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Jacob Kuint, Basil Porter
Community pediatrics in Israel is based on service by pediatricians who have been trained in hospitals in Israel or elsewhere. At the same time, the field of community pediatrics is changing its nature from the management of common acute diseases, to a field dealing with a variety of chronic problems, behavioral issues, family and social issues, developmental delays, problems relating to nutrition and growth' sleep problems, learning disabilities, and of late, excessive exposure to a host of digital media. In addition, lifestyle issues such as adequate physical activity, addictions, accidents and various types of abuse are increasingly part of the pediatric role...
October 2018: Harefuah
Fabrice E Graf, Martin Palm, Jonas Warringer, Anne Farewell
Hit, Lead & Candidate Discovery Antibiotic resistance, especially in gram-negative bacteria, is spreading globally and rapidly. Development of new antibiotics lags behind; therefore, novel approaches to the problem of antibiotic resistance are sorely needed and this commentary highlights one relatively unexplored target for drug development: conjugation. Conjugation is a common mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria that is instrumental in the spread of antibiotic resistance among bacteria. Most resistance genes are found on mobile genetic elements and primarily spread by conjugation...
October 21, 2018: Drug Development Research
Mojtaba Amiri, Ali Mohammad Haji Shabani, Shayessteh Dadfarnia, Sodeh Sadjadi
In the present study, for the first time, the magnetic graphene oxide was simultaneously functionalized and reduced with the aim of imidazole-based L-histidine amino acid (rGO/Fe3 O4 -histidine). The prepared nanocomposite was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometer. The synthesized rGO/Fe3 O4 -histidine nanosheets were implied for solid phase extraction of ultra-trace amounts of Zn2+ , Cu2+ , and Mn2+ from biological samples prior to ICP-OES determination...
October 20, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
John M Hunter, Boris V Nemzer, Nagendra Rangavajla, Andrei Biţă, Otilia Constantina Rogoveanu, Johny Neamţu, Ion Romulus Scorei, Ludovic Everard Bejenaru, Gabriela Rău, Cornelia Bejenaru, George Dan Mogoşanu
Sugar-borates (SBs) are mono- or di-sugar-borate esters (SBEs) comprised of one or two monosaccharide molecules linked to a boron (B) atom. SBEs occur naturally in commonly consumed herbs, vegetables, fruits, seeds, and nuts and, other than greatly varying levels of B found in local drinking water, are the primary natural dietary sources of B-containing molecules in humans. To date, the most studied SBE is calcium fructoborate (CaFB). CaFB represents an important example of how organic B-containing molecules are significantly distinct from their inorganic counterparts...
October 20, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Franck Carbonero, Alba C Mayta-Apaza, Jiang-Zhou Yu, Matt Lindeblad, Alex Lyubimov, Flavia Neri, Erzsebet Szilagyi, Amelia Bartholomew
In rodent studies, the gut microbiota has been implicated in facilitating both radioresistance, by protecting the epithelium from apoptotic responses and radiosensitivity, inducing endothelial apoptotic responses. Despite the observation that large animal models, such as the Chinese Rhesus macaque and the Gottingen Minipig, demonstrate similarity to human physiologic responses to radiation, little is known about radiation-induced changes of the gut microbiome in these models. To compare the two models, we used bioequivalent radiation doses which resulted in an LD50 for Gottingen Minipigs and Chinese Rhesus macaques, 1...
October 20, 2018: Radiation and Environmental Biophysics
Dilmi Herath, Amarasooriya Pitawala, Jagath Gunatilake, M C M Iqbal
Heavy metal pollution in urban cities is now an accepted fact. An understanding of the natural and anthropogenic contributions to heavy metal accumulation in these cities is necessary to develop strategies to mitigate their impacts, particularly on human health. Here, we used multiple records using geological and biological pollution indicators to assess the extent of pollution in the Colombo Metropolitan Region (CMR), Sri Lanka. Elemental concentrations of Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb were determined in four depositories: surface soil (90 samples), canal sediments and canal water (45 samples each) and vegetation (62 samples)...
October 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Christopher L Cunningham, Chloe N Shields
RATIONALE: Previous work has shown that some mouse strains (e.g., DBA/2J [D2]) readily develop robust ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) while others (e.g., C57BL/6J [B6]) do not. Though commonly interpreted as a difference between strains in sensitivity to ethanol reward, other explanations for this finding are possible. OBJECTIVES: To explore the hypothesis that variation in sensitivity to contextual cues underlies CPP differences, the present work investigated ethanol-induced CPP in D2 and B6 mice trained with a standard tactile (floor) cue procedure compared to mice trained with tactile plus visual-spatial cues...
October 21, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Hasnaa M Fahmy, Hamed M Kandel, Hamdan A S Al-Shamiri, Nabel A Negm, Ahmed H M Elwahy, Maram T H Abou Kana
Novel 7,7'-((anthracene-9,10-diylbis(methylene))bis(oxy))bis(4-methyl-2H-chromen-2-one) (BisCA) was prepared as fluorescent probe. The chemical structure of the novel BisCA was confirmed by spectroscopic data as well as elemental analyses. The solvatochromic characteristics of the new proble and its precursors were investigated in different solvents including, ethanol, DMF and toluene as protic polar, aprotic polar and non-polar solvents, respectively. Photo-physical parameters of probes, such as fluorescence quantum yields, fluorescence lifetime of excited state, radiative and non-radiative decay, were assessed in different media...
October 21, 2018: Journal of Fluorescence
Lin Che, Weiping Xu, Jingjing Zhan, Lei Zhang, Lifen Liu, Hao Zhou
Metallic selenides nanomaterials are widely used in many fields, especially for photothermal therapy and thermoelectric devices. However, the traditional chemogenic methods are energy-intensive and environmentally unfriendly. In this study, the first complete genome data of a metallic selenides producing bacterium Bacillus cereus CC-1 was reported. This strain can not only reduce selenite and selenate into elemental selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs), but also synthesize several metallic selenides nanoparticles when adding metal ions (Pb2+ , Ag+ and Bi3+ ) and selenite simultaneously...
October 20, 2018: Current Microbiology
Kokila Lakhoo, George G Youngson
AIM: Outline the response from an organisation regarding the unmet needs in global children's surgery METHOD: The burden of global surgical disease, whilst daunting, is becoming increasingly better defined as agencies, surgical colleges and professional specialty associations all attempt to increase capacity in terms of manpower, support education and find sustainable solutions to the deficit of health in treating women and children. However, definition of the problem does not in itself create change and similarly, humanitarian activities including volunteering by established surgical practitioners and other non-governmental organisations (NGOs) make only marginal improvement in the standards of care on offer at a global level...
October 20, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Lydie Debaize, Marie-Bérengère Troadec
The human Far Upstream Element (FUSE) Binding Protein 1 (FUBP1) is a multifunctional DNA- and RNA-binding protein involved in diverse cellular processes. FUBP1 is a master regulator of transcription, translation, and RNA splicing. FUBP1 has been identified as a potent pro-proliferative and anti-apoptotic factor by modulation of complex networks. FUBP1 is also described either as an oncoprotein or a tumor suppressor. Especially, FUBP1 overexpression is observed in a growing number of cancer and leads to a deregulation of targets that includes the fine-tuned MYC oncogene...
October 20, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Richard David Ash, Min He
Heavy metals pose significant morbidity and mortality threats to humans in connection with both acute and chronic exposure. The often-delayed manifestations of some toxic effects and the wide-spectrum of symptoms caused by heavy metal poisoning may perplex the clinical diagnosis and, when involved in crimes, complicate the forensic investigation. To investigate the original intoxication process of a thallium poisoning case, which occurred in China more than two decades ago, laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to analyze several hairs of the victim from before, during and after the poisoning period...
October 9, 2018: Forensic Science International
Ricardo Fernández-Cisnal, Miguel A García-Sevillano, Tamara García-Barrera, José L Gómez-Ariza, Nieves Abril
Soils contaminated by toxic metallic elements from agricultural activities raise grave concern about their potential risk to human health through direct intake, bioaccumulation through the food chain, and their impacts on ecological systems. We have measured here the lipid and protein oxidation status and used metabolomic methodologies to identify and characterize the changes caused by metal pollution exposure in the digestive glands and gills of Procambarus clarkii, the red swamp crayfish. Specimens captured at two sites with intensive agriculture practices using diverse types of agrochemicals, located in the borders of Doñana Natural Park, were compared to ones caught in the core of the Park, a proven non-polluted place...
October 13, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Tiffany R Sanchez, Vesna Slavkovich, Nancy LoIacono, Alexander van Geen, Tyler Ellis, Steven N Chillrud, Olgica Balac, Tarique Islam, Faruque Parvez, Habib Ahsan, Joseph H Graziano, Ana Navas-Acien
INTRODUCTION: Environmental exposure to toxic metals and metalloids is pervasive and occurs from multiple sources. The Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study (HEALS) is an ongoing prospective study predominantly focused on understanding health effects associated with arsenic exposure from drinking water. The goal of this project was to measure a suite of elements in urine to better understand potential exposure patterns and to identify common environmental sources of exposure among this semi-rural Bangladeshi population...
October 18, 2018: Environment International
Meng Xu, Dora Obodo, Vamsi K Yadavalli
Flexible biosensors form part of a rapidly growing research field that take advantage of a multidisciplinary approach involving materials, fabrication and design strategies to be able to function at biological interfaces that may be soft, intrinsically curvy, irregular, or elastic. Numerous exciting advancements are being proposed and developed each year towards applications in healthcare, fundamental biomedical research, food safety and environmental monitoring. In order to place these developments in perspective, this review is intended to present an overview on field of flexible biosensor development...
October 13, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Haifeng Sha, Yao Zhang, Yinfang Wang, Hong Ke, Xin Xiong, Nengqin Jia
An electrochemiluminescence (ECL) analytical platform was initially proposed based on the electrochemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) mechanism for ultrasensitive detection of Concanavalin A (Con A). In this protocol, the glucose functionalized carboxylic g-C3 N4 nanosheets (g-C3 N4 -COOH@Glu) and MnO2 nanoparticles covered carboxylic multi-wall carbon nanotubes (BSA@MnO2 -MWCNTs-COOH@Glu) were synthesized and acted as ECL-RET electron donor and acceptor, respectively. Herein, glucose was served as the recognition element for binding Con A and MWCNTs was utilized as the carrier materials for loading MnO2 ...
October 12, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
T Tegiacchi
INTRODUCTION: Acupuncture had a different approaches since its beginnings. Using traditional energetic points with an interaction of 5 elements and meridian theories with manual diagnosis of tender points has been proposed. This procedure can be an effective treatment in musculoskeletal disease but its development is short. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of energetic points of tendinomuscular meridian in the treatment of pain, quality of life and function of the knee...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Acupuncture and Meridian Studies
Chloe de Grood, Christiane Job McIntosh, Jamie M Boyd, Karolina Zjadewicz, Jeanna Parsons Leigh, Henry Thomas Stelfox
PURPOSE: Transitions of care from the intensive care unit (ICU) to a hospital ward are high risk and contingent on effective communication. We sought to identify essential information elements to be included in an ICU to hospital ward transfer summary tool, and describe tool functionality and composition perceived to be important. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A panel of 13 clinicians representing ICU and hospital ward providers used a modified Delphi process to iteratively review and rate unique information elements identified from existing ICU transfer tools through three rounds of review (two remote and one in person)...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Le Qu, Huamin Xu, WentingJia, Hong Jiang, JunxiaXie
Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound. In this study, we demonstrated that RA could protect against the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In addition, RA could inhibit MPTP-induced decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and increase in nigral iron content. Further studies elucidated the effects of RA on iron-induced neurotoxicity and the possible underlying mechanisms in the SK-N-SH cells...
October 18, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Mira Maalouf, Adeline Granzotto, Clément Devic, Larry Bodgi, Mélanie Ferlazzo, Christophe Peaucelle, Marcel Bajard, Jean-Yves Giraud, Jacques Balosso, Joël Hérault, Marie-Claude Biston, Claude Malet, Nicolas Foray
PURPOSE: Linear energy transfer (LET) plays an important role in radiation response. Recently, the radiation-induced nucleo-shuttling of ATM from cytoplasm to the nucleus was shown to be a major event of the radiation response that permits a normal DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) recognition and repair. Here, we aimed to verify the relevance of the ATM nucleo-shuttling model for high-LET particles and various radiation types. METHODS AND MATERIALS: ATM- and H2AX-immunofluorescence was used to assess the number of recognized and unrepaired DSB in quiescent fibroblast cell lines exposed to X-rays, γ-rays, 9 and 12 MeV electrons, 3 and 65 MeV protons and 75 MeV/u carbon ions...
October 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
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