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Neonate, newborn

Zhichao Xu, Yun Zhang, Lang Gong, Licheng Huang, Ying Lin, Jianru Qin, Yunping Du, Qingfeng Zhou, Chunyi Xue, Yongchang Cao
Porcine enteric alphacoronavirus (PEAV) was first discovered in China in February 2017, and the origin and virulence of this novel porcine coronavirus were not fully characterized. Here, we isolated a strain of PEAV, named GDS04 that is identified by immunofluorescence and typical crown-shaped particles observed with electron microscopy. Genomic analysis reveals that PEAV GDS04 shares a close relationship with SADS-CoV and SeACoV. Furthermore, newborn piglets orally challenged with PEAV GDS04 developed typical clinical symptoms as watery diarrhea in neonatal piglets...
August 13, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Benjamin Anathory Kamala, Andrew Hans Mgaya, Matilda Michael Ngarina, Hussein Lesio Kidanto
Introduction: The global prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) is 16%, representing more than 20 million infants worldwide, of which 96% are born in low-income countries. This study aimed to determine the prevalence, predictors and perinatal outcomes of LBW newborns. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of data obtained from the hospital's obstetric and neonatal database. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression were performed with 95% confidence intervals (CI)...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
B Otgonjargal, G Batbaatar, K Pfeffer, T Bruhn, C Battogtokh, B Henrich
The role of Ureaplasma parvum in abnormal outcomes of human pregnancy has been discussed controversially in the past. Of the 14 known ureaplasma serovars, the Ureaplasma parvum serovars 1, 3, 6 and 14, have been found to derive from smaller genomes. Serovars 3 and 6 have been described more often to cause complications in pregnancy. To elucidate the serovar distribution in U. parvum positive specimens of 200 Mongolian mothers and their offspring, a new set of mba-targeting PCRs was developed enabling a fast and reliable serovar differentiation by melting peak analysis in a Real time PCR approach or by conventional agarose gel electrophoresis...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
May Ahmed Khairy, Walaa Alsharany Abuelhamd, Ismail Mohamed Elhawary, Ahmed Said Mahmoud Nabayel
BACKGROUND: Reliable predictive markers enabling physicians to identify which newborns will develop significant hyperbilirubinemia have become mandatory for prevention of severe hyperbilirunemia. We aimed at determining the critical cord serum bilirubin and albumin levels and bilirubin/albumin ratio early as reliable markers. STUDY DESIGN: This prospective study included 175 full-term neonates. Measurement of cord bilirubin, albumin and bilirubin/albumin ratio was done to predict significant hyperbilirubinemia in healthy term newborns based on serum bilirubin measurements made within 5 days of life...
July 26, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Dmytro Shkurupii
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to optimize the prevention of the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia in newborns by developing a method for tracheal rehabilitation and assessment of its effectiveness. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A prospective cohort randomized clinical study was organized, particularly artificial ventilation of the lungs was conducted on 90 newborns. Patients were divided into two groups. In the main group (n = 50) an intubation tube of author's design was used, which design allowed prophylactic tracheal sanation on the outer wall of the intubation tube, which included vacuum aspiration of the tracheal secretion and irrigation with a solution of antiseptic decamethoxin 0...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Jin-Hua Liao, Rong-Fang Hu, Li-Jing Su, Shuo Wang, Qin Xu, Xiao-Fang Qian, Hong-Gu He
BACKGROUND: Nonpharmacological interventions are often used to promote sleep among preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). However, there is a lack of synthesis in the evidence of their effectiveness. AIM: To synthesize the evidence on the effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions on NICU preterm infants' sleep during hospital stay. METHODS: Seven databases were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Wan-fang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Biological Medicine Database, and VIP Journal Integration Platform from their inceptions to August 2017...
August 11, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
B M Carter, B J Sullivan, J R Landers, S D Kadam
Neonatal seizures have an incidence of 3.5 per 1000 newborns; while hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) accounts for 50-60% of cases, half are resistant to 1st-line anti-seizure drugs such as phenobarbital (PB). Tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) activation following ischemic injury is known to increase neuronal excitability by downregulation of K-Cl co-transporter 2 (KCC2); a neuronal chloride (Cl- ) co-transporter. In this study, three graded doses of ANA12, a small-molecule selective TrkB antagonist, were tested in CD1 mice at P7 and P10 following induction of neonatal ischemia by a unilateral carotid ligation...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
JoAnne M Youngblut, Dorothy Brooten
BACKGROUND: Losing a child is devastating for parents and grandparents. Family and friends generally focus on comforting and supporting the bereaved parents, unintentionally ignoring the bereaved grandparents. Grandmothers and grandfathers often struggle with wanting to help their adult children (deceased child's parents) without usurping the parents' responsibilities and decisions regarding the deceased child. Research on mothers' and grandmothers' health at about the same time after the same child's death in the neonatal or pediatric intensive care unit is lacking...
August 10, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Samira Sami, Ribka Amsalu, Alexander Dimiti, Debra Jackson, Solomon Kenyi, Janet Meyers, Luke C Mullany, Elaine Scudder, Barbara Tomczyk, Kate Kerber
BACKGROUND: Targeted clinical interventions have been associated with a decreased risk of neonatal morbidity and mortality. In conflict-affected countries such as South Sudan, however, implementation of lifesaving interventions face barriers and facilitators that are not well understood. We aimed to describe the factors that influence implementation of a package of facility- and community-based neonatal interventions in four displaced person camps in South Sudan using a health systems framework...
August 10, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Md Tarikul Islam, Suprovath Kumar Sarker, Shezote Talukder, Golam Sarower Bhuyan, Asifuzzaman Rahat, Nafisa Nawal Islam, Hasan Mahmud, Mohammad Amir Hossain, A K M Muraduzzaman, Jakia Rahman, Syeda Kashfi Qadri, Mohammod Shahidullah, Mohammad Abdul Mannan, Sarabon Tahura, Manzoor Hussain, Narayan Saha, Shahida Akhter, Nazmun Nahar, Firoza Begum, Tahmina Shirin, Sharif Akhteruzzaman, Syed Saleheen Qadri, Firdausi Qadri, Kaiissar Mannoor
BACKGROUND: Like glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient hemizygous males and homozygous females, heterozygous females could also manifest hemolytic crisis, neonatal hyperbilirubinemia or kernicterus upon exposure to oxidative stress induced by certain foods such as fava beans, drugs or infections. Although hemizygous males and homozygous females are easily detected by conventional G6PD enzyme assay method, the heterozygous state could be missed by the conventional methods as the mosaic population of both normal and deficient RBCs circulates in the blood...
August 10, 2018: BMC Genetics
Egor Y Plotnikov, Anna A Brezgunova, Irina B Pevzner, Ljubava D Zorova, Vasily N Manskikh, Vasily A Popkov, Denis N Silachev, Dmitry B Zorov
Neonatal sepsis is one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in newborns, greatly associated with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) and failure. Handling of newborns with kidney damage can be significantly different compared to adults, and it is necessary to consider the individuality of an organism's response to systemic inflammation. In this study, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated acute kidney injury model to study mechanisms of kidney cells damage in neonatal and adult rats. We found LPS-associated oxidative stress was more severe in adults compared to neonates, as judged by levels of carbonylated proteins and products of lipids peroxidation...
August 8, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Desi M Newberry, Tracey Robertson Bell
BACKGROUND: Congenital tuberculosis (TB) is rare in the United States. Recent immigration patterns to the United States have made the diagnosis of congenital TB an important public health issue. PURPOSE: To explore the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, treatment, and prognosis for congenital TB. The implications for exposed healthcare professionals in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) setting are also explored. METHODS/SEARCH STRATEGY: Relevant articles were accessed via PubMed, CINAHL, and Google Scholar...
August 9, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Niloy Ghosh, Jonathan A Henderson, Hyunyoung G Kim, Farren M Ancar
BACKGROUND: Snakebites in pregnancy can be life-threatening to both the mother and fetus as a result of inflammatory and toxic properties of the venom. Prompt medical treatment is critical to prevent adverse consequences. CASE: A 26-year-old woman at 37 6/7 weeks of gestation was bitten by a rattlesnake on the right middle finger, resulting in severe pain radiating up to the upper arm and swelling involving the entire hand. A total of 18 vials of crotalidae polyvalent immune fab was administered over 11 hours...
August 6, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Hui Xiao, Rui Huang, Long Chen, Mei Diao, Wei Cheng, Long Li, Xiao-Dai Cui
The aim of this study was to compare the midterm outcomes of 1-stage and 3-stage surgical procedures to treat anorectal malformations (ARMs) with rectoprostatic and rectobulbar fistula using laparoscopic-assisted anorectoplasty (LAARP).A total of 56 patients with ARMs and rectoprostatic and rectobulbar fistula who underwent LAARP from January 2011 to May 2014 in our institution were included in the study. They were divided into 2 groups according to the stage of procedure. The patients' data and postoperative complications were compared between the 2 groups...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Adela Urisarri, Marta Gil, Natalia Mandiá, Luís Aldamiz-Echevarría, Roca Iria, Domingo González-Lamuño, María-Luz Couce
To evaluate the prognostic significance of factors frequently associated with a reduction in renal mass, such as prematurity, low birth weight, and congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT), in patients with solitary functioning kidney (SFK) and investigate signs of early renal injury due to glomerular hyperfiltration damage or dysplasia in the remaining kidney.Retrospective observational study of congenital SFK diagnosed and followed at a tertiary care hospital over a period of 10 years in which 32,900 newborns underwent routine neonatal abdominal ultrasound screening...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Prashant Minocha, Arpit Agarwal, Nurin Jivani, Sethuraman Swaminathan
We assessed the value of existing guidelines for the evaluation of suspected congenital heart disease (CHD) in term neonates and propose a revised algorithm. Retrospective chart review of newborns referred for cardiac evaluation at a tertiary care center was performed. A total of 777 newborns qualified for the study. Among these, 3 critical and 8 major CHD were identified. The sensitivity of the combination of abnormal physical examination and pulse oximetry screening for major and critical CHD was 100%. The cost to detect a case of critical CHD, based on echocardiograms done for all abnormal electrocardiograms, was 3...
August 10, 2018: Clinical Pediatrics
Kazuya Mimura, Masayuki Endo, Keiko Matsuoka, Takuji Tomimatsu, Yuko Tazuke, Hiroomi Okuyama, Makoto Takeuchi, Tadashi Kimura
Congenital rachischisis and brachioesophagus with secondary intrathoracic stomach, which is described as "serpentine-like syndrome", is a very rare condition. We report the prenatal findings of serpentine-like syndrome in a fetus at 18 weeks of gestation. The stomach was entirely elevated into the thoracic area, but the liver retained its normal position. Our initial diagnosis was isolated left congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). At 20 weeks of gestation, the pregnancy was terminated, and a male newborn weighing 338 g was vaginally delivered...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Medical Ultrasonics
Teresa J Witcher, Shadi Jurdi, Vidhya Kumar, Aditi Gupta, Russell R Moores, Joseph Khoury, Henry J Rozycki
OBJECTIVE: To test the non-inferiority of an alternative to the Apgar score. STUDY DESIGN: The Neonatal Resuscitation and Adaptation Score (NRAS) was recorded in parallel to the Apgar score by a resuscitation team at deliveries. Correlation between the systems was assessed, as well as the predictive ability of NRAS and Apgar scores for mortality or short-term morbidities. RESULTS: A total of 340 infants were in the study group. The two scores correlated strongly (r = 0...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Archana Patel, Amber Abhijeet Prakash, Prabir Kumar Das, Swarnim Gupta, Yamini Vinod Pusdekar, Patricia L Hibberd
OBJECTIVES: To study the trend in the prevalence of anaemia and low BMI among pregnant women from Eastern Maharashtra and evaluate if low BMI and anaemia affect pregnancy outcomes. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Catchment areas of 20 rural primary health centres in four eastern districts of Maharashtra State, India. PARTICIPANTS: 72 750 women from the Nagpur site of Maternal and Newborn Health Registry of NIH's Global Network, enrolled from 2009 to 2016...
August 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Rudolf K Braun, Chandramu Chetty, Vivek Balasubramaniam, Ryan Centanni, Kristin Haraldsdottir, Peiman Hematti, Marlowe W Eldridge
Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) derived exosomes mediate tissue protection and regeneration in many injuries and diseases by modulating cell protein production, protecting from apoptosis, inhibiting inflammation, and increasing angiogenesis. In the present study, daily intraperitoneal injection of MSC-derived exosomes protected alveolarization and angiogenesis in a newborn rat model of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) induced by 14 days of neonatal hyperoxia exposure (85% O2 ). Exosome treatment during hyperoxia prevented disruption of alveolar growth, increased small blood vessel number, and inhibited right heart hypertrophy at P14, P21, and P56...
August 6, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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