CLN3 disease by histology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, and Sanger sequencing of the coding region of the CLN3 gene...
November 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Fukutaro Mano, Stephen A LoBue, Kuo-Chung Chang, Tomiya Mano
Background: To report the multimodal imaging and histology of a case of metastatic esophageal cancer with vitreoretinal involvement resembling acute retinal necrosis (ARN) in a patient receiving systemic chemotherapy. Case presentation: A 69-year-old Japanese man with a history of stage 4 esophageal carcinoma, treated with three cycles of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and cisplatin (CDDP) chemotherapy as well as 30 sessions of radiation therapy, presented with new onset of blurry vision in the right eye (OD)...
2018: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
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