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controlling blood sugar levels

A Sampath Kumar, Arun G Maiya, B A Shastry, K Vaishali, N Ravishankar, Animesh Hazari, Shubha Gundmi, Radhika Jadhav
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is a determining factor in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Exercise is known to improve insulin resistance, but a systematic review of the literature is lacking. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review and meta-analysis focused on identifying evidence for the effectiveness of a structured exercise intervention program for insulin resistance in T2DM. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE via PubMed, CINHAL, Scopus and Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for reports of studies on fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (Homa-IR), fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and body mass index in patients with T2DM and healthy controls that were published between 1990 and 2017...
December 13, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Snezana Agatonovic-Kustrin, Ella Kustrin, David W Morton
As total life expectancy increases, the prevalence of age-related diseases such as diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is also increasing. Many hypotheses about Alzheimer's disease have been developed, including cholinergic neuron damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Acetylcholine is a major neurotransmitter in the brain and cholinergic deficits leads to cognitive dysfunction and decline. Recent studies have linked diabetes as a risk factor in developing Alzheimer's disease and other types of dementia. The incidence of patients with type II diabetes and increased levels and activity of α-amylase is higher in patients with dementia...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Z Esmaeilinezhad, S Babajafari, Z Sohrabi, M-H Eskandari, S Amooee, R Barati-Boldaji
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome is a common reproductive, endocrine, and metabolic disease in women. Pomegranate juice, known as a rich source of phytochemicals with high antioxidant activity, enriched with probiotic may improve PCOS. METHODS AND RESULTS: A randomized, controlled, triple-blinded, parallel trial study was performed in PCOS patients (n = 92). Three treatment groups (23 patients each) received 2 L of synbiotic pomegranate juice (SPJ), pomegranate juice (PJ), and synbiotic beverage (SB) weekly...
July 17, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Halis Ozkan, Senay Topsakal, Ozlem Ozmen
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus become an epidemic problem throughout the world. Relation of the diabetes with diet is known. Some evidence is reported about mother died and risk of diabetes in babies during the life related with gestational diabetes. This study was conducted to examine the effects of the exposure of high-dose sucrose to rats and pups during pregnancy and lactation. METHODS: The mother rats were categorized into four groups, during pregnancy and until the offspring were 1-month-old, as follows: Group 1, provided with normal drinking water; Group 2, provided with water containing 10%; Group 3, 20%; and Group 4, 30% table sugar...
December 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Takasi Okimura, Zedong Jiang, Yan Liang, Kenichi Yamaguchi, Tatsuya Oda
A sulfated polysaccharide ascophyllan inhibited α-glucosidase in a concentration dependent manner, and >90% activity was inhibited at 1.0 mg/mL. The inhibitory activity was much higher than that of acarbose. No significant inhibitory effect of ascophyllan on α-amylase was observed up to 10.0 mg/mL. Ascophyllan HS, a commercially available ascophyllan preparation showed even higher inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase than ascophyllan. Interestingly, ascophyllan and ascophyllan HS induced the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from human intestinal NCI-H716 cell line in a concentration dependent manner (10-100 ng/mL)...
December 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Michael Sperling, Roshan Bhowansingh
Chorea hyperglycemia basal ganglia syndrome (CHBG) is a rare condition that manifests within the setting of uncontrolled nonketotic diabetes mellitus. The objective of this case report is to present a patient found to have CHBG and provide a timeline in terms of his workup and subsequent treatment. We also present a commentary on the current understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment and how this was applied to our patient. The case involves a 63-year-old poorly controlled diabetic male who presented with a one-week history of uncontrolled choreiform movements of his left upper extremity...
2018: Case Reports in Medicine
A M van Opstal, I Kaal, A A van den Berg-Huysmans, M Hoeksma, C Blonk, H Pijl, S A R B Rombouts, J van der Grond
OBJECTIVE: The brain is essential in regulating intake of food and beverages by balancing energy homeostasis, which is regulated by the hypothalamus, with reward perception, which is regulated by the ventral tegmental area (VTA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ingestion of glucose, fructose, sucrose, and sucralose (a non-caloric artificial sweetener) on the magnitude and trajectory of the hypothalamic and the VTA blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses. METHOD: In five visits, 16 healthy men between 18 to 25 y of age with a body mass index between 20 and 23 kg/m2 drank five interventions in a randomized order while a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan was taken...
September 13, 2018: Nutrition
Zhen Zhang, Matthew P Parker, Stefan Graw, Lesya V Novikova, Halyna Fedosyuk, Joseph D Fontes, Devin C Koestler, Kenneth R Peterson, Chad Slawson
The addition of a single β-D-N-acetylglucosamine sugar (O-GlcNAc) by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAc removal by O-GlcNAcase (OGA) maintain homeostatic O-GlcNAc levels on cellular proteins. Changes in protein O-GlcNAcylation regulate cellular differentiation and cell fate decisions, but how these changes affect erythropoiesis, an essential process in blood cell formation remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of O-GlcNAcylation in erythropoiesis by using G1E-ER4 cells, which carry the erythroid-specific transcription factor GATA-binding protein 1 (GATA-1) fused to the estrogen receptor (GATA-1ER), and therefore undergo erythropoiesis after β-estradiol (E2) addition...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Bukola C Adedayo, Adeniyi A Adebayo, Esther E Nwanna, Ganiyu Oboh
This study was designed to investigate the influence of cooking on the glycemic index (GI), amylose, and amylopectin contents of two rice varieties. Two rice varieties (foreign long rice and ofada) were sourced for, divided into two, one portion cooked and the other used raw. The sugar, starch, amylose, and amylopectin contents as well as glycemic indices, antioxidant properties, and the ability of the rice to inhibit carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) were determined. In addition, polyphenol content was determined...
November 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Parvin Zarei, Mohammad Reza Rezvanfar, Hadi Ansarihadipour, Mostafa Delavar, Mahdi Abdollahi, Ali Khosrowbeygi
Background: Increased levels of reactive oxygen species is a key factor involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) is a nonenzymatic antioxidant that restores other antioxidants. Materials and Methods: This randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial study has been designed to evaluate the effects of CoQ10 supplementation on serum values of amylase, adenosine deaminase, catalase (CAT), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI) in women with T2DM...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Deepak Dhamnetiya, Manish Kumar Goel, BalRaj Dhiman, Om Prakash Pathania
INTRODUCTION: Gallstone disease (GSD) represents a significant burden for health-care systems worldwide and is one of the most common disorders among patients presenting to emergency rooms with abdominal discomfort. This study was aimed to know the association of biochemical parameters and development of GSD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a case-control study from January 2013 to December 2013 among patients attending outpatient department of general surgery at a tertiary care hospital of Delhi, North India; we recruited 120 cases and the same number of controls in the study...
October 2018: Journal of Laboratory Physicians
Stephan Döring, Jessica Seeßle, Hongying Gan-Schreier, Bahador Javaheri, Li Jiao, Yuting Cheng, Sabine Tuma-Kellner, Gerhard Liebisch, Thomas Herrmann, Wolfgang Stremmel, Walee Chamulitrat
Fatty acid transport protein4 (FATP4) is upregulated in acquired and central obesity and its polymorphisms are associated with blood lipids and insulin resistance. Patients with FATP4 mutations and mice with global FATP4 deletion exhibit skin abnormalities characterized as ischthyosis prematurity syndrome (IPS). Cumulating data have shown that an absence of FATP4 increases the levels of cellular triglycerides (TG). However, FATP4 role and consequent lipid and TG metabolism in the hepatocyte is still elusive...
November 23, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Peng-Cheng Yan, Chao-Wei Wen, Shang-Zhi Zhang, Zhi-da Zhang, Jia-Ping Xu, Ming-Jie Deng
1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) is a natural d-glucose analogue from mulberry with promising physiological activity in vivo. Up to the present, the antidiabetic effects of DNJ on lowering blood sugar and accelerating lipid metabolism in mammals were broadly reported, but the specific character of DNJ against insects was vastly ignored. In this study, a toxicological test of DNJ againgst eri-silkworm, Samia cynthia ricini was carried out to investigate the potential of DNJ in insect management. Further, a method of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabonomics and real-time qPCR (RT-qPCR) were performed to analyze the alteration in midgut of eri-silkworm caused by DNJ...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Rodrigo Nunes Lamounier, Bruno Geloneze, Silmara Oliveira Leite, Renan Montenegro, Lenita Zajdenverg, Milene Fernandes, Fabiano de Oliveira Griciunas, Mariana Narbot Ermetice, António Roberto Chacra
Background: Hypoglycemia affects patient safety and glycemic control during insulin treatment of both type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The Hypoglycemia Assessment Tool study in Brazil aimed to determine the proportion of patients experiencing hypoglycemic events and to characterize patient awareness and fear about hypoglycemia, among insulin-treated T1DM or T2DM patients. Methods: This was a non-interventional, multicenter study, with a 6-month retrospective and a 4-week prospective evaluation of hypoglycemic events...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Ebrahim Latifi, Ahmad Ali Mohammadpour, Behrooz Fathi H, Hosein Nourani
The present study was conducted to investigate the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin extract (FAOGRETE) and also its effects on liver and kidney function in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. For this purpose, 42 male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 7). Diabetes was induced in four groups by a single-dose of STZ at 55 mg/kg body weight, administrated intraperitoneal. After 42 days of treatment, fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels, serum insulin, biochemical parameters such as total cholesterol, triglycerides, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured...
November 21, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Vivian L Choo, Effie Viguiliouk, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Adrian I Cozma, Tauseef A Khan, Vanessa Ha, Thomas M S Wolever, Lawrence A Leiter, Vladimir Vuksan, Cyril W C Kendall, Russell J de Souza, David J A Jenkins, John L Sievenpiper
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of different food sources of fructose-containing sugars on glycaemic control at different levels of energy control. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled intervention studies. DATA SOURCES: Medine, Embase, and the Cochrane Library up to 25 April 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Controlled intervention studies of at least seven days' duration and assessing the effect of different food sources of fructose-containing sugars on glycaemic control in people with and without diabetes were included...
November 21, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Mona Koosha, Hassan Vatandoost, Fateh Karimian, Nayyereh Choubdar, Mohammad Ali Oshaghi
Understanding how arthropod vectors acquire their bacteria is essential for implementation of paratransgenic and RNAi strategies using genetically modified bacteria to control vector-borne diseases. In this study, a genetically marked Serratia AS1 strain expressing the mCherry fluorescent protein (mCherry-Serratia) was used to test various acquisition routes in six arthropod vectors including Anopheles stephensi, Culex pipiens, Cx. quinquefaciatus, Cx. theileri, Phlebotomus papatasi, and Hyalomma dromedarii...
November 20, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Chao-Yung Wang, Tien-An Lin, Keng-Hau Liu, Chien-Hung Liao, Yu-Yin Liu, Victor Chien-Chia Wu, Ming-Shien Wen, Ta-Sen Yeh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Asprosin is a novel fasting-induced glucogenic and orexigenic protein hormone. The clinical function of asprosin in obesity is currently unknown. This study investigated the association between asprosin abundance and the outcome of bariatric surgery. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Patients with body mass index more than 35 kg/m2 were recruited for the Obesity and Clock for Elegant Aging Registry in 2011-2016. Body weight changes, blood sugar, and asprosin were assessed in 117 patients receiving bariatric surgery and 57 non-obese subjects as normal control...
November 20, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Kyoko Nishiyama, Takahiro Kobayashi, Yuko Sato, Yoshihisa Watanabe, Riki Kikuchi, Ryoko Kanno, Tetsuo Koshizuka, Nozomu Miyazaki, Ken Ishioka, Tatsuo Suzutani
In order to clarify the effects of the Lactococcus lactis ( L. lactis ) 11/19-B1 strain, a double-blind controlled study of yogurt fermented with the strain was carried out. For the study, two kinds of yogurt, the control and test yogurt, were prepared; the control yogurt was fermented with Streptococcus thermophiles , Lactobacillus delbrueckii subspecies bulgaricus, and Lactobacillus acidophilus , and the test yogurt was enriched with L. lactis 11/19-B1 and Bifidobacterium lactis ( B. lactis ) BB-12 strains...
November 16, 2018: Nutrients
Sima Jafarirad, Nina Ayoobi, Majid Karandish, Mohammad-Taha Jalali, Mohammad Hossein Haghighizadeh, Alireza Jahanshahi
Background: An appropriate snack for patients with diabetes mellitus should be considered to help them in their treatment due to their hard administrative diet. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of dark chocolate on inflammatory markers, serum adiponectin, and certain biochemical factors in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: This study was a randomized parallel clinical trial. Thirty grams of 84% dark chocolate, along with therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLCs) guidelines, were administrated to patients with T2D...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
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