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Multiple drug resistant

D Zare, H Fazeli
BACKGROUND: Hospital-associated infections, recently renamed Healthcare-associated infections, are among the most common life-threatening complications of hospitalized patients, especially the immunocompromised patients. Regarding the significant role of Enterobacteriaceae in nosocomial infections and also the increasing trends of carbapenem-resistant strains, the present study aimed to evaluate the antibiotic resistance pattern and the occurrence of metallo-beta-lactamases (MBLs) in Enterobacteriaceae strains from Iranian cancer patients...
January 2019: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
By Arabo Avanes, Gal Lenz, Jamil Momand
The PPP1R1B gene is located on chromosome 17q12 (39,626,208-39,636,626[GRCh38/hg38]), which codes for multiple transcripts and two experimentally-documented proteins Darpp-32 and t-Darpp. Darpp-32 (Dopamine and cAMP Regulated Phosphoprotein), discovered in the early 1980s, is a protein whose phosphorylation is upregulated in response to cAMP in dopamine-responsive tissues in the brain. It's phosphorylation profile modulates its ability to bind and inhibit Protein Phosphatase 1 activity, which, in turn, controls the activity of hundreds of phosphorylated proteins...
December 12, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Huaimin Wang, Zhaoqianqi Feng, Cuihong Yang, Jinjian Liu, Jamie E Medina, S Ali Aghvami, Daniela M Dinulescu, Jianfeng Liu, Seth Fraden, Bing Xu
Acquired drug resistance remains a challenge in chemotherapy. Here we show enzymatic, in-situ assembling of cholesterol derivatives to act as polypharmaceuticals for selectively inducing death of cancer cells via multiple pathways and without inducing acquired drug resistance. A conjugate of tyrosine and cholesterol (TC), formed by enzyme catalyzed dephosphorylation of phosphorylate TC (pTC), self-assembles selectively on or in cancer cells. Acting as polypharmaceuticals, the assemblies of TC augment lipid rafts, aggregate extrinsic cell death receptors (e...
December 14, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Dengyang Fang, Zuming Xiong, Jinming Xu, Jun Yin, Runlan Luo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers and has a high mortality rate in less developed countries, especially in China. Galangin (GA), one of the most important and naturally active flavonoids, extracted primarily from the root of Alpinia officinarum Hance, has been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of HCC. It is a substance with defensive actions and a broad range of biological properties, including inhibitory effects on bacteria, fungi, viruses, the control of hypertension and diabetes, and chemoprevention of several cancers...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Hang Pan, Xin Zhou, Wenqin Chai, Narayan Paudyal, Shuning Li, Xiao Zhou, Kun Zhou, Qingqing Wu, Beibei Wu, Guogang Li, Andreja Rajkovic, Weihuan Fang, Shelley C Rankin, Yan Li, Xuebin Xu, Dieter M Schifferli, Min Yue
Salmonella enterica Newport (S. Newport), with phylogenetic diversity feature, contributes to significant public health concerns. Our previous study suggested that S. Newport from multiple animal-borne routes, with distinct antibiotic resistant pattern, might transmit to human. However, their genetic information was lacking. As a complement to the earlier finding, we investigate the relationship between each other among the hosts, sources, genotype and antibiotic resistance in S. Newport. We used the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) in conjunction with minimum inhibitory concentration of 16 antibiotics of globally sampled 1842 S...
December 11, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Vicente Soriano, Jorge Del Romero
Nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of the four major curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs), namely trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Despite huge global incidence, STIs remain as neglected diseases. The success of antiretrovirals for halting progression to AIDS in HIV-infected individuals and for stopping HIV transmission to uninfected contacts, either as pre- or post-exposure -prophylaxis, has to lead to increased risky sexual behaviors through risk compensation...
2018: AIDS Reviews
P T Hoekstra, M Casacuberta Partal, A S Amoah, L van Lieshout, P L A M Corstjens, S Tsonaka, R K Assaré, K D Silué, A Meité, E K N'Goran, Y K N'Gbesso, M Roestenberg, S Knopp, J Utzinger, J T Coulibaly, G J van Dam
BACKGROUND: Large scale administration of the anthelminthic drug praziquantel (PZQ) to at-risk populations is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis control, although persisting high prevalence of infections in some areas and growing concerns of PZQ resistance have revealed the limitations of this strategy. Most studies assessing PZQ efficacy have used relatively insensitive parasitological diagnostics, such as the Kato-Katz (KK) and urine-filtration methods, thereby overestimating cure rates (CRs)...
December 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Fatih M Uckun, Sanjive Qazi, Taner Demirer, Richard E Champlin
Recurrence of disease due to chemotherapy drug resistance remains a major obstacle to a more successful survival outcome of multiple myeloma (MM). Overcoming drug resistance and salvaging patients with relapsed and/or refractory (R/R) MM is an urgent and unmet medical need. Several new personalized treatment strategies have been developed against molecular targets to overcome this drug resistance. There are several targeted therapeutics with anti-MM activity in clinical pipeline, including inhibitors of anti-apoptotic proteins, monoclonal antibodies, antibody-drug conjugates, bispecific antibodies, fusion proteins, and various cell therapy platforms...
December 10, 2018: EBioMedicine
Jing Ge, Tingting Yang, Lei Zhang, Xuhan Zhang, Xiaoyu Zhu, Baolin Tang, Xiang Wan, Juan Tong, Kaidi Song, Wen Yao, Guangyu Sun, Zimin Sun, Huilan Liu
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality for patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT) can provided opportunities for patients without suitable donors for bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), while few studies have addressed BSI after UCBT. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence and risk factors of BSI, causative organisms, microbial resistance, and its impact on the clinical outcomes and survival of patients...
December 13, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Meenakshi Agarwal, Ashish Pathak, Rajesh Singh Rathore, Om Prakash, Rakesh Singh, Rajneesh Jaswal, John Seaman, Ashvini Chauhan
Two Burkholderia spp. (strains SRS-25 and SRS-46) were isolated from high concentrations of uranium (U) from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-managed Savannah River Site (SRS). SRS contains soil gradients that remain co-contaminated by heavy metals from previous nuclear weapons production activities. Uranium (U) is one of the dominant contaminants within the SRS impacted soils, which can be microbially transformed into less toxic forms. We established microcosms containing strains SRS-25 and SRS-46 spiked with U and evaluated the microbially-mediated depletion with concomitant genomic and proteomic analysis...
December 12, 2018: Cells
Iris Z Uras, Barbara Maurer, Sofie Nebenfuehr, Markus Zojer, Peter Valent, Veronika Sexl
While significant progress has been made in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), not all patients can be cured. Mutated in about 1/3 of de novo AML, the FLT3 receptor tyrosine kinase is an attractive target for drug development, activating mutations of the FLT3 map to the juxtamembrane domain (internal tandem duplications, ITD) or the tyrosine kinase domain (TKD), most frequently at codon D835. While small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) effectively target ITD mutant forms, those on the TKD are not responsive...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEDrug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) presents a therapeutic challenge in children, necessitating the consideration of multiple treatment options. Although deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been studied in adults with DRE, little evidence is available to guide clinicians regarding the application of this potentially valuable tool in children. Here, the authors present the first systematic review aimed at understanding the safety and efficacy of DBS for DRE in pediatric populations, emphasizing patient selection, device placement and programming, and seizure outcomes...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Paulina Jaworska-Andryszewska, Janusz K Rybakowski
A contemporary model for the pathogenesis of mood disorders (bipolar and depressive disorders) involves gene-environmental interaction, with genetic predisposition, epigenetic regulation, and environmental effects. Among multiple environmental factors, the experience of childhood trauma can be connected with the pathogenesis, course and the treatment of mood disorders. Patients with mood disorders have the greater frequency of childhood trauma compared with the general population, and adverse childhood experiences can exert a negative impact on their clinical course...
October 11, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Kemal Eren, Steven Weaver, Robert Ketteringham, Morné Valentyn, Melissa Laird Smith, Venkatesh Kumar, Sanjay Mohan, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Ben Murrell
Next generation sequencing of viral populations has advanced our understanding of viral population dynamics, the development of drug resistance, and escape from host immune responses. Many applications require complete gene sequences, which can be impossible to reconstruct from short reads. HIV env, the protein of interest for HIV vaccine studies, is exceptionally challenging for long-read sequencing and analysis due to its length, high substitution rate, and extensive indel variation. While long-read sequencing is attractive in this setting, the analysis of such data is not well handled by existing methods...
December 13, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Mubin Kazi, Kanchan Ajbani, Jeffrey A Tornheim, Anjali Shetty, Camilla Rodrigues
Drug-resistance due to AmpC β-lactamases represents a growing problem worldwide. In this study, a previously collected sample of 108 cefoxitin-resistant clinical isolates was assessed for AmpC β-lactamase production through routine phenotypic testing and double-disc cefoxitin/cloxcallin (DD-CC), cefoxitin/phenylboronic acid (CDT-PBA) and AmpC disc tests. The same isolates were characterized by a novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction molecular assay to detect the presence of blaACT, blaDHA, blaCIT, blaFOX, blaMIR and blaMOX...
December 13, 2018: Microbiology
Federico Scarponi, Mauro Zampolini, Chiara Zucchella, Stefano Bargellesi, Chiara Fassio, Francesca Pistoia, Michelangelo Bartolo
BACKGROUND: Literature shows that occurrence of comorbidities in people with severe acquired brain injury (sABI) is a common problem in rehabilitation stay. Consequently, patients could require an increase of interventions for diagnosis and treatment of clinical conditions, with a reduction of the rehabilitative take in charge for both clinical and organizational aspects. AIM: The first aim was to evaluate the rate of clinical conditions of sABI patients at admission in rehabilitation and the types of rehabilitative interventions performed in the first week; second objective was to explore the impact of clinical conditions on real rehabilitative take in charge...
December 13, 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Praveen K Bommareddy, Salvatore Aspromonte, Andrew Zloza, Samuel D Rabkin, Howard L Kaufman
Melanoma is an aggressive cutaneous malignancy, but advances over the past decade have resulted in multiple new therapeutic options, including molecularly targeted therapy, immunotherapy, and oncolytic virus therapy. Talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC) is a herpes simplex type 1 oncolytic virus, and trametinib is a MEK inhibitor approved for treatment of melanoma. Therapeutic responses with T-VEC are often limited, and BRAF/MEK inhibition is complicated by drug resistance. We observed that the combination of T-VEC and trametinib resulted in enhanced melanoma cell death in vitro...
December 12, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
S R Chandana, H M Babiker, D Mahadevan
Prognosis remains dismal for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Genomics and proteomics has depicted heterogeneity in PDAC. Collectively, this information could be useful in improving diagnosis, prognosis, modalities of therapy, treatment responses, deciphering drug resistance and new drug development. Areas Covered: We describe major advances in the cellular and molecular subtypes based on next generation sequencing and their predictive and prognostic value in PDAC patients. We review aberrant genes involving in defined cellular processes in PDAC...
December 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Sarita Manandhar, Anjana Singh, Ajit Varma, Shanti Pandey, Neeraj Shrivastava
S taphylococcus aureus , a notorious human pathogen, is a major cause of the community as well as healthcare associated infections. It can cause a diversity of recalcitrant infections mainly due to the acquisition of resistance to multiple drugs, its diverse range of virulence factors, and the ability to produce biofilm in indwelling medical devices. Such biofilm associated chronic infections often lead to increase in morbidity and mortality posing a high socio-economic burden, especially in developing countries...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Maximilien Tailler, Lisa M Lindqvist, Leonie Gibson, Jerry M Adams
Drugs targeting various pro-survival BCL-2 family members (''BH3 mimetics'') have efficacy in hemopoietic malignancies, but the non-targeted pro-survival family members can promote resistance. Pertinently, the sensitivity of some tumor cell lines to BH3 mimetic ABT737, which targets BCL-2, BCL-XL, and BCL-W but not MCL-1, is enhanced by 2-deoxyglucose (2DG). We found that 2DG augmented apoptosis induced by ABT737 in 3 of 8 human hemopoietic tumor cell lines, most strongly in pre-B acute lymphocytic leukemia cell line NALM-6, the focus of our mechanistic studies...
December 11, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
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