Read by QxMD icon Read

Plants And Pest

Zhao-Qun Li, Shuai Zhang, Xiao-Ming Cai, Jun-Yu Luo, Shuang-Lin Dong, Jin-Jie Cui, Zong-Mao Chen
Chrysoperla sinica is an important natural predator of many notorious agricultural pests. Understanding its olfactory mechanism can help enhance the effectiveness of C. sinica in biological control. In the present study, we investigated the tissue expression patterns of 12 odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes from C. sinica (CsinOBPs). The results of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) showed that CsinOBP1, CsinOBP2, CsinOBP3, CsinOBP4, CsinOBP6, CsinOBP7, CsinOBP9, CsinOBP10, and CsinOBP12 were predominantly expressed in the antennae of both sexes, indicating their roles in olfaction...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Jarmo K Holopainen, Virpi Virjamo, Rajendra P Ghimire, James D Blande, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto, Minna Kivimäenpää
Plant secondary compounds (PSCs), also called secondary metabolites, have high chemical and structural diversity and appear as non-volatile or volatile compounds. These compounds may have evolved to have specific physiological and ecological functions in the adaptation of plants to their growth environment. PSCs are produced by several metabolic pathways and many PSCs are specific for a few plant genera or families. In forest ecosystems, full-grown trees constitute the majority of plant biomass and are thus capable of producing significant amounts of PSCs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Meritxell Pérez-Hedo, Ángela M Arias-Sanguino, Alberto Urbaneja
The zoophytophagous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) is capable of inducing plant defenses in tomato due to its phytophagous behavior. These induced defenses, which include the release of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs), have been proven to affect the oviposition behavior and reduce the subsequent performance of some tomato pests. However, the effect of induction of plant defenses by N. tenuis on the preference, development, and reproduction of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) remains unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Simon Snoeck, Nicky Wybouw, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Wannes Dermauw
The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is an important pest with an exceptionally broad host plant range. This generalist rapidly acclimatizes and adapts to a new host, hereby overcoming nutritional challenges and a novel pallet of constitutive and induced plant defenses. Although recent studies reveal that a broad transcriptomic response upon host plant transfer is associated with a generalist life style in arthropod herbivores, it remains uncertain to what extent these transcriptional changes are general stress responses or host-specific...
October 17, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Brian E Gress, Frank G Zalom
BACKGROUND: The bioinsecticide, spinosad, is among the most widely used insecticides for managing the spotted-wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), and is critical for preventing fruit infestation in organic berry production. Recent reports, however, have raised concerns that efficacy of this material is declining in fields near Watsonville, CA, a major hub of commercial berry production in the U.S. and the first location where D. suzukii was reported in North America. RESULTS: In this study, we performed dose-response analyses on D...
October 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Waseem Akbar, Anilkumar Gowda, Jeffrey E Ahrens, Jason W Stelzer, Robert S Brown, Scott L Bollman, John T Greenplate, Jeffrey Gore, Angus L Catchot, Gus Lorenz, Scott D Stewart, David L Kerns, Jeremy K Greene, Michael D Toews, David A Herbert, Dominic D Reisig, Gregory A Sword, Peter C Ellsworth, Larry D Godfrey, Thomas L Clark
BACKGROUND: Plant bugs (Lygus spp.) and thrips (Thrips spp.) are two of the most economically important insect pest groups impacting cotton production in the USA today, but are not controlled by current transgenic cotton varieties. Thus, seed or foliar-applied chemical insecticides are typically required to protect cotton from these pest groups. Currently, these pests are resistant to several insecticides, resulting in fewer options for economically viable management. Previous publications documented the efficacy of transgenic cotton event MON 88702 against plant bugs and thrips in limited laboratory and field studies...
October 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Camilla Knudsen, Nethaji Janeshawari Gallage, Cecilie Cetti Hansen, Birger Lindberg Møller, Tomas Laursen
Covering: up to 2018Plants are sessile organisms. To compensate for not being able to escape when challenged by unfavorable growth conditions, pests or herbivores, plants have perfected their metabolic plasticity by having developed the capacity for on demand synthesis of a plethora of phytochemicals to specifically respond to the challenges arising during plant ontogeny. Key steps in the biosynthesis of phytochemicals are catalyzed by membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzymes which in plants constitute a superfamily...
October 16, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Yolice Tembo, Angela G Mkindi, Prisila A Mkenda, Nelson Mpumi, Regina Mwanauta, Philip C Stevenson, Patrick A Ndakidemi, Steven R Belmain
In the fight against arthropod crop pests using plant secondary metabolites, most research has focussed on the identification of bioactive molecules. Several hundred candidate plant species and compounds are now known to have pesticidal properties against a range of arthropod pest species. Despite this growing body of research, few natural products are commercialized for pest management whilst on-farm use of existing botanically-based pesticides remains a small, but growing, component of crop protection practice...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sriyanka Lahiri, Phillip M Roberts, Michael D Toews
Thrips are early-season pests of cotton and can cause yield and stand losses if not managed. Strip tillage into a winter cover crop, use of a neonicotinoid seed treatment, and foliar insecticide applications are all reliable pest management tactics, but how these methods interact with each other in a thrip-cotton agroecosystem needs to be further understood. A 2-yr field study was conducted to compare thrip counts and thrip-induced plant injury as a function of tillage practice (conventional vs strip tillage with heavy rolled rye), thiamethoxam seed treatment, and foliar insecticide application for managing thrips in cotton...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
E Strydom, A Erasmus, H du Plessis, J Van den Berg
Transgenic Bt maize expressing Cry insecticidal δ-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis has been cultivated in South Africa for the control of Busseola fusca since 1998. Busseola fusca is resistant to Cry1Ab Bt maize at many localities throughout the maize production region. Pre-release evaluation (1994-1996) of the inherent susceptibility and post-release assessments (1998-2011) of resistance status of B. fusca focused on a limited number of pest populations. This study reports the current levels of susceptibility of 10 B...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Michael J Furlong, Gurion C K Ang, Rehan Silva, Myron P Zalucki
Research on insect-plant interactions has highlighted the intricacies of constitutive and induced plant defenses. Of particular interest has been the relationship of natural enemies (especially parasitic hymenoptera) to herbivore induced changes to plants, especially their responses to herbivore induced plant volatiles (HIPVs). In recent decades this has been a fertile area for research, with elegant experiments showing that HIPVs are important in attracting natural enemies to plants. We critically appraise the application of work on HIPVs in plant-insect-natural enemy interactions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Adam Broadley, Ellen Kauschke, Werner Mohrig
Male sciarids collected in Australia from inside post-entry quarantine and domestic greenhouses and from vegetable gardens and various plants, were slide mounted and identified. Specimens intercepted during on-arrival biosecurity inspections of imported nursery stock plants were also examined, and the New South Wales Department of Primary Industries collection of slide-mounted Sciaridae was reviewed. Plant and mushroom pest species that are present in Australia are Bradysia impatiens (Johannsen), B. ocellaris (Comstock), Lycoriella agraria (Felt), L...
April 30, 2018: Zootaxa
Reza Hosseini, Khadijeh Madahi
Many species of cutworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are important agricultural pest. They feed on roots and foliage of their host plants. Traditionally these species are identified based on morphological characteristics of adults. Hence identification of specimens in poor condition, immature stages and also closely related species or cryptic species is a difficult task. The basics of biological and ecological studies largely rely on an accurate species identification; consequently these investigations are impacted by potential misidentifications...
May 16, 2018: Zootaxa
Bruce Halliday, Muhammad Kamran, Muhammad Hamid Bashir
We present the first comprehensive inventory of the mites of Pakistan, based on data from published books and papers. The fauna as presently understood includes 126 families, 316 genera, and 1105 species. The best-documented genera are those that include pests of stored food (for example Acotyledon, 28 species), plant pests (Brevipalpus, 49 species; Tenuipalpus, 35 species), and beneficial predators (Euseius, 44 species; Neoseiulus, 37 species; Phytoseius, 36 species; Typhlodromus, 47 species). Some economically important families such as the Eriophyidae are almost completely unknown...
August 30, 2018: Zootaxa
Betzabeth Cecilia pÉrez Torres, JiŘÍ Skuhrovec, Vianey MarÍn-Cevada, MarÍa P Elizalde-gonzÁlez
The mature larva and pupa of Conotrachelus dimidiatus Champion, 1904 (Curculionidae: Molytinae) are morphologically re-described, keyed and, for the first time, compared with known larvae and pupae of other Conotrachelus species. The chaetotaxy of the larval and pupal body in the genus Conotrachelus is probably strictly uniform. The immature stages of described species are also compared with available data on the immature stages of genera from several tribes in the subfamily Molytinae. All larvae of Conotrachelus have a distinct endocranial line of a different size and a frons with only three setae...
June 11, 2018: Zootaxa
Yu-Xi Zhu, Yue-Ling Song, Ary A Hoffmann, Peng-Yu Jin, Shi-Mei Huo, Xiao-Yue Hong
Bacterial symbionts may influence the fitness of their herbivore hosts, but such effects have been poorly studied across most invertebrate groups. The spider mite, Tetranychus truncatus, is a polyphagous agricultural pest harboring various bacterial symbionts whose function is largely unknown. Here, by using a high-throughput 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing approach, we characterized the bacterial diversity and community composition of spider mites fed on five host plants after communities were modified following tetracycline exposure...
October 11, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Kaitlin M Chapman, Lia Marchi-Werle, Thomas E Hunt, Tiffany M Heng-Moss, Joe Louis
Plant resistance can provide effective, economical, and sustainable pest control. Tolerance to the soybean aphid has been identified and confirmed in the soybean KS4202. Although its resistance mechanisms are not fully understood, evidence suggests that enhanced detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an active system under high aphid infestation. We further explored tolerance by evaluating the differences in constitutive and aphid-induced defenses in KS4202 through the expression of selected defense-related transcripts and the levels of the phytohormones abscisic acid (ABA), jasmonic acid (JA), JA-isoleucine (JA-Ile), cis-(+)-12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA), and salicylic acid (SA) over several time points...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jean-Luc Da Lage
Alpha-amylases are major digestive enzymes that act in the first step of maltopolysaccharide digestion. In insects, these enzymes have long been studied for applied as well as purely scientific purposes. In many species, amylases are produced by multiple gene copies. Rare species are devoid of Amy gene. They are predominantly secreted in the midgut but salivary expression is also frequent, with extraoral activity. Enzymological parameters are quite variable among insects, with visible trends according to phylogeny: Coleopteran amylases have acidic optimum activity, whereas dipteran amylases have neutral preference and lepidopteran ones have clear alkaline preference...
2018: International Journal of Insect Science
Mariana S Pascua, Margarita Rocca, Patrick De Clercq, Nancy M Greco
The availability of oviposition sites for the predators of arthropod pests is crucial for the success of biological control. The resources for oviposition and offspring survival offered to the predators by crops and the surrounding natural vegetation are relevant in the context of conservation biological control. The endophytic oviposition of Orius insidiosus (Say) depends on the characteristics of the plant tissues. We thus examined, by single- and multiple-choice tests, 1) the oviposition of O. insidiosus in strawberry, analyzing the tissue characteristics of the different plant structures, and 2) the preference for oviposition among strawberry, tomato, bell pepper, eggplant, and the wild South-American poppy Bidens pilosa L...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Kasie Raymann, Kerri L Coon, Zack Shaffer, Stephen Salisbury, Nancy A Moran
Although few honey bee diseases are known to be caused by bacteria, pathogens of adult worker bees may be underrecognized due to social immunity mechanisms. Specifically, infected adult bees typically abandon the hive or are removed by guards. Serratia marcescens , an opportunistic pathogen of many plants and animals, is often present at low abundance in the guts of honey bee workers and has recently been isolated from Varroa mites and from the hemolymph of dead and dying honey bees. However, the severity and prevalence of S...
October 9, 2018: MBio
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"