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Neonate, newborn

Yang Chen, Sheng-Lin Yu, Yi-Ping Li, Ming-Ming Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the expression and function of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins NOD1 and NOD2 and provide guidance for prophylaxis and treatment of neonatal infection. METHODS: Peripheral blood samples were collected from preterm infants, term infants and, healthy adult volunteers. A portion of collected blood was used to examine the expression of NOD1 and NOD2 by real-time PCR. The remaining blood was stimulated in vitro with NOD2 agonist L-Ala-D-Glu-meso (Tri-DAP) or NOD1 agonist muramyl dipeptide (MurNAc-L-Ala-D-isoGln; MDP) for 4 h...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Anton Tokariev, Susanna Stjerna, Aulikki Lano, Marjo Metsäranta, J Matias Palva, Sampsa Vanhatalo
Preterm birth is the greatest risk factor for lifelong neurocognitive deficits, globally. The effect of prematurity on early cortical network function has, however, remained poorly understood. Here, we developed a novel methodology that allows reliable assessment of functional connectivity in neonatal brain activity at millisecond and multisecond scales in terms of cortical phase and amplitude correlations, respectively. We measured scalp electroencephalography at term-equivalent age in infants exposed to very early prematurity as well as in healthy controls...
February 23, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
C M Nasheeda, Prijo Philip, Rathika Damodara Shenoy, Sukanya Shetty
Even in the era of expanded newborn screening, utility of cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone (cTSH) for diagnosis of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) cannot be marginalised. This study was to assess the diagnostic utility of cTSH > 20 μIU/L for screening CH. Generation of new cTSH value was the main outcome measure, to increase specificity. Designed as a cross-sectional analytic study in the neonatal unit of teaching hospital, 1200 term neonates with birth weight ≥2500 g, with no perinatal complications were included...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Narongsak Nakwan, Suksham Jain, Kishore Kumar, Shigeharu Hosono, Majeda Hammoud, Yasser Yahia Elsayed, Shabina Ariff, Babar Hasan, Waqar Khowaja, Poom Woei Bing
OBJECTIVES: To explore the incidence, etiologies, diagnostic methods, treatment options and outcomes in neonates with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) and to identify mortality risk factors in a study from six Asian countries. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with documented PPHN from seven centers in six Asian countries (Japan, Kuwait, India, Pakistan, Singapore, and Thailand) between 1 January, 2014 and 31 December, 2016, was performed...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Stella Capriglione, Aranzazu Manzano, Ferdinado A Gulino, Salvatore Lopez
INTRODUCTION: Cancer during pregnancy is a rare but challenging condition. More women delay childbearing and consequently the incidence of cancer during pregnancy is constantly increasing. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: An extensive electronic search was performed in PubMed and Scopus. Only studies written after 1985 were considered eligible for this review. Abstracts, conference papers, book chapters, animal studies, commentaries as well as editorials articles were excluded from this review...
October 11, 2018: Minerva Ginecologica
Idoia Gimferrer, Gayle Teramura, Mary Gallagher, Paul Warner, Hongxiu Ji, Shilpi Chabra
Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and neonatal alloimmune neutropenia (NAN) are two rare complications of newborns caused by antibodies against paternal inherited antigens. Human platelet (HPA) and neutrophil antigens (HNA) are the common targets. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I proteins are also expressed on platelets and neutrophils and anti-HLA antibodies have occasionally been implicated in these complications. We report a premature twin infant who presented with severe thrombocytopenia and neutropenia clinically compatible with FNAIT and NAN, from a mother with no identifiable HPA or HNA antibodies, but with very high levels of complement-fixing antibodies against paternal inherited HLA...
September 29, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Jie Hu, Yang Peng, Tongzhang Zheng, Bin Zhang, Wenyu Liu, Chuansha Wu, Minmin Jiang, Joseph M Braun, Simin Liu, Stephen L Buka, Aifen Zhou, John Pierce Wise, Yiming Zhang, Yangqian Jiang, Chen Hu, Xiaomei Chen, Zheng Huang, Dan Zheng, Kunchong Shi, Xichi Zhang, Ashley Truong, Zhengmin Qian, Wei Xia, Yuanyuan Li, Shunqing Xu
BACKGROUND: Identification of windows of heightened vulnerability to environmental factors has substantial public health implications. Prenatal exposure to vanadium has been linked to adverse birth outcomes; however, critical windows for such exposure during fetal growth remain unknown. We aimed to assess trimester-specific associations of vanadium exposure with ultrasound measures of fetal growth and birth size in a Chinese longitudinal cohort. METHODS: The present study was embedded in our ongoing prospective prenatal cohort study at the Wuhan Women and Children Medical Care Center (Wuhan, Hubei, China)...
October 2018: Lancet. Planetary Health
Amir Aviram, Ms Kristine Giltvedt, Christopher Sherman, John Kingdom, Arthur Zaltz, Jon Barrett, Nir Melamed
INTRODUCTION: In singletons, the pathogenesis of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) is attributed to abnormal placentation, characterized by maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) lesions. Whether MVM plays a similar role in twin pregnancies is unclear. The purpose of the study was to compared placental pathology findings between dichorionic-twin and singleton pregnancies complicated by HDP. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of women with dichorionic-twin or singleton pregnancies complicated by HDP who gave birth in a single tertiary center between 2001 and 2015...
October 2018: Placenta
Maurizio Zavattoni, Giuseppina Lombardi, Francesca Garofoli, Guido Scalia, Annalisa Rizzo, Micol Angelini, Antonella Sarasini, Milena Furione, Fausto Baldanti
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is the most common congenital infection in developed countries. Recent studies highlighted similar percentages of symptoms in HCMV congenitally-infected infants following either primary or non-primary maternal infections. OBJECTIVES: To highlight correlation between neonatal brain abnormalities, detected by ultrasounds and magnetic resonance image in HCMV congenitally-infected infants, and maternal virological parameters during pregnancy, especially in seroimmune mothers...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
Manon Gijtenbeek, Enrico Lopriore, Sylke J Steggerda, Arjan B Te Pas, Dick Oepkes, Monique C Haak
BACKGROUND: Newborns with anemia are at increased risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), yet reports on the association between fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) and PPHN are rare. To optimize care for pregnancies complicated by FMH, clinicians should be aware of the risks of FMH and the possible diagnostic and therapeutic options. To increase the current knowledge, the incidence of PPHN and short-term neurologic injury in FMH cases were studied. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We included all FMH cases (≥30 mL fetal blood transfused into the maternal circulation) admitted to our neonatal unit between 2006 and 2018...
October 13, 2018: Transfusion
John Ibrahim, Imran Mir, Lina Chalak
The aim is to review the evidence about the utility of term-equivalent age (TEA) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes for preterm neonates. Preterm birth accounts for ~12% of all deliveries in the United States and is the leading cause of neurologic disabilities in children. From the neonatologist perspective, it is critically important to identify preterm infants at risk of subsequent neurodevelopmental disability who may benefit from early intervention services. However "the choose wisely campaign" also emphasizes the need to have ongoing cost/benefit discussions regarding care of preterm newborns to avoid waste that comes from subjecting infants to procedures that do not help...
October 12, 2018: Pediatric Research
Jinli Ding, Tailang Yin, Yi Zhang, Danni Zhou, Jing Yang
RESEARCH QUESTION: Is blastocyst transfer (BT) associated with a higher offspring secondary sex ratio and monozygotic twinning (MZT)? DESIGN: A systematic search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases was carried out for studies published between 1995 and May 2017 using relevant keywords and a meta-analysis performed on selected studies. The analysis was performed using Stata 12.0; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the results for binary studies...
September 2018: Reproductive Biomedicine Online
Tadamune Kinjo, Hirosuke Inoue, Takeshi Kusuda, Junko Fujiyoshi, Masayuki Ochiai, Yasushi Takahata, Satoshi Honjo, Yuhki Koga, Toshiro Hara, Shouichi Ohga
BACKGROUND: Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) is a neonatal preleukemic syndrome that occurs exclusively in neonates with Down syndrome (DS). Most affected infants spontaneously resolve, although some patients culminate in hepatic failure despite the hematological remission. It is impossible to determine the patients who are at high risk of progressive liver disease and leukemic transformation. The objective is to search for biomarkers predicting the development of hepatic failure in DS infants with TAM...
September 24, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Telmo Henrique Barbosa de Lima, Leila Katz, Samir Buainain Kassar, Melania Maria Amorim
BACKGROUND: To investigate the associations of maternal variables - sociodemographic, obstetrical and maternal near miss (MNM) variables - with neonatal near miss (NNM) using the new concept of NNM formulated by the Centro Latino-Americano de Perinatologia (CLAP) and the corresponding health indicators for NNM. METHODS: An analytical prospective cohort study was performed at maternity hospital for high-risk pregnancy in Northeastern Brazil. Puerperal women whose newborn infants met the selection criteria were subjected to interviews involving pretested questionnaires...
October 12, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Stefano Ghirardello, Genny Raffaeli, Erica Scalambrino, Veena Chantarangkul, Giacomo Cavallaro, Andrea Artoni, Fabio Mosca, Armando Tripodi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite the potential benefits of thromboelastography (TEG) for bedside hemostatic assessment in critical care settings, its accuracy remains to be determined, especially in critically ill neonates. We determined the intra-assay reproducibility of TEG parameters: Reaction time (R), clot kinetics (K) and Maximum Amplitude (MA) in a cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SUBJECTS: One hundred VLBW newborns...
October 9, 2018: Early Human Development
Christabel C Enweronu-Laryea, Hilary D Andoh, Audrey Frimpong-Barfi, Francis M Asenso-Boadi
The major causes of newborn deaths in sub-Saharan Africa are well-known and countries are gradually implementing evidence-based interventions and strategies to reduce these deaths. Facility-based care provides the best outcome for sick and or small babies; however, little is known about the cost and burden of hospital-based neonatal services on parents in West Africa, the sub-region with the highest global neonatal death burden. To estimate the actual costs borne by parents of newborns hospitalised with birth-associated brain injury (perinatal asphyxia) and preterm/low birth weight, this study examined economic costs using micro-costing bottom-up approach in two referral hospitals operating under the nationwide social health insurance scheme in an urban setting in Ghana...
2018: PloS One
Lola Madrid, Sonia Amós Maculuve, Alba Vilajeliu, Emma Sáez, Sergio Massora, Anelsio Cossa, Rosauro Varo, Antonio Sitoe, Noraida Mosqueda, Rui Anselmo, Khatia Munguambe, Sara M Soto, Cinta Moraleda, Eusebio Macete, Clara Menéndez, Quique Bassat
BACKGROUND: In low-income countries, data on prevalence and effects of group B Streptococcus (GBS) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) colonization among pregnant women are scarce, but necessary to formulate prevention strategies. We assessed prevalence of GBS and E. coli colonization and factors associated among pregnant women, its effect in newborns and acceptability regarding the utilized sampling methods in a semirural Mozambican hospital. METHODS: Pregnant women were recruited from June 2014 to January 2015, during routine antenatal clinics at gestational age ≥ 34 weeks (n = 200); or upon delivery (n = 120)...
November 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Thirimon Moe-Byrne, Jennifer Valeska Elli Brown, William McGuire
BACKGROUND: Naloxone, a specific opioid antagonist, is available for the treatment of newborn infants with cardiorespiratory or neurological depression that may be due to intrauterine exposure to opioid. It is unclear whether newborn infants may benefit from this therapy and whether naloxone has any harmful effects. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of naloxone on the need for and duration of neonatal unit stay in infants of mothers who received opioid analgesia prior to delivery or of mothers who have used a prescribed or non-prescribed opioid during pregnancy...
October 12, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hormoz Karami, Mehdi Abedinzadeh, Mohammad Kazem Moslemi
Purpose: It was intended to compare meatal stenosis (MS) as a late complication of neonatal circumcision by using two different methods of Plastibell Device circumcision. Materials and methods: A total of 2,307 healthy term newborns (6-36 hours) who were born between 2007 and 2009 in Niknafs Medical Center of Rafsanjan, Iran, were simply randomized into two groups in a controlled, nonblinded clinical trial. In group A (1,102 neonates), the frenulum was maintained intact without any manipulation, and in group B (1,205 neonates) frenular hemostasis was performed in all cases by thermal cautery...
2018: Research and Reports in Urology
Jiří Hrdý, Kateřina Vlasáková, Viktor Černý, Lenka Súkeníková, Olga Novotná, Petra Petrásková, Kristýna Boráková, Rája Lodinová-Žádníková, Libuše Kolářová, Ludmila Prokešová
The growing knowledge of the key role of microbiota in the maturation of neonatal immune system suggests that manipulation of microbiota could be exploited in hampering allergy development. In this study, Escherichia coli O83:K24:H31 (EcO83) was administered to newborns that were followed prospectively. Several immunological characteristics (cytokines, specific IgE, total T regulatory cells (Treg) and subpopulation of natural Treg (nTreg) and induced Treg (iTreg)) were tested in peripheral blood of eight year old children...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
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