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Kota Kasahara, Shintaro Minami, Yasunori Aizawa
The principle of three-dimensional protein structure formation is a long-standing conundrum in structural biology. A globular domain of a soluble protein is formed by a network of atomic contacts among amino acid residues, but regions without intramolecular non-local contacts are often observed in the protein structure, especially in loop, linker, and peripheral segments with secondary structures. Although these regions can play key roles for protein function as interfaces for intermolecular interactions, their nature remains unclear...
2018: PloS One
Paul H Lysaker, Giancarlo Dimaggio, Jay A Hamm, Bethany L Leonhardt, Jesse Hochheiser, John T Lysaker
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Disturbances in first person experience is a broadly noted feature of schizophrenia, which cannot be reduced to the expression of psychopathology. Yet, though categorically linked with profound suffering, these disturbances are often ignored by most contemporary treatment models. METHODS: In this paper, we present a model, which suggests that deficits in metacognition and their later resolution parsimoniously explain the development of self-disturbance and clarify how persons can later recover...
December 11, 2018: Psychopathology
Imtiyaz Ahmad Bhat, Bibhisan Roy, Partha Hazra, Kabir-Ud-Din
Herein, we have explored the conformational alterations of hemoglobin (Hb) in presence of a cleavable gemini surfactant (C16-C4O2-C16). The concerned surfactant was found to induce significant structural perturbations in Hb. UV-vis spectroscopy, steady-state/time-resolved fluorescence, and other utilized techniques have authenticated the complexation of Hb with the gemini surfactant. CD has demonstrated the alterations in secondary structural elements (α-helicity, β-sheet, β-turn, and random coil) of Hb upon C16-C4O2-C16 addition...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Chunmei Li, Siyu Yu, Xiaoxu Zhang, Yun Wang, Chunbo Liu, Gang Chen, Hongjun Dong
It is still a challenging work to realize the universality of photocatalytic materials for unselective removing various organic pollutants in water. Here a surface dual-doped Cu/Cl-g-C3 N4 photocatalyst is firstly prepared, which exhibits much more superior photocatalytic performance for degrading multifarious persistent organic pollutants including tetracycline hydrochloride (TC-HCl), o-chlorophenol, bisphenol A and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole in water than pure g-C3 N4 . The high-efficiency and unselective photocatalytic degradation performance derives from the surface dual-doped effect of Cu/Cl elements on g-C3 N4 , which results in the extended visible light harvest range, elevated CB potential and improved the separation efficiency of charge carriers...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Bing Gong, Erkai He, Hao Qiu, Jianqiu Li, Jie Ji, Ling Zhao, Xinde Cao
Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically present as mixtures in the environment, but a quantitative understanding of mixture toxicity and interactions of REEs is still lacking. Here, we examined the toxicity to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) of Y, La, and Ce when applied individually and in combination. Both concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) reference models were used for mixture toxicity analysis because the toxicity mechanisms of REEs remain obscure. Upon single exposure, the EC50s of Y, La, and Ce, expressed as dissolved concentrations, were 1...
December 4, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Soheila Davaeifar, Mohammad-Hossein Modarresi, Mehdi Mohammadi, Ehsan Hashemi, Morvarid Shafiei, Hadi Maleki, Hojatollah Vali, Hossein Shahbani Zahiri, Kambiz Akbari Noghabi
C-Phycocyanin pigment was purified from a native cyanobacterial strain using a novel consecutive multi-step procedure and utilized for the first time for the green synthesis of phycocyanin-zinc oxide nanorods (PHY-ZnO NRs) by a simple, low-cost and eco-friendly approach. The PHY-ZnO NRs were characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), zeta potential measurement, FTIR, SEM, TEM, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric (TGA), and EDX spectroscopy analysis. The UV-vis spectra showed an absorption band at 364 nm which is characteristic of ZnO nanoparticles (ZnONPs)...
December 4, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Xiang-Yu Zhang, Gang Fang, Sander Leeflang, Amir A Zadpoor, Jie Zhou
Recent advances in additive manufacturing (AM) have enabled the fabrication of functionally graded porous biomaterials (FGPBs) for application as orthopedic implants and bone substitutes. Here, we present a step-wise topological design of FGPB based on diamond unit cells to mimic the structure of the femoral diaphysis. The FGPB was manufactured from Ti-6Al-4V powder using the selective laser melting (SLM) technique. The morphological parameters, permeability and mechanical properties of FGPB samples were measured and compared with those of the biomaterials with uniform porous structures based on the same type of the unit cell...
December 8, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Simon Aldridge, Lilja Kristinsdottir, Petra Vasko, Haoyu Niu, Eugene Kolychev, Jesus Campos, Maria Angeles Fuentes, Jamie Hicks, Amber L Thompson
This study details attempts to access N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) featuring the diazaborolyl group, {(HCNDipp)2B}, as one or both of the N-bound substituents. Attempts to isolate N-heterocyclic carbenes based around imidazolylidene or related heterocycles, are characterized by facile N-to-C migration of the boryl substituent. In the cases of imidazolium precursors bearing one N-bound diazaboryl group and one methyl substituent, deprotonation leads to the generation of the target carbenes, which can be characterized in situ by NMR measurements, and trapped by reactions with metal fragments and elemental selenium...
December 11, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Sanjay Sinha, Jamil Aboulhosn, Jeremy Asnes, Martin Bocks, Evan Zahn, Bryan H Goldstein, Jeffrey Zampi, William Hellenbrand, Morris Salem, Daniel Levi
OBJECTIVES: To describe a multi-center experience of percutaneous transcatheter pulmonary valve replacement (TPVR) using the Edwards Sapien S3 Valve. BACKGROUND: Off-label use of the Sapien S3 valve can allow for TPVR in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) and large diameter dysfunctional right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT). The initial experience at five centers with the SAPIEN S3 valve for TPVR is presented with a focus on procedural techniques, success, complications, and efficacy...
December 7, 2018: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Gemma Radley, Ina Laura Pieper, Bethan R Thomas, Karl Hawkins, Catherine A Thornton
Medical devices, such as ventricular assist devices (VADs), introduce both foreign materials and artificial shear stress to the circulatory system. The effects these have on leukocytes and the immune response are not well understood. Understanding how these two elements combine to affect leukocytes may reveal why some patients are susceptible to recurrent device-related infections and provide insight into the development of pump thrombosis. Biomaterials - DLC: diamond-like carbon coated stainless steel; Sap: single-crystal sapphire; and Ti: titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) were attached to the parallel plates of a rheometer...
December 8, 2018: Artificial Organs
Barbara Benassi, Stefania Santangeli, Caterina Merla, Letizia Tarantini, Valentina Bollati, Alessio Butera, Carmela Marino, Claudia Consales
Exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MFs) has been associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative disorders. The underlying mechanisms, however, are still debated. Since epigenetics play a key role in the neurodegenerative process, we investigated whether exposure to ELF-MF (50 Hz, 1 mT) might affect global DNA methylation of SH-SY5Y dopaminergic-like neuroblastoma cells. We assessed the percentage of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC) of three repetitive interspersed sequences (ALU, LINE-1, or SATα), through pyrosequencing analysis...
December 7, 2018: Bioelectromagnetics
Liman Qiu, Yanbing Huang, Zhenli Li, Xiuqing Dong, Geng Chen, Haipo Xu, Yongyi Zeng, Zhixiong Cai, Xiaolong Liu, Jingfeng Liu
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) can participate in various biological processes, including tumorigenesis, through their microRNA response elements (MREs). Alterations in circRNA profiles during hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression and the clinical significance thereof remain unclear. Here, we present extensive analysis of circRNA profiles in tumor and matched peritumor tissues collected from 10 HCC patients, conducted to identify circRNAs related to HCC progression. A total of 42 dysregulated circRNAs (38 down-regulated and 4 up-regulated) were identified in HCC tumor tissues when compared with matched peritumor tissues, revealing the heterogeneity of circRNA profiles in HCC...
December 8, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Yoshinori Nishiwaki, Tomohiro Takekawa
The performance of synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) spectrometry for nondestructive discrimination of small fragments of automotive aluminum wheels was studied. Fragments (< 500 × 500 μm2 ) of 45 kinds of wheels were first analyzed by scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and then by SR-XRF. Despite the Mg/Al intensity ratio being a useful identification index, SEM-EDS was not efficient enough because of the absence of other meaningful indicators of comparison...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Jae H Kang, Julie P W Bynum, Lu Zhang, Francine Grodstein, David G Stevenson
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Relatively little is known regarding predictors of advance care planning (ACP) in former nurses. We aimed to evaluate potential predictors of ACP documentation and discussion. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study, 2012-2014. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 60,917 community-dwelling female nurses aged 66 to 93 years living across the United States. MEASUREMENTS: Based on self-reports, participants were categorized as having (1) only ACP documentation, (2) ACP documentation and a recent ACP discussion with a healthcare provider, or (3) neither...
December 10, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Masahiro Yasunaga, Shinji Saijou, Shingo Hanaoka, Takahiro Anzai, Ryo Tsumura, Yasuhiro Matsumura
The present state of therapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) is far from satisfactory, highlighting the need for new targets for this disease. We identified a new colorectal cancer (CRC)-specific molecule, TMEM180, a predicted eleven-pass transmembrane protein that apparently functions as a cation symporter. We developed the anti-TMEM180 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and then succeeded in humanizing the mAb. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) in CRC with the mAb showed a similar positivity rate as compared with anti-EGFR mAb and the IHC with anti-TMEM180 mAb did not show staining in major organs used in this study...
December 8, 2018: Cancer Science
Houqing Zeng, Xin Zhang, Ming Ding, Xiajun Zhang, Yiyong Zhu
Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a widespread agricultural problem in arable soils of the whole world. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying Zn deficiency response are largely unknown. Here, we analyzed the transcriptomic profilings of soybean leaves and roots in response to Zn deficiency through Illumina's high-throughput RNA sequencing in order to understand the molecular basis of Zn deficiency response in the plants. A total of 614 and 1011 gene loci were found to be differentially expressed in leaves and roots, respectively, and 88 loci were commonly found in both leaves and roots...
December 10, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Pengzhou Li, Liyong Zhu, Xiangwu Yang, Weizheng Li, Xulong Sun, Bo Yi, Shaihong Zhu
Type II diabetes is a complex, chronic, and progressive disease. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) is a gut hormone released from the L cells which stimulate insulin secretion and promotes insulin gene expression and β-cell growth and differentiation. Elevated levels of hormones secreted by L cells are an essential reason for diabetes improvement. GLP-1 secretion has been reported to be regulated by farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a transcriptional sensor for bile acids which also acts on glucose metabolism...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Anupam Giri, Marion Coutriade, Amandine Racaud, Pierre-Hugues Stefanuto, Koji Okuda, John Dane, Robert B Cody, Jean-François Focant
Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry is a powerful separation tool for complex petroleum product analysis. However, the most commonly used electron ionization (EI) technique often makes the identification of the majority of hydrocarbons impossible due to the exhaustive fragmentation and lack of molecular ion preservation, prompting the need of soft-ionization energies. In this study, three different soft-ionization techniques including photo ionization (PI), chemical ionization (CI), and field ionization (FI) were compared against EI to elucidate their relative capabilities to reveal different base oil hydrocarbon classes...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Deshetti Jampaiah, Anastasios Chalkidis, Ylias M Sabri, Suresh K Bhargava
The necessity to drastically act against mercury pollution has been emphatically addressed by the United Nations. Coal-fired power plants contribute a great deal to the anthropogenic emissions; therefore, numerous sorbents/catalysts have been developed to remove elemental mercury (Hg0 ) from flue gases. Among them, ceria (CeO2 ) has attracted significant interest, due to its reversible Ce3+ /Ce4+ redox pair, surface-bound defects and acid-base properties. The removal efficiency of Hg0 vapor depends among others, on the flue gas composition and temperature...
December 10, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Peta Bradbury, Nowshin N Rumzhum, Alaina J Ammit
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) is a key prostanoid known to have both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory impact in the context of chronic respiratory diseases. We hypothesize that these opposing effects may be the result of different prostanoid E (EP) receptor-mediated signaling pathways. In this study, we focus on two of the four EP receptors, EP2 and EP4 , as they are known to induce cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling pathways. Using primary human airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells, we first focussed on the PGE2 -induced production of two cAMP-dependent proinflammatory mediators: interleukin 6 (IL-6) and cyclo-oxygenase 2 production...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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