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Wen Wang, Xiao Guo, Yan-Mei Li, Xiao-Yin Wang, Xian-Jun Yang, Yan-Fang Wang, Tian-Yun Wang
Transgene expression in eukaryotic cells suffers from epigenetic effects that result in low or unstable transgene expression and high clonal variability. The use of epigenetic regulators is a promising approach to alleviating such unwanted effects. we investigated the effect of the strong human EF1-α promoter combined with six cis-acting elements on transgene expression in transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The six elements included the human cytomegalovirus immediate early core promoter element (hCPE), three synthetic enhancer element (SEE1, SEE2, Syn1), human cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer (hCMV-IEE), and a regulatory element isolated from CHO-K1 genomic DNA (E77)...
August 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Juan Manuel Vazquez, Michael Sulak, Sravanthi Chigurupati, Vincent J Lynch
Large-bodied organisms have more cells that can potentially turn cancerous than small-bodied organisms, imposing an increased risk of developing cancer. This expectation predicts a positive correlation between body size and cancer risk; however, there is no correlation between body size and cancer risk across species ("Peto's paradox"). Here, we show that elephants and their extinct relatives (proboscideans) may have resolved Peto's paradox in part through refunctionalizing a leukemia inhibitory factor pseudogene (LIF6) with pro-apoptotic functions...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Ryan Raisner, Samir Kharbanda, Lingyan Jin, Edwin Jeng, Emily Chan, Mark Merchant, Peter M Haverty, Russell Bainer, Tommy Cheung, David Arnott, E Megan Flynn, F Anthony Romero, Steven Magnuson, Karen E Gascoigne
Acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 is a well-defined marker of enhancer activity. However, the functional impact of this modification at enhancers is poorly understood. Here, we use a chemical genetics approach to acutely block the function of the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) binding protein (CBP)/P300 bromodomain in models of hematological malignancies and describe a consequent loss of H3K27Ac specifically from enhancers, despite the continued presence of CBP/P300 at chromatin. Using this approach to dissect the role of H3K27Ac at enhancers, we identify a critical role for this modification in the production of enhancer RNAs and transcription of enhancer-regulated gene networks...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Mingming Wang, Fayin Ye, He Wang, Habtamu Admassu, Yinghui Feng, Xiao Hua, Ruijin Yang
Boronate affinity materials have been widely used for enrichment of cis-diol molecules. In this work, phenylboronic acid functionalized adsorbents AR-1M/AR-2M were prepared via a simple and efficient procedure by grafting phenylboronic acid groups onto amino macroporous resins. Elemental analysis has confirmed the successful functionalization of AR-1M and AR-2M with approximately 2.17% and 0.73% weight percentage of boron. Comparatively, AR-1M possessed higher lactulose adsorption capacity (q_(e-Lu), 84.78±0...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Parag Adhyapak, Rohini Aiyer, Sreekantha Reddy Dugasani, Hyeong-U Kim, Chung Kil Song, Ajayan Vinu, Venkatesan Renugopalakrishnan, Sung Ha Park, Taesung Kim, Haiwon Lee, Dinesh Amalnerkar
We herein report a simple chemical route to prepare Au-Ag and Ag-Au core-shell bimetallic nanostructures by reduction of two kinds of noble metal ions in the presence of a water-soluble polymer such as poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). PVA was intentionally chosen as it can play a dual role of a supporting matrix as well as stabilizer. The simultaneous reduction of metal ions leads to an alloy type of structure. Ag(c)-Au(s) core-shell structures display tendency to form prismatic nanostructures in conjunction with nanocubes while Au(c)-Ag(s) core-shell structures show formation of merely nanocubes...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Vanraj, Robin Singh, S S Dhami, B S Pabla
Condition monitoring systems are increasingly being employed in industrial applications to improve the availability of equipment to increase the overall equipment efficiency. Condition monitoring of gearboxes, a key element of rotating machines, ensures to continuously reduce and eliminate costs, unscheduled downtime and unexpected breakdowns. This study demonstrates a low-cost microcontroller-based non-contact data acquisition system for condition monitoring of rotating machinery. Experimental validation of the proposed system was carried out by performing examination tests on a gearbox test rig...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Stephanie Payne, Rajendra Kumar Bc, Emma Pomeroy, Alison Macintosh, Jay Stock
The multi-stress environment of high altitude has been associated with growth deficits in humans, particularly in zeugopod elements (forearm and lower leg). This is consistent with the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, which has been observed in Andeans, but has yet to be tested in other high-altitude populations. In Himalayan populations, other factors, such as cold stress, may shape limb proportions. The current study investigated whether relative upper limb proportions of Himalayan adults ( n  = 254) differ between highland and lowland populations, and whether cold adaptation or a thrifty phenotype mechanism may be acting here...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Laura-Jayne A Ellis, Anastasios G Papadiamantis, Stefan Weigel, Eugenia Valsami-Jones
The reliable quantification of nanomaterials (NMs) in complex matrices such as food, cosmetics and biological and environmental compartments can be challenging due to interactions with matrix components and analytical equipment (vials and tubing). The resulting losses along the analytical process (sampling, extraction, clean-up, separation and detection) hamper the quantification of the target NMs in these matrices as well as the compatibility of results and meaningful interpretations in safety assessments...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Sebastian Büsse, Stanislav N Gorb
Odonata larvae are key predators in their habitats. They catch prey with a unique and highly efficient apparatus, the prehensile mask. The mandibles and maxillae, however, play the lead in handling and crushing the food. The material composition of the cuticle in the biomechanical system of the larval mouthparts has not been studied so far. We used confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to detect material gradients in the cuticle by differences in autofluorescence. Our results show variations of materials in different areas of the mouthparts: (i) resilin-dominated pads within the membranous transition between the labrum and the anteclypeus, which support mobility and might provide shock absorption, an adaptation against mechanical damage; (ii) high degrees of sclerotization in the incisivi of the mandibles, where high forces occur when crushing the prey's body wall...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Federica Cavicchio, Svetlana Dachkovsky, Livnat Leemor, Simone Shamay-Tsoory, Wendy Sandler
Emotions are signaled by complex arrays of face and body actions. The main point of contention in contemporary treatments is whether these arrays are discrete, holistic constellations reflecting emotion categories, or whether they are compositional-comprised of smaller components, each of which contributes some aspect of emotion to the complex whole. We address this question by investigating spontaneous face and body displays of athletes and place it in the wider context of human communicative signals and, in particular, of language...
2018: PloS One
Ana Carolina Biacchi Brust, Julia Brenda Desojo, Cesar Leandro Schultz, Voltaire Dutra Paes-Neto, Átila Augusto Stock Da-Rosa
Aetosauria, which includes 30 species, is a diverse group of armored pseudosuchian archosaurs restricted to Upper Triassic beds. Three species occur in Brazil, and one of these, Aetosauroides scagliai Casamiquela, 1960, also occurs in Argentina. The specimen UFSM 11505, found at Faixa Nova-Cerrito I Outcrop, Santa Maria Formation (Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone), Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, is here referred to as Aetosauroides scagliai. This specimen preserves most of the skull with both hemimandibles in association with most of the postcranium, thus representing one of the most complete aetosaur skeletons found in Brazil...
2018: PloS One
Mabula Nkuba, Katharin Hermenau, Katharina Goessmann, Tobias Hecker
The high global prevalence of school violence underlines the need for prevention. However, there are few scientifically evaluated intervention approaches that aim at preventing violence by teachers. We evaluated the feasibility and efficacy of the preventative intervention Interaction Competencies with Children for Teachers (ICC-T). In a cluster randomized controlled trial we assessed attitudes towards and use of violence by teachers (self-reported and reported by students) at eight schools in four regions in Tanzania...
2018: PloS One
Olga Kyrchanova, Amina Kurbidaeva, Marat Sabirov, Nikolay Postika, Daniel Wolle, Tsutomu Aoki, Oksana Maksimenko, Vladic Mogila, Paul Schedl, Pavel Georgiev
Expression of the three bithorax complex homeotic genes is orchestrated by nine parasegment-specific regulatory domains. Autonomy of each domain is conferred by boundary elements (insulators). Here, we have used an in situ replacement strategy to reanalyze the sequences required for the functioning of one of the best-characterized fly boundaries, Fab-7. It was initially identified by a deletion, Fab-71, that transformed parasegment (PS) 11 into a duplicate copy of PS12. Fab-71 deleted four nuclease hypersensitive sites, HS*, HS1, HS2, and HS3, located between the iab-6 and iab-7 regulatory domains...
August 15, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Arash Sabatyan, Marjan Golbandi
This study introduces and examines the diffraction properties of a so-called petal-like zone plate, which comprises Fresnel zones analogous to petals. We show that the focusing behavior of this novel type of zone plate depends on the number of petals included in the element. For a small value of the petal frequency, we observe star-like diffraction patterns at the focal plane, whose number of star arms equals the petal frequency of the element when the frequency is an odd integer and is twice as large as the petal frequency when it is an even number...
July 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Guillaume Demésy, Jean-Claude Auger, Brian Stout
We demonstrate the interest of combining finite element calculations with the vector partial wave formulation (used in T-matrix and Mie theory) in order to characterize the electromagnetic scattering properties of isolated individual scatterers. This method consists of individually feeding the finite element problem with incident vector partial waves in order to numerically determine the T-matrix elements of the scatterer. For a sphere and a spheroid, we demonstrate that this method determines the scattering matrix to high accuracy...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Ailsa Munns, Roz Walker
This participatory action research study was situated within a larger research study, which investigated the development of a peer-led Aboriginal parent support program in the remote setting of Halls Creek in Western Australia. The aim of this smaller research component was to explore the self-perceived role of home visiting peer support workers in this remote area. Participatory Action Research methodology was employed, within which eleven Action Learning Sets were used to facilitate participant collaboration (n = 8)...
August 15, 2018: Comprehensive Child and Adolescent Nursing
Marina Garcia de Souza Borges, Adriane Mesquita de Medeiros, Stela Maris Aguiar Lemos
PURPOSE: Characterize the performance of outpatients regarding aspects of communication disorders according to the categories of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health - Children and Youth Version (ICF-CY). METHODS: This is a descriptive, observational study based on a retrospective analysis of secondary data collected at a Speech-language Pathology outpatient clinic of the public health network, from records of patients aged 5-16 years, evaluated between 2010 and 2014...
August 13, 2018: CoDAS
Xiansheng Huang, Rong Li, Yunzhi Feng, Yining Wang
To explore the remineralization effect of bioactive glass NovaMin on demineralized dentin specimens, and to study the physical and chemical properties of formed structure at dentin surface.
 Methods: One mm-thickness coronal dentin slices were soaked in ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) for 48 h to prepare the completely demineralized dentin specimens and they were divided into 2 groups: an artificial saliva group (control group) and a NovaMin powder group. The specimens were treated with artificial saliva or NovaMin powder for 2 min (2 times every day), and the interval was 8 hours...
June 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Rob Fenwick
Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a common occurrence in the UK, with 60,000 cases reported annually. To improve outcomes among these patients it is necessary to improve links in the cardiac arrest chain of survival. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is one of the main elements of this chain because it reduces further ischaemic insult in the brain and heart by contributing to blood flow. However, even the best manual CPR provides only 20%-30% of the normal cardiac output. Despite the emphasis on timely CPR at the correct rate and depth, delivery of compressions is suboptimal for many patients and mechanical devices may improve outcomes...
August 15, 2018: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
Benjamin P Towler, Sarah F Newbury
The process of RNA degradation is a critical level of regulation contributing to the control of gene expression. In the last two decades a number of studies have shown the specific and targeted nature of RNA decay and its importance in maintaining homeostasis. The key players within the pathways of RNA decay are well conserved with their mutation or disruption resulting in distinct phenotypes as well as human disease. Model organisms including Drosophila melanogaster have played a substantial role in elucidating the mechanisms conferring control over RNA stability...
August 15, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
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