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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324898/breathing-and-swallowing-the-next-frontier
#1
Roxann Diez Gross, Marybeth Trapani-Hanasewych
The anatomical overlap of the pathways for air passage and nutrition necessitate precise coordination between the two vital functions. Neuroanatomic structures in the brainstem for sucking, breathing, and swallowing are also in close proximity and must swiftly coordinate the processes. In a healthy neonate, the oropharyngeal experience and stimulation of early feeding enables respiratory control during suckling to develop. Despite wide variability among the methods used to investigate breathing and swallowing coordination in infancy, a consistent finding of postswallow exhalation has been reported...
April 2017: Seminars in Speech and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300636/perinatal-protein-malnutrition-alters-expression-of-mirna-biogenesis-genes-xpo5-and-ago2-in-mice-brain
#2
Bruno G Berardino, Estefanía A Fesser, Eduardo T Cánepa
Due to its widespread incidence, maternal malnutrition remains one of the major non-genetic factors affecting the development of newborn's brain. While all nutrients have certain influence on brain maturation, proteins appear to be the most critical for the development of neurological functions. An increasing number of studies point out that the effects of early-life nutritional inadequacy has long lasting effects on the brain and lead to permanent deficits in learning and behavior. Epigenetic mechanisms provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes...
March 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294089/media-audit-reveals-inappropriate-promotion-of-products-under-the-scope-of-the-international-code-of-marketing-of-breast-milk-substitutes-in-south-east-asia
#3
Kristine Hansen Vinje, Linh Thi Hong Phan, Tuan Thanh Nguyen, Sigrun Henjum, Lovise Omoijuanfo Ribe, Roger Mathisen
OBJECTIVE: To review regulations and to perform a media audit of promotion of products under the scope of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes ('the Code') in South-East Asia. DESIGN: We reviewed national regulations relating to the Code and 800 clips of editorial content, 387 advertisements and 217 Facebook posts from January 2015 to January 2016. We explored the ecological association between regulations and market size, and between the number of advertisements and market size and growth of milk formula...
March 15, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289851/withdrawal-of-artificial-nutrition-and-hydration-in-neonatal-intensive-care-parents-and-healthcare-practitioners-views
#4
Véronique Fournier, Elisabeth Belghiti, Laurence Brunet, Marta Spranzi
Withdrawing Artificial Nutrition and Hydration (WANH) in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) has long been controversial. In France, the practice has become a legal option since 2005. But even though, the question remains as to what the stakeholders' experience is, and whether they consider it ethically appropriate. In order to contribute to the debate, we initiated a study in 2009 to evaluate parental and health care professionals (HCP) perspectives, after they experienced WAHN for a newborn. The study included 25 cases from 5 different clinical neonatology departments...
March 13, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276868/population-based-birth-weight-reference-percentiles-for-chinese-twins
#5
Li Dai, Changfei Deng, Yanhua Li, Ling Yi, Xiaohong Li, Yi Mu, Qi Li, Qiang Yao, Yanping Wang
BACKGROUND: Birth weight percentiles by gestational age are important for assessing prenatal growth and predicting postnatal outcomes of newborns. Several countries have developed nation-specific birth weight references for twins, but China still lacks such references. METHODS AND RESULTS: Birth weight data for twins born between October 2006 and September 2015 were abstracted from the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 54,786 live twin births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects were included in the analysis...
February 28, 2017: Annals of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259395/short-communication-tryptic-%C3%AE-casein-hydrolysate-modulates-enteric-nervous-system-development-in-primary-culture
#6
F Cossais, I Clawin-Rädecker, P C Lorenzen, M Klempt
The intestinal tract of the newborn is particularly sensitive to gastrointestinal disorders, such as infantile diarrhea or necrotizing colitis. Perinatal development of the gut also encompasses the maturation of the enteric nervous system (ENS), a main regulator of intestinal motility and barrier functions. It was recently shown that ENS maturation can be enhanced by nutritional factors to improve intestinal maturation. Bioactivity of milk proteins is often latent, requiring the release of bioactive peptides from inactive native proteins...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239403/lipid-overload-during-gestation-and-lactation-can-independently-alter-lipid-homeostasis-in-offspring-and-promote-metabolic-impairment-after-new-challenge-to-high-fat-diet
#7
Laís Angélica de Paula Simino, Thaís de Fante, Marina Figueiredo Fontana, Fernanda Oliveira Borges, Márcio Alberto Torsoni, Marciane Milanski, Lício Augusto Velloso, Adriana Souza Torsoni
BACKGROUND: Nutritional status in early life is critically involved in the metabolic phenotype of offspring. However the changes triggered by maternal consumption of high-fat diet (HFD) in pre- or postnatal period should be better understood. Here we evaluated whether maternal HFD consumption during gestation and lactation could differently affect liver miR-122 and miR-370 expression leading to metabolic damages observed in offspring. Moreover, we investigate whether early overnutrition program offspring to more harmful response to HFD in later life...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225048/thiamine-deficiency-oxidative-metabolic-pathways-and-ethanol-induced-neurotoxicity-how-poor-nutrition-contributes-to-the-alcoholic-syndrome-as-marchiafava-bignami-disease
#8
REVIEW
L M P Fernandes, F R Bezerra, M C Monteiro, M L Silva, F R de Oliveira, R R Lima, E A Fontes-Júnior, C S F Maia
Ethanol is an important risk factor for the occurrence of several brain disorders that depend on the amount, period and frequency of its consumption. Chronic use of ethanol often leads to the development of neurodegenerative syndromes, which cause morphological and functional impairments such as foetal alcohol syndrome in newborns exposed to ethanol during pregnancy, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome and, more rarely, Marchiafava-Bignami disease (MBD). MBD is characterized by primary degeneration of the corpus callosum, without inflammation and is associated with oxidative stress and hypovitaminosis, as well as altered mental status, to mention dementia, seizures, depression and so on...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222962/safety-of-parenteral-nutrition-in-newborns-results-from-a-nationwide-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Alexandre Lapillonne, Marie-Pierre Berleur, Yvette Brasseur, Sophie Calvez
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Limited or delayed availability of parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions, as well as difficulties in ordering are often identified as reasons for non-compliance with international guidelines in newborns. This study aims at assessing the modality of use and safety of premixed standardized PN solutions in a nationwide prospective cohort of newborns treated in clinical practice. METHODS: Two premixed fixed formulations with respective osmolarity of 715 and 790 mOsm/L specifically designed for neonates were made available throughout the country for clinical use from birth onwards...
February 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207425/evidence-based-interventions-for-improvement-of-maternal-and-child-nutrition-in-low-income-settings-what-s-new
#10
Tyler Vaivada, Michelle F Gaffey, Jai K Das, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Maternal and child malnutrition continues to disproportionately affect low and middle-income countries, contributing to high rates of morbidity, mortality, and suboptimal development. This article reviews evidence from recent systematic reviews and studies on the effectiveness of interventions to improve nutritional status in these especially vulnerable populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Macronutrients provided to expectant mothers in the form of balanced protein energy supplements can improve fetal growth and birth outcomes, and new research suggests that lipid nutrient supplements can reduce both stunting and wasting in newborns...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191262/maternal-intake-of-methyl-group-donors-affects-dna-methylation-of-metabolic-genes-in-infants
#11
Sara Pauwels, Manosij Ghosh, Radu Corneliu Duca, Bram Bekaert, Kathleen Freson, Inge Huybrechts, Sabine A S Langie, Gudrun Koppen, Roland Devlieger, Lode Godderis
BACKGROUND: Maternal nutrition during pregnancy and infant nutrition in the early postnatal period (lactation) are critically involved in the development and health of the newborn infant. The Maternal Nutrition and Offspring's Epigenome (MANOE) study was set up to assess the effect of maternal methyl-group donor intake (choline, betaine, folate, methionine) on infant DNA methylation. Maternal intake of dietary methyl-group donors was assessed using a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ)...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174626/maternal-undernutrition-and-excessive-body-weight-and-risk-of-birth-and-health-outcomes
#12
Md Nuruzzaman Khan, Md Mizanur Rahman, Asma Ahmad Shariff, Md Mostafizur Rahman, Md Shafiur Rahman, Md Aminur Rahman
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity are increasing in low- and middle-income countries, while underweight remains a significant health problems. However, the association between double burden of nutrition and risk of adverse birth and health outcomes is still unclear in Bangladesh. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal undernutrition and excessive body weight on a range of maternal and child health outcomes. METHODS: In this study, we used Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011 and 2014 data sets to cover the maternal, child and non-communicable diseases related health outcomes...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168815/descriptive-study-of-the-complete-blood-count-in-newborn-infants-with-down-syndrome
#13
Francisco Javier Martínez-Macías, Lucina Bobadilla-Morales, Janet González-Cruz, Moisés Quiles-Corona, Alfredo Corona-Rivera, Christian Peña-Padilla, Mireya Orozco-Vela, Rocío Silva-Cruz, Fernando Velarde-Rivera, Jorge Román Corona-Rivera
The usefulness of the complete blood count (CBC) during the first week of life in infants with Down syndrome (DS) has been recognized; however, studies are limited and have evaluated only some of the parameters of the CBC. Here, we report a prospective study of 135 infants with cytogenetically confirmed DS and a reference group of 226 infants without birth defects all born during the period 2009-2015 at the Dr. Juan I. Menchaca Civil Hospital of Guadalajara (Guadalajara, Mexico). The goal was to evaluate hematological findings in the CBC during the first 7 days of life, interpreted according to gestational and postnatal age...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162020/holder-pasteurization-affects-s100b-concentrations-in-human-milk
#14
Chiara Peila, Alessandra Coscia, Enrico Bertino, Giovanni Li Volti, Fabio Galvano, Gerard H A Visser, Diego Gazzolo
PURPOSE: Donor milk (DM) represents an important nutrition source for high-risk newborns. Holder pasteurization (HoP) is the most recommended procedure for DM treatment, providing a good compromise between microbiological safety and biological quality. HoP was previously shown to affect DM cytokines, growth factors and hormones levels, whilst no data concerning the possible effects of HoP on neurobiomarkers (NB) are available. Therefore, our study investigated whether the concentration in DM of a well-known NB involved in brain development/damage, namely S100B, changes due to HoP...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151845/high-frequency-of-bone-marrow-depression-during-congenital-toxoplasmosis-therapy-in-a-cohort-of-children-identified-by-neonatal-screening-in-minas-gerais-brazil
#15
Ericka Viana Machado Carellos, Juliana Queiroz de Andrade, Roberta Maia Castro Romanelli, Jacqueline Domingos Tibúrcio, José Nélio Januário, Daniel Vítor Vasconcelos-Santos, Rosângela Maria Figueiredo, Gláucia Manzan Queiroz de Andrade
BACKGROUND: There are few studies reporting frequency and control of adverse events associated with congenital toxoplasmosis treatment. The objective of this study is to describe treatment adherence and adverse hematologic events in a cohort of children identified with congenital toxoplasmosis in Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS: Children were treated with sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine and folinic acid and were evaluated clinically and by laboratory tests at regular intervals...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135119/key-program-findings-and-insights-from-the-baby-friendly-hawaii-project
#16
Sahra A Kahin, Meghan McGurk, Heidi Hansen-Smith, Margaret West, Ruowei Li, Carolyn Lopez Melcher
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is the optimal method for infant feeding. In the United States, 81.1% of mothers initiate breastfeeding; however, only 44.4% and 22.3% of mothers are exclusively breastfeeding at 3 and 6 months, respectively. Research aim: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provides guidance and funding to state health departments to support strategies to improve breastfeeding policies and practices in the hospital, community, and worksite settings. In 2010, the Hawaii State Department of Health received support from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to launch the Baby-Friendly Hawaii Project (BFHP) to increase the number of Hawaii hospitals that provide maternity care consistent with the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding and increase the rate of women who remain exclusively breastfeeding throughout their hospital stay...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124681/-plasma-25-oh-vitamin-d-concentrations-in-cord-blood-after-summer-months-spain
#17
Cristina Manzano Varo, Oscar García-Algar, Antonio Mur Sierra, Roser Ferrer Costa, Antonio Carrascosa Lezcano, Diego Yeste Fernández, Sandra Ortigosa Gómez
OBJECTIVE: Plasma vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in the newborn are dependent on maternal stores. Several studies showing a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women have been published last years. The aim of the study was to analyze 25(OH)D levels in cord blood after summer month, determine whether there is a relation with different variables. METHODS: 103 pregnant women were recruited between October and early December 2014, whose gestations took place during month of maximum sun exposure...
January 25, 2017: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109583/detection-of-recombinant-human-lactoferrin-and-lysozyme-produced-in-a-bitransgenic-cow
#18
Germán G Kaiser, Nicolás C Mucci, Vega González, Lourdes Sánchez, José A Parrón, María D Pérez, Miguel Calvo, Juan F Aller, Federico A Hozbor, Adrián A Mutto
Lactoferrin and lysozyme are 2 glycoproteins with great antimicrobial activity, being part of the nonspecific defensive system of human milk, though their use in commercial products is difficult because human milk is a limited source. Therefore, many investigations have been carried out to produce those proteins in biological systems, such as bacteria, yeasts, or plants. Mammals seem to be more suitable as expression systems for human proteins, however, especially for those that are glycosylated. In the present study, we developed a bicistronic commercial vector containing a goat β-casein promoter and an internal ribosome entry site fragment between the human lactoferrin and human lysozyme genes to allow the introduction of both genes into bovine adult fibroblasts in a single transfection...
March 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107098/early-initiation-of-breastfeeding-among-maya-mothers-in-the-western-highlands-of-guatemala
#19
Natalie N Atyeo, Tahvi D Frank, Emma F Vail, William A L Sperduto, David L Boyd
BACKGROUND: Guatemala exhibits the sixth highest rate of child stunting worldwide, and stunting disproportionately affects Guatemala indigenous communities. In a country struggling to combat this result of malnutrition, early child nutrition is especially critical. Specifically, early initiation of breastfeeding is important for the development of newborn infants. Understanding beliefs and practices related to early initiation of breastfeeding in Maya Guatemala may provide an avenue to guide nutrition interventions in indigenous communities...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101774/newborn-screening-for-remethylation-disorders-and-vitamin-b12-deficiency-evaluation-of-new-strategies-in-cohorts-from-qatar-and-germany
#20
Gwendolyn Gramer, Ghassan Abdoh, Tawfeg Ben-Omran, Noora Shahbeck, Rehab Ali, Laila Mahmoud, Junmin Fang-Hoffmann, Georg F Hoffmann, Hilal Al Rifai, Jürgen G Okun
BACKGROUND: Newborn screening is a precondition for early diagnosis and succeßsful treatment of remethylation disorders and classical homocystinuria (cystathionine-β-synthase deficiency). Newborn screening for classical homocystinuria using total homocysteine measurement in dried blood spots has been very successfully performed for many years for newborns from Qatar. METHODS: A new optimized newborn screening strategy for remethylation disorders and homocystinuria was developed and evaluated for newborns from Qatar using total homocysteine measurement as first-tier and methionine, methionine-phenylalanine-ratio and propionylcarnitine as second-tiers...
January 19, 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
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