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Neonate, newborn

Juan-Carlos Cobos-Torres, Mohamed Abderrahim, José Martínez-Orgado
This paper presents non-contact vital sign monitoring in neonates, based on image processing, where a standard color camera captures the plethysmographic signal and the heart and breathing rates are processed and estimated online. It is important that the measurements are taken in a non-invasive manner, which is imperceptible to the patient. Currently, many methods have been proposed for non-contact measurement. However, to the best of the authors' knowledge, it has not been possible to identify methods with low computational costs and a high tolerance to artifacts...
December 10, 2018: Sensors
Viola Schmelter, Lena Antonaci, Susanne Fröhlich, Diran Herebian, Pablo Verde, Martin Heil, Thomas Hoehn
This study assesses the impact of prenatal stress and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) on the dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosteronesulfate (DHEAS) concentrations in nails of newborns. Nail samples were gained from 56 newborn infants. The concentration of DHEA and DHEAS was measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Prenatal stress was assessed by the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire and by the Life Experience Survey. Prenatal stress was not associated with infant nail DHEA or DHEAS concentrations...
December 10, 2018: Biological Psychology
Zachary Willis, Annabelle de St Maurice
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Neonates are at a high risk of infection and may have nonspecific signs of sepsis. Accordingly, they are heavily exposed to antimicrobials. Neonates are also uniquely at risk of both short-term and long-term complications from antibiotic exposure. This review discusses advances in antibiotic stewardship in the neonatal population. RECENT FINDINGS: Antimicrobial utilization is highly variable among NICUs in excess of case-mix variation. Rates of early-onset sepsis because of Group B Streptococcus have decreased substantially with the introduction of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis...
December 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Laurence Dillenseger, Claire Langlet, Silvia Iacobelli, Thomas Lavaux, Charline Ratomponirina, Marc Labenne, Dominique Astruc, François Severac, Jean Bernard Gouyon, Pierre Kuhn
Background: Early diagnosis is essential to improve the treatment and prognosis of newborn infants with nosocomial bacterial infections. Although cytokines and procalcitonin (PCT) have been evaluated as early inflammatory markers, their diagnostic properties have rarely been compared. Objectives: This study evaluated and compared the ability of individual inflammatory markers available for clinician (PCT, semi-quantitative determination of IL-8) and of combinations of markers (CRPi plus IL-6 or quantitative or semi-quantitative determination of IL-8) to diagnose bacterial nosocomial infections in neonates...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Yong Jing, Fudong Peng, Yufeng Shan, Jingkai Jiang
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a life-threatening disease that occurs in premature infants. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid mainly used to treat digestive diseases, in a rat model of NEC. NEC models were established in newborn rats via inhalation of N2 for 90 sec every 4 h and oral administration of 4 mg/kg/day lipopolysaccharides on days 0 and 1. Berberine was administered via oral gavage. In the NEC model group, Toll-like receptor (TLR)4, nuclear factor NF-κB (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 were upregulated...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Diego F Niño, Qinjie Zhou, Yukihiro Yamaguchi, Laura Y Martin, Sanxia Wang, William B Fulton, Hongpeng Jia, Peng Lu, Thomas Prindle, Fan Zhang, Joshua Crawford, Zhipeng Hou, Susumu Mori, Liam L Chen, Andrew Guajardo, Ali Fatemi, Mikhail Pletnikov, Rangaramanujam M Kannan, Sujatha Kannan, Chhinder P Sodhi, David J Hackam
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a severe gastrointestinal disease of the premature infant. One of the most important long-term complications observed in children who survive NEC early in life is the development of profound neurological impairments. However, the pathways leading to NEC-associated neurological impairments remain unknown, thus limiting the development of prevention strategies. We have recently shown that NEC development is dependent on the expression of the lipopolysaccharide receptor Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on the intestinal epithelium, whose activation by bacteria in the newborn gut leads to mucosal inflammation...
December 12, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Bruna de Souza Lima Marski, Beatriz Castanheira Facio, Sueli Mutsumi Tsukuda Ichisato, Patricia Carla de Souza Della Barba, Monika Wernet
OBJECTIVE: to analyze the Developmental Care in nursing care for Newborns in critical Neonatal Intensive Care Units. METHOD: a qualitative study with 11 nurses from Neonatal Intensive Care Units of a city in the State of São Paulo countryside, based on the Developmental Care. Data collection was based on non-participant observation, documentary research in medical records and semi-structured interviews. The Symbolic Interactionism was adopted as theoretical framework, and the Bardin Content Analysis, as method of analysis...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Deandra H Luong, Po-Yin Cheung, Megan O'Reilly, Tze-Fun Lee, Georg M Schmolzer
Background: In 2015, the neonatal resuscitation guidelines incorporated the use of electrocardiography (ECG) to monitor heart rate of newborns. However, previous studies have indicated that cardiac arrest with pulseless electrical activity rhythm (PEA) may occur in the delivery room, rendering this method problematic. Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of ECG and auscultation to assess heart rate during PEA. Methods: A total of 45 piglets (age 1-3 days, weight 1.7-2.3 kg) were exposed to 30 min normocapnic alveolar hypoxia followed by asphyxia until asystole, achieved by disconnecting the ventilator and clamping the endotracheal tube...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Simone Pratesi, Simona Montano, Stefano Ghirardello, Fabio Mosca, Luca Boni, Lorenzo Tofani, Carlo Dani
Background: Preterm newborns receiving briefly delayed cord clamping or cord milking at birth have better neonatal outcomes. However, the time frame in which both these procedures are performed (< 60 s of life) is too short to explore the possible beneficial effects on early infant postnatal adaptation and outcomes of a prolonged transfusion strategy associated with neonatal respiration. Methods and Design: We have designed a randomized, multicenter, controlled two-phase study: phase 1 to assess the feasibility of carrying out the protocol in a large randomized trial, and phase 2 to assess the efficacy of bedside assistance with intact placental circulation for 3 min in comparison to cord milking to improve outcome in the neonatal period; we present here the feasibility and safety phase of the study...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Hui-Fang Zhou, Christopher J O'Conor, Chiraag Gangahar, Louis P Dehner
Background: Omphalocele is a rare congenital abdominal wall defect. It is frequently associated with genetic abnormality and other congenital anomalies, although isolated omphalocele cases do exist. Data have shown that omphalocele with co-occurring genetic abnormality has worse prognosis than isolated omphalocele. Chromosomal analysis by a conventional technique such as karyotyping can only detect aneuploidy and large segmental duplication or deletion. Newer techniques such as high-resolution microarray analysis allow for the study of alterations in chromosomal segments that are less than 5 Mb in length; this has led to identification of critical region and genes in the pathogenesis of omphalocele...
2018: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Thomas M Raffay, Andrew M Dylag, Abdus Sattar, Elie G Abu Jawdeh, Shufen Cao, Benjamin M Pax, Kenneth A Loparo, Richard J Martin, Juliann M Di Fiore
BACKGROUND: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease and major pulmonary complication after premature birth. We have previously shown that increased intermittent hypoxemia (IH) events have been correlated to adverse outcomes and mortality in extremely premature infants. We hypothesize that early IH patterns are associated with the development of BPD. METHODS: IH frequency, duration, and nadirs were assessed using oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) waveforms in a retrospective cohort of 137 extremely premature newborns (<28 weeks gestation)...
December 12, 2018: Pediatric Research
Carleene Bryan, Ibrahim Sammour, Kasonya Guerra, Mayank Sharma, Fredrick Dapaah-Siakwan, Jian Huang, Ronald Zambrano, Merline Benny, Shu Wu, Karen Young
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a key factor in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Tumor necrosis factor-stimulated protein 6 (TSG-6) is a glycoprotein that modulates inflammation. Here we tested the hypothesis that intra-tracheal (IT) administration of an adenovirus overexpressing TSG-6 (AdTSG-6) would decrease inflammation and restore lung structure in experimental BPD. METHODS: Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to normoxia (RA) or hyperoxia (85% O2 ) from postnatal day (P) 1-P14 were randomly assigned to receive IT AdTSG-6 or placebo (PL) on P3...
December 11, 2018: Pediatric Research
Juan Miguel Martínez-Galiano, Carmen Amezcua-Prieto, Inmaculada Salcedo-Bellido, Guadalupe González-Mata, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas, Miguel Delgado-Rodríguez
BACKGROUND: Different diets during pregnancy might have an impact on the health, reflected in the birthweight of newborns. The consumption of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy and the relationship with newborn health status have been studied by several authors. However, these studies have shown inconsistent results. PURPOSE: We assessed whether certain foods were related to the risk of small for gestational age (SGA). METHODS: A matched by age (± 2 years) and hospital 1:1 case-control study of 518 pairs of pregnant Spanish women in five hospitals was conducted...
December 11, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Jeffrey L Platt, Lori J West, Richard E Chinnock, Marilia Cascalho
The newborn infant with severe cardiac failure owed to congenital structural heart disease or cardiomyopathy poses a daunting therapeutic challenge. The ideal solution for both might be cardiac transplantation if availability of hearts was not limiting and if tolerance could be induced, obviating toxicity of immunosuppressive therapy. If one could safely and effectively exploit neonatal tolerance for successful xenotransplantation of the heart, the challenge of severe cardiac failure in the newborn infant might be met...
December 11, 2018: Xenotransplantation
C Marcilla-Vazquez, A Martinez-Gutierrez, M C Carrascosa-Romero, M Baquero-Cano, B Alfaro-Ponce
INTRODUCTION: The different types of viral meningitis constitute a condition that is relatively frequent in newborn infants, although in many cases they are underdiagnosed due to the absence of pleocytosis in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). AIMS: To describe the clinical features and laboratory findings of newborn infants with viral meningitis and to highlight the importance of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the CSF to diagnose this condition. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective review of the medical records of newborn infants hospitalised in the neonatology section who had been diagnosed with viral meningitis between May 2014 and May 2017...
December 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Asghar Ghasemi
In 1976, an animal model of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) was described by Cameron et al. using injection of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in KK mice during the neonatal period. Some years later, similar models have been developed by various doses and durations and the main of these models exhibited obesity and features of diabetes mellitus, including glycosuria, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. Studies indicated that MSG treatment of newborn animals generates necrosis of neuronal cells of the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus and arcuate nucleus...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Amy Tanner Tubay, Kate A Mansalis, Matthew J Simpson, Nicole H Armitage, Gabriel Briscoe, Vicki Potts
Introduction: Group prenatal care models have been in use in the USA for over 20 years and have shown benefits in reducing rates of preterm birth and low birth weight infants in high-risk civilian populations. Group prenatal care has been widely implemented at military treatment facilities, despite a lack of high-quality evidence for improved perinatal outcomes in this population. Materials and methods: In this randomized, controlled trial, 129 patients at a military treatment facility received either traditional one-on-one prenatal care or group prenatal care using the CenteringPregnancy model...
December 7, 2018: Military Medicine
Lixiang Liu, Daming Sun, Shengyong Mao, Weiyun Zhu, Junhua Liu
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium butyrate (SB) infusion on rumen papillae growth and volatile fatty acids (VFA) uptake and metabolism in neonatal lambs. Seven pairs of newborn twin lambs were used. Within each pair, lambs were assigned to receive an oral infusion of SB at 0.36 g/kg body weight (BW) (SB, n = 7) or the same volume of saline (Con, n = 7). Treatments were administered from 10 to 49 d of age, when all lambs were slaughtered. Results showed that the average daily feed intake (ADFI) of starter, average daily gain (ADG), BW of lambs at ages of 5 and 6 wks in SB group were greater (P < 0...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Lisandra Stein Bernardes, Juliana Fontan Ottolia, Marina Cecchini, Antônio Gomes de Amorim Filho, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira Francisco, Daniel Ciampi de Andrade
Introduction: Although pain facial assessment is routinely performed in term and preterm newborns by the use of facial expression-based tools such as the Neonatal Facial Coding System, the assessment of pain during the intrauterine life has not been extensively explored. Objective: Describe for the first time, an experimental model to assess and quantify responses due to acute pain in fetuses undergoing anaesthesia for intrauterine surgery recorded by high-resolution 4D ultrasound machines...
September 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Abera Mersha, Nega Assefa, Kedir Teji, Shitaye Shibiru, Rasha Darghawth, Agegnehu Bante
INTRODUCTION: Components of essential newborn care and neonatal resuscitation are proven interventions for reducing neonatal mortality rate and stillbirth rates. Various studies have been conducted, but they failed in assessing health workers that delivered essential newborn care, facets of the health care system, and different traditional beliefs. As such, the primary aim of this study is to fill the gaps of the aforementioned previous studies, assess mothers' current practice of essential newborn care and identify factors affecting newborn care practices in Chencha District, Southern Ethiopia...
2018: PloS One
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