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Plants And Pest

Tadeusz Wróblewski, Laurentiu Spiridon, Eliza Cristina Martin, Andrei-Jose Petrescu, Keri Cavanaugh, Maria Jose-Truco, Huaqin Xu, Dariusz Gozdowski, Krzysztof Pawłowski, Richard W Michelmore, Frank L W Takken
The ability to induce a defense response after pathogen attack is a critical feature of the immune system of any organism. Nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs) are key players in this process and perceive the occurrence of nonself-activities or foreign molecules. In plants, coevolution with a variety of pests and pathogens has resulted in repertoires of several hundred diverse NLRs in single individuals and many more in populations as a whole. However, the mechanism by which defense signaling is triggered by these NLRs in plants is poorly understood...
December 12, 2018: PLoS Biology
Brian J Gareau, Xiaorui Huang, Tara Pisani Gareau
Cranberry growers in New England are increasingly pressured by negative effects associated with global climate change, some of which are familiar to this group (such as precipitation fluctuations and pest pressures), others that are rather new (such as warmer winters that threaten needed chill hours for the plants to bloom). The first study of this population of its kind, we use a survey, supplemented with observations and interviews, to assess Massachusetts cranberry grower attitudes towards climate change, and whether certain conditions of production might be associated with their attitudes...
2018: PloS One
Hanxiang Wu, Hanhong Xu, Cécile Marivingt-Mounir, Jean-Louis Bonnemain, Jean-François Chollet
Systemicity of agrochemicals is an advantageous property for controlling phloem sucking insects, as well as pathogens and pests not accessible to contact products. After the penetration of the cuticle, the plasma membrane constitutes the main barrier to the entry of an agrochemical into the sap flow. The current strategy for developing systemic agrochemicals is to optimize the physicochemical properties of the molecules so that they can cross the plasma membrane by simple diffusion or ion trapping mechanisms...
December 7, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jay D Evans, Duane McKenna, Erin Scully, Steven C Cook, Benjamin Dainat, Noble Egekwu, Nathaniel Grubbs, Dawn Lopez, Marcé D Lorenzen, Steven M Reyna, Frank D Rinkevich, Peter Neumann, Qiang Huang
Background: The small hive beetle (Aethina tumida, ATUMI) is an invasive parasite of bee colonies. ATUMI feeds on both fruits and bee nest products, facilitating its spread and increasing its impact on honey bees and other pollinators. We have sequenced and annotated the ATUMI genome, providing the first genomic resources for this species and for the Nitidulidae, a beetle family that is closely related to the extraordinarily species-rich clade of beetles known as the Phytophaga. ATUMI thus provides a contrasting view as a neighbor for one of the most successful known animal groups...
December 7, 2018: GigaScience
Cindy R Preto, David E Bellamy, Spencer S Walse, Frank G Zalom
European grapevine moth, Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller), is an invasive pest species subject to regulatory control under the International Plant Protection Convention. An extensive infestation of this insect detected in California vineyards in October 2009 resulted in the initiation of postharvest research intended to ensure continuing trade of California table grapes by preventing the unintentional introduction of L. botrana to uninfested export destinations. Having the ability to accurately predict and confirm the particular stadia of larval development of insects obscured from direct observations, such as those being mass-reared in diet for use in phytosanitary control experiments, is necessary to be able to ensure that the most tolerant life stage is accurately targeted...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Shirani M K Widana Gamage, Dorith Rotenberg, Derek J Schneweis, Chi-Wei Tsai, Ralf G Dietzgen
Thrips palmi is a widely distributed major agricultural pest in the tropics and subtropics, causing significant losses in cucurbit and solanaceous crops through feeding damage and transmission of tospoviruses. Thrips palmi is a vector of capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV) in Australia. The present understanding of transmission biology and potential effects of CaCV on T. palmi is limited. To gain insights into molecular responses to CaCV infection, we performed RNA-Seq to identify thrips transcripts that are differentially-abundant during virus infection of adults...
2018: PloS One
Qiling Hou, Lanjie Xu, Guoyu Liu, Xiaomeng Pang, Xiao Wang, Yufeng Zhang, Mingshan You, Zhongfu Ni, Zhangwu Zhao, Rongqi Liang
BACKGROUND: Grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) is one of the dominant pests that limit cereal crop production around the globe. Gq proteins play important roles in the signal transduction processes in insect olfaction. Plant-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely studied in insect control, but its application for wheat aphid control in the field needs to be further explored. In this study, we used dsRNA feeding to verify the potential of selected Gqα fragments for host-mediated RNAi, and then evaluated the effect of RNAi on aphid olfaction in transgenic wheat in greenhouse and field...
December 7, 2018: Pest Management Science
José Luis Rodríguez-Chávez, Francisco Franco-Navarro, Guillermo Delgado
BACKGROUND: Nacobbus aberrans (Tylenchida: Pratylenchidae) is one of the main plant-parasitic nematodes species that affects crops in Mexico, generating substantial economic losses. Traditionally, the control of the nematodes is carried out using chemical products; however, research efforts are presently focused on the search for new methods for the control of this pest. Natural products derived from plants are an alternative for the control of populations of plant-parasitic nematodes...
December 7, 2018: Pest Management Science
Blanca Velasco-Arroyo, Manuel Martinez, Isabel Diaz, Mercedes Diaz-Mendoza
BACKGROUND: Phytocystatins (PhyCys) act as endogenous regulators of cysteine proteases (CysProt) involved in various physiological processes. Besides, PhyCys are involved in plant reactions to abiotic stresses like drought or darkness and have been used as effective molecules against different pests and pathogens. The barley PhyCys-CysProt system is considered a model of protease-inhibitor regulation of protein turnover. Thirteen barley cystatins (HvCPI-1 to HvCPI-13) have been previously identified and characterized...
December 6, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Ke Wu, Paul D Shirk, Caitlin E Taylor, Richard B Furlong, Bryce D Shirk, Daniele H Pinheiro, Blair D Siegfried
The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith), is an important pest of maize in the Americas and has recently been introduced into Africa. Fall armyworm populations have developed resistance to control strategies that depend on insecticides and transgenic plants expressing Bacillus thuringiensis toxins. The study of various resistance mechanisms at the molecular level and the development novel control strategies have been hampered by a lack of functional genomic tools such as gene editing in this pest...
2018: PloS One
Peng He, Guang-Lei Chen, Shuo Li, Jun Wang, Yun-Feng Ma, Yu-Feng Pan, Ming He
BACKGROUND: The white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera, the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and the small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus are three notorious rice pests that cause annual losses in rice yield through sap-sucking and virus transmission. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are crucial olfactory genes involved in host-seeking behavior. RESULTS: We discovered the presence of 12, 12, and 16 OBPs in WBPH, BPH, and SBPH, respectively, including two novel OBPs in BPH and seven novel OBPs in SBPH...
December 4, 2018: Pest Management Science
Daniel L Frank
Bagging fruit with plastic, paper, and two-layer commercial bags was evaluated for control of insect pests and diseases in an experimental apple orchard planted with 'Red Delicious' trees. Results from fruit damage evaluations at harvest showed that bagging significantly reduced fruit damage from direct apple pests compared with non-bagged control plots, and generally provided similar levels of fruit protection when compared with a conventional pesticide spray program. Of the three bagging materials evaluated, plastic bags provided numerically higher levels of fruit protection from insect pests, and two-layer commercial bags provided numerically higher levels of fruit protection from fruit diseases...
December 1, 2018: Insects
Mohammad Munir Mostafiz, Pijush Kanti Jhan, Jae-Kyoung Shim, Kyeong-Yeoll Lee
Methyl benzoate (MB) is a plant-derived volatile organic compound with insecticidal properties, but such activity has not been evaluated against the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), a major crop pest. In this study, we tested methyl benzoate control efficacy on B. tabaci infecting tomato plants in a greenhouse, specifically measuring contact and fumigant toxicity, as well as repellent activity. For direct spray applications of 0% (control), 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, 2% MB onto tomato leaves infested with adults of B...
2018: PloS One
Anthony A Hanson, Aaron J Lorenz, Louis S Hesler, Siddhi J Bhusal, Raman Bansal, Andy P Michel, Guo-Liang Jiang, Robert L Koch
Soybean aphid [ Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae)] is the most damaging insect pest of soybean [ (L.) Merr.] in the Upper Midwest of the United States and is primarily controlled by insecticides. Soybean aphid resistance (i.e., genes) has been documented in some soybean accessions but more sources of resistance are needed. Incorporation of the resistance into marketed varieties has also been slow. Genome-wide association mapping can aid in identifying resistant accessions by correlating phenotypic data with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across a genome...
November 2018: Plant Genome
Tunay Karan
Medicinal and aromatic plants play a significant role in drug discovery. Lavandula stoechas L. has been used as folk medicine to treat various diseases. The aim of this work is to investigate the phytochemisty of Lavandula stoechas with biological activities. An aerial part of the plant was extracted with methanol. Another sample of plant was boiled in water then aqueous part was extracted with ethyl acetate. Identification and quantification of phenolic compounds, organic acids and flavonoids in methanol extract were carried out by High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Time of Flight/Mass Spectrometry, HPLC-TOF/MS...
November 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Reut Shavit, Zhaniya S Batyrshina, Nitsan Dotan, Vered Tzin
Aphids are major pests in cereal crops that cause direct and indirect damage leading to yield reduction. Despite the fact that wheat provides 20% of the world's caloric and protein diet, its metabolic responses to aphid attack, in general, and specifically its production of benzoxazinoid defense compounds are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to compare the metabolic diversity of durum wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) under attack by three different cereal aphids: i) the English grain aphid (Sitobion avenae Fabricius), ii) the bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L...
2018: PloS One
Talat Parween, Sumira Jan, Mahmooduzzafar, Tasneem Fatma
Chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate), is an organophosphate insecticide effective against a broad spectrum of insect pests of economically important crops. The present study investigated the effects of chlorpyrifos application on sulfate assimilation and macro elemental composition in different plant parts at different phenological stages. Field experiments were conducted in the month of April 2008-2009. The individual plot size was 6 m2 (4 m × 1.5 m) having 4 rows with a row-to-row distance of 15 inches and plant to plant distance of 10 inches...
November 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Geoffrey Jaffuel, Vladimír Půža, Anna-Sofia Hug, Reto Giulio Meuli, Jiří Nermuť, Ted C J Turlings, Gaylord A Desurmont, Raquel Campos-Herrera
Terrestrial gastropod molluscs are widely distributed and are well known as pests of many types of plants that are notoriously difficult to control. Many species of nematodes are able to parasitize land snails and slugs, but few of them are lethal to their host. Species and/or populations of mollusc-parasitic nematodes (MPNs) that kill their hosts are promising for biological control purposes. The recent discovery of new nematode species of the genus Phasmarhabditis in Europe and the associations between Alloionema spp...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Guang-Lei Chen, Yu-Feng Pan, Yun-Feng Ma, Jun Wang, Ming He, Peng He
The white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera is a notorious rice pest in Asia. Olfaction is crucial for the WBPH to seek and locate rice plants. However, its mechanism is still not fully understood. Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are some of the important olfactory-related proteins. In this study, we first used a bacterial system to successfully express the recombinant, antennae-enriched protein SfurCSP5. Further, competitive fluorescence binding assays with 86 candidate ligands, including some known rice plant volatiles, showed that SfurCSP5 has high affinities for 2-tridecanone, 2-pentadecanone, and β-ionone, which are known to be present in volatile mixtures that can attract rice planthoppers, and produced Ki values of 4...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Yanjie Wang, Aixia Jiao, Huicha Chen, Xiaoding Ma, Di Cui, Bing Han, Renchao Ruan, Dayuan Xue, Longzhi Han
BACKGROUND: Kam Sweet Rice (KSR) is a special kind of rice landrace that has been cultivated for thousands of years in the borders of Guizhou, Hunan, and Guangxi Provinces of China, and is mainly distributed in southeast Guizhou Province of China currently. KSR has many unique qualities, including strong resistance to diseases, pests, and adverse abiotic conditions, difficulty of threshing, and well glutinous features. KSR germplasm resources are an indispensable material and cultural symbol in the production and daily life and customs of the Dong people...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
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