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Plants And Pest

Jaka Razinger, Matthias Lutz, Jürg Grunder, Gregor Urek
The cabbage maggot (also known as cabbage root fly [CRF]; Delia radicum L.) is a serious pest of brassicas. The pest's soil-dwelling larvae are especially damaging to young brassica transplants. In light of toxic soil insecticide phase-out novel biocontrol management solutions are sought for. Our research is focused on the development of a biological control strategy involving cauliflower plantlet inoculation with insect pathogenic fungi. This article presents the results of a laboratory investigation of cauliflower × microbe × CRF interactions...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Thais Fernanda Stella de Freitas, Michael Joseph Stout, Josué Sant'Ana
BACKGROUND: After herbivore attack, plants express inducible resistance-related traits activated by hormones, mainly jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA). Methyl jasmonate (MeJa) is a biologically active methyl ester of JA. Exogenous applications of JA, SA, and MeJa induce responses similar to herbivory by insects. In this study, rice, Oryza sativa L. (Poaceae), plants were treated with two concentrations of MeJa (2 and 5 mM), two concentrations of SA (8 and 16 mM) and herbivory to evaluate effects of elicitation and herbivory on resistance to the rice stink bug (RSB) Oebalus pugnax Fabricius, 1775 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), an injurious insect pest of rice in the United States...
August 13, 2018: Pest Management Science
Anna Skoracka, Brian G Rector, Gary L Hein
Wheat production and sustainability are steadily threatened by pests and pathogens in both wealthy and developing countries. This review is focused on the wheat curl mite (WCM), Aceria tosichella , and its relationship with wheat. WCM is a major pest of wheat and other cereals and a vector of at least four damaging plant viruses ( Wheat streak mosaic virus , High plains wheat mosaic virus , Brome streak mosaic virus , and Triticum mosaic virus ). The WCM-virus pathosystem causes considerable yield losses worldwide and its severity increases significantly when mixed-virus infections occur...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Periyasamy Panneerselvam, Upendra Kumar, Snigdha Sahu, Shyamaranjan Das Mohapatra, Tushar Kanti Dangar, Chidambaranathan Parameswaran, Afrin Jahan, Ansuman Senapati, Guru Prasanna Pandi Govindharaj
Insect pests in the rice agroecosystem, particularly the leaf folder, Cnaphalocrosis medinalis (Guenee) and stem borer, Sesamia inferens (Walker), cause significant yield losses. These pests are generally managed by farmers by application of insecticides and a few biocontrol agents. As a component of integrated pest management, biocontrol agents play a dynamic role in pest control. Although diverse microbial communities are available in the rice ecosystem, bacterial genera such as Bacillus and Pseudomonas spp...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
F Nadiya, N Anjali, Jinu Thomas, A Gangaprasad, K K Sabu
Cardamom has long been used as a food flavoring agent and in ayurvedic medicines for mouth ulcers, digestive problems, and even depression. Extensive occurrence of pests and diseases adversely affect its cultivation and result in substantial reduction in total production and productivity. Numerous studies revealed the significant role of miRNAs in plant biotic stress responses. In the current study, miRNA profiling of cultivar and wild cardamom genotypes was performed using Ion Proton sequencer. We identified 161 potential miRNAs representing 42 families including monocot/tissue specific and 14 novel miRNAs in both genotypes...
August 11, 2018: Plant Biology
Gerson Adriano Silva, Izailda Barbosa Santos, Silvério Oliveira Campos, Tarcísio Visintin Silva Galdino, Elisângela Gomes Fidelis Morais, Júlio Claudio Martins, Lino Roberto Ferreira, Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes, Marcelo Coutinho Picanço
Insect pests are one of the factors that most impact plant yield. The magnitude of the losses and the spatiotemporal pest distribution in crops is a result of their interactions with the environment. Therefore, the understanding of the causes of production losses and the pest spatial patterns is important for the development of suitable sampling plans and pest management programs. Thus, this study aimed to quantify grain losses caused by insects and to determine the spatial distribution pattern of arthropod pest species in Bt and non-Bt corn...
2018: PloS One
Muhammad Hafeez, Liu Sisi, Saad Jan, Bahar Ali, Muhammad Shahid, G Mandela Fernández-Grandon, Muhammad Nawaz, Aqeel Ahmad, Mo Wang
BACKGROUND: In plant-insect interactions, phytotoxins such as gossypol, exert a defensive role on behalf of the plant by interfering with the essential metabolic, biochemical and physiological pathways of herbivorous insects. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a key pest for many important crops including a range of vegetables, ornamentals, and cotton. For this study we investigated how resistance to deltamethrin relates to enzyme activity in gossypol-pretreated larvae of S...
August 9, 2018: Pest Management Science
Antoine Sanon, Ilboudo Zakaria, Dabire-Binso Clémentine L, Ba Malick Niango, Nébié Roger Charles Honora
Cowpea is an essential food legume in the tropics and particularly for sub-Saharan African populations. Postharvest grain storage, however, is a major constraint for crop expansion and year-round availability due to the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F., the main storage pest of cowpeas in West Africa. The use of chemicals for cowpea storage is a common practice which represents, however, a risk for consumers, environment, and could also exacerbate pest control. In Burkina Faso, since the early 2000s, several scientific investigations have focused on the control of C maculatus using botanicals considered as promising and safe alternatives to chemicals...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
Qiong Wu, Mi Ni, Guisheng Wang, Qianqian Liu, Meixia Yu, Jun Tang
BACKGROUD: Though it is toxic to humans, dichlorvos is a widely used chemical pesticide and plays an important role in the control of plant pests. The application of a combination of the biocontrol agent Trichoderma with dichlorvos may reduce the need for chemical pesticides. Therefore, revealing the specific molecular mechanism of Trichoderma tolerance to dichlorvos has become particularly important. RESULTS: In this study, using transcriptome and metabolome analyses, changes in primary and secondary metabolisms in Trichoderma asperellum TJ01 were comprehensively studied in the presence of dichlorvos...
August 8, 2018: BMC Genomics
Patricia Claudel, Quentin Chesnais, Quentin Fouché, Célia Krieger, David Halter, Florent Bogaert, Sophie Meyer, Sylvaine Boissinot, Philippe Hugueney, Véronique Ziegler-Graff, Arnaud Ameline, Véronique Brault
Aphids are important pests which cause direct damage by feeding or indirect prejudice by transmitting plant viruses. Viruses are known to induce modifications of plant cues in ways that can alter vector behavior and virus transmission. In this work, we addressed whether the modifications induced by the aphid-transmitted Turnip yellows virus (TuYV) in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana also apply to the cultivated plant Camelina sativa , both belonging to the Brassicaceae family. In most experiments, we observed a significant increase in the relative emission of volatiles from TuYV-infected plants...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ivan Hiltpold, Bruce E Hibbard
Plants genetically modified to produce insecticidal toxins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bt) have been extensively used to manage the western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in the United States. Evolution of WCR resistance to Bt toxins has forced the consideration of alternative pest management and improved insect resistance management. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), obligate insect parasites, are attracted toward volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by maize roots after WCR herbivory...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
S Kristine Braman, James C Quick
Lagerstroemia is a genus of plants comprised of deciduous shrubs or small trees native to China southward into Southeast Asia. There is a wide range among cultivars of tolerance to key pests and diseases, such as powdery mildew, Erysiphe australiana (McAlpine), flea beetle, Altica spp., crape myrtle aphid, Tinocallis kahawaluokalani Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). We found variation in bee visitation to 40 cultivars evaluated in a 2-yr study in north Georgia...
August 6, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Faiza Taibi, Mahieddine Boumendjel, Zaafour Moncef, Sekiou Omar, Khaldi Taha, Delimi Amel, Abdessmad Safa, Rebani Hassiba, Chnouga Hanène, Siakhène Nacira, Boumendjel Amel, Messarah Mahfoud
In the search for effective methods of biological control of stored products insect-pests, the essential oil of Origanum vulgaris was extracted using Clevenger apparatus and tested on reproduction and mortality of flour moth Ephestia kuehniella. Bio-insecticide works with a double action mechanism; administered by inhalation in pupae, essential oil affects their pupal development. It also disrupts the reproduction of exuviated adults by extending the preoviposition period and reducing the period of egg laying and fecundity because fecundated females cannot live more than four days compared to control group...
July 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Peng-Jun Zhang, Yu-Chen He, Chan Zhao, Zi-Hong Ye, Xiao-Ping Yu
The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci is an important and invasive crop pest in many countries. Previous laboratory studies with Arabidopsis demonstrated that B. tabaci can suppress jasmonic acid (JA) defenses and thereby enhance B. tabaci performance. Whether B. tabaci can suppress JA-regulated host plant defenses in field is unknown. In the present study, we found that, relative to wild-type (WT) tomato plants, transgenic tomato mutants that activated JA defenses ( 35s::prosys ) or impaired JA defenses ( spr-2 and def-1 ) did not affect the survival or reproduction of B...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ana Paula Zotta Mota, Bruna Vidigal, Etienne G J Danchin, Roberto Coiti Togawa, Soraya C M Leal-Bertioli, David John Bertioli, Ana Claudia Guerra Araujo, Ana Cristina Miranda Brasileiro, Patricia Messenberg Guimaraes
BACKGROUND: The Root-Knot Nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne arenaria, significantly reduces peanut grain quality and yield worldwide. Whilst the cultivated species has low levels of resistance to RKN and other pests and diseases, peanut wild relatives (Arachis spp.) show rich genetic diversity and harbor high levels of resistance to many pathogens and environmental constraints. Comparative transcriptome analysis can be applied to identify candidate resistance genes. RESULTS: Transcriptome analysis during the early stages of RKN infection of two peanut wild relatives, the highly RKN resistant Arachis stenosperma and the moderately susceptible A...
August 6, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Hui-Ru Jia, Yu-Feng Sun, Shu-Ping Luo, Kong-Ming Wu
Aphidophagous syrphids are important for pest control and pollination in various agroecosystems. However, the mechanism underlying olfaction, which is critical for insect' behavioral processes and fitness, has not been well understood in the family Syrphidae. Hence, we performed a systematic identification and characterisation of the antennal sensilla and two groups of soluble proteins, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs), in the hoverfly Eupeodes corollae. (i) With scanning electron microscopy, four major types of sensilla (chaetic sensilla [two subtypes], trichoid sensilla, basiconic sensilla [two subtypes] and coeloconic sensilla), with numerous microtrichia, were first observed along the entire surface of aristate antennae of both sexes E...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Sumitha Nallu, Jason A Hill, Kristine Don, Carlos Sahagun, Wei Zhang, Camille Meslin, Emilie Snell-Rood, Nathan L Clark, Nathan I Morehouse, Joy Bergelson, Christopher W Wheat, Marcus R Kronforst
Interactions between herbivorous insects and their host plants are a central component of terrestrial food webs and a critical topic in agriculture, where a substantial fraction of potential crop yield is lost annually to pests. Important insights into plant-insect interactions have come from research on specific plant defences and insect detoxification mechanisms. Yet, much remains unknown about the molecular mechanisms that mediate plant-insect interactions. Here we use multiple genome-wide approaches to map the molecular basis of herbivory from both plant and insect perspectives, focusing on butterflies and their larval host plants...
August 3, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Hai-Jian Huang, Jia-Rong Cui, Yan Guo, Jing-Tao Sun, Xiao-Yue Hong
The cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) gene family has an important role in detoxifying host plant allelochemicals and pesticides. In this study, we screened differentially expressed genes of the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus, SBPHs) that were reared for more than ten generations on rice and wheat plants, and found that only a few P450s were associated with host adaptation. LsCYP4DE1, whose expression was 9.5-fold higher in the wheat-adapted SBPH (wSBPH) than in the rice-adapted SBPH (rSBPH), appeared to have an important role in the colonization of wheat plants...
July 31, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Liang Shang, Chuanjun Liu, Bin Chen, Kenshi Hayashi
Detection of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) enables monitoring of pests and diseases in agriculture. We previously revealed that a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensor coated with a molecularly imprinted sol-gel (MISG) can be used for cis-jasmone vapor detection. Although the selectivity of the LSPR sensor was enhanced by the MISG coating, its sensitivity was decreased. Here, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were doped in the MISG to enhance the sensitivity of the LSPR sensor through hot spot generation...
August 3, 2018: ACS Sensors
Qian Ju, Xiao Li, Xiao-Qiang Guo, Long Du, Chen-Ren Shi, Ming-Jing Qu
The dark black chafer (DBC), Holotrichia parallela , is an important pest of multiple crops. Insect host-searching behaviors are regulated by host plant volatiles. Therefore, a better understanding of the mechanism linking the chemosensory system to plant volatiles at the molecular level will benefit DBC control strategies. Based on antenna transcriptome data, two highly expressed antenna-specific odorant-binding proteins (HparOBP20 and 49) were selected to identify novel DBC attractants using reverse chemical ecology methods...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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