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Multiple drug resistant

Yu-Han Liu, Shu-Chen Kuo, Bing-Yu Yao, Zih-Syun Fang, Yi-Tzu Lee, Yuan-Chih Chang, Te-Li Chen, Che-Ming Jack Hu
Amidst the ever-rising threat of antibiotics resistance, colistin, a decade-old antibiotic with lingering toxicity concern, is increasingly prescribed to treat many drug-resistant, gram-negative bacteria. With the aim of improving the safety profile while preserving the antimicrobial activity of colistin, a nanoformulation is herein developed through coacervate complexation with polyanionic peptides. Upon controlled mixing of cationic colistin with polyglutamic acids, formation of liquid coacervates was demonstrated...
October 10, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
C N Miller, M J Caruso, H M Kamens
BACKGROUND: The initial response to nicotine is an important predictor of subsequent use. Multiple factors may alter this response including genetics and age of first use. Here we investigated the influence of age, genetics, and their interaction on nicotine sensitivity. We then examined whether these factors influence the relationship between initial behavioral responses and voluntary nicotine consumption in adulthood. METHODS: We measured initial nicotine responses, including nicotine-induced locomotor depression and hypothermia following an acute intraperitoneal injection (0, 0...
October 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Reeder M Robinson, Leticia Reyes, Ravyn M Duncan, Haiyan Bian, Allen B Reitz, Yefim Manevich, Jesse J McClure, Matthew M Champion, C James Chou, Meahgen E Sharik, Marta Chesi, P Leif Bergsagel, Nathan G Dolloff
Multiple Myeloma (MM) is highly sensitive to disruptions in cellular protein homeostasis. Proteasome inhibitors (PIs) are initially effective in the treatment of MM, although cures are not achievable and the emergence of resistance limits the durability of responses. New therapies are needed for refractory patients, and those that combat resistance to standard of care agents would be particularly valuable. Screening of multiple chemical libraries for PI re-sensitizing compounds identified E61 as a potent enhancer of multiple PIs and MM specific activity...
October 12, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Smirna Farias, Joshua S Boateng
The impact of demographic ageing is likely to be of major significance in the coming decades due to low birth rates and higher life expectancy. Older people generally require more prescribed medicines due to the presence of multiple conditions such as dysphagia which can make swallowing medicines challenging. This study involves the development, characterization and optimization of composite wafers for potential oral and buccal delivery of low dose aspirin to prevent thrombosis in elderly patients with dysphagia...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Manuela Hugle, Sebastian Czaplinski, Karoline Habermann, Meike Vogler, Simone Fulda
Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy is preventing effective treatment of multiple cancer types including pediatric tumors. Resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer cells is frequently associated with high expression of p-glycoprotein, a transporter in the plasma membrane that can mediate cellular drug export. Here, we generated pediatric cancer cells with acquired resistance to the chemotherapeutic drug vincristine (VCR). In these cells, acquired resistance is associated with increased expression of p-glycoprotein...
October 9, 2018: Cancer Letters
Christian Eckmann, Laura J Rojas, Sue Lyon
Report from the 28th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID 2018), Madrid, Spain, 21-24 April 2018 Gram-negative bacteria such as Klebsiella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas cause some of the most serious infections and are increasingly resistant to multiple drugs and in some cases, to all available antibiotics. Management of infections caused by these organisms is a global challenge that has serious implications for every hospital and department and therefore every delegate attending ECCMID 2018...
October 12, 2018: Future Microbiology
Patricia Gomez-Bougie, Sophie Maiga, Benoît Tessoulin, Jessie Bourcier, Antoine Bonnet, Manuel S Rodriguez, Steven Le Gouill, Cyrille Touzeau, Philippe Moreau, Catherine Pellat-Deceunynck, Martine Amiot
BH3-mimetics are promising drugs for hematologic malignancies that trigger cell death by promoting the release of pro-apoptotic BCL2 family members from anti-apoptotic proteins. Multiple myeloma is considered to be a disease dependent mainly on MCL1 for survival based mostly on studies using cell lines. We used a BH3-mimetic toolkit to study the dependency on BCL2, BCLXL or MCL1 in malignant plasma cells from 60 patients. Dependencies were analyzed using an unbiased BH3-mimetics cell-death clustering by k-means...
October 11, 2018: Blood
Sandra López-Verdín, Jesús Lavalle-Carrasco, Ramón G Carreón-Burciaga, Nicolás Serafín-Higuera, Nelly Molina-Frechero, Rogelio González-González, Ronell Bologna-Molina
This manuscript provides an update to the literature on molecules with roles in tumor resistance therapy in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Although significant improvements have been made in the treatment for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, physicians face yet another challenge-that of preserving oral functions, which involves the use of multidisciplinary therapies, such as multiple chemotherapies (CT) and radiotherapy (RT). Designing personalized therapeutic options requires the study of genes involved in drug resistance...
October 10, 2018: Cancers
Marcel Imber, Agnieszka J Pietrzyk-Brzezinska, Haike Antelmann
Low molecular weight (LMW) thiols play an important role as thiol-cofactors for many enzymes and are crucial to maintain the reduced state of the cytoplasm. Most Gram-negative bacteria utilize glutathione (GSH) as major LMW thiol. However, in Gram-positive Actinomycetes and Firmicutes alternative LMW thiols, such as mycothiol (MSH) and bacillithiol (BSH) play related roles as GSH surrogates, respectively. Under conditions of hypochlorite stress, MSH and BSH are known to form mixed disulfides with protein thiols, termed as S-mycothiolation or S-bacillithiolation that function in thiol-protection and redox regulation...
August 24, 2018: Redox Biology
Benedetta Zampetti, Giorgia Simonetti, Roberto Attanasio, Antonio Silvani, Renato Cozzi
We describe the 20-year course of a 63-year-old male with a macroprolactinoma that acquired resistance to treatment and aggressive behavior after a 4-year successful treatment with cabergoline. He was submitted to multiple surgical resections by a skilled surgeon, fractionated radiotherapy and was eventually treated with temozolomide. After a first 6-month standard cycle, a relapse occurred and he was treated again successfully. Learning points: •• Prolactinomas are the most frequent type of pituitary adenoma...
September 25, 2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Hextan Y S Ngan, Michael J Seckl, Ross S Berkowitz, Yang Xiang, François Golfier, Paradan K Sekharan, John R Lurain, Leon Massuger
Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) arises from abnormal placenta and is composed of a spectrum of premalignant to malignant disorders. Changes in epidemiology of GTD have been noted in various countries. In addition to histology, molecular genetic studies can help in the diagnostic pathway. Earlier detection of molar pregnancy by ultrasound has resulted in changes in clinical presentation and decreased morbidity from uterine evacuation. Follow-up with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is essential for early diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN)...
October 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Nutnicha Suphakhonchuwong, Wanna Chaijaroenkul, Kanchana Rungsihirunrat, Kesara Na-Bangchang, Jiraporn Kuesap
Malaria is a significant public health problem in several tropical countries including Thailand. The prevalence of Plasmodium vivax infection has been increasing in the past decades. Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein (PvMSP) gene encodes a malaria vaccine candidate antigen. Its polymorphic nature leads to antigenic variation, the barrier for vaccine development, drug resistance, and potential for multiple-clone infections within the malaria patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of PvMSP1 and PvMSP3 gene in P...
October 10, 2018: Parasitology Research
Brian Martin
Background: When promoting public health measures, such as reducing smoking, there are many different approaches, for example providing information, imposing legal restrictions, taxing products, and changing cultures. By analogy with evidence-based medicine, different approaches to campaigning for health promotion can be compared by obtaining evidence of effectiveness. However, evaluating the effectiveness of campaigning approaches is far more difficult than evaluating drugs or medical procedures, because controls are seldom possible, endpoints are difficult to specify, multiple factors influence outcomes, and the targets of campaigns are people or organizations that may resist...
2018: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
Brian M Forde, Hosam M Zowawi, Patrick N A Harris, Leah Roberts, Emad Ibrahim, Nissar Shaikh, Anand Deshmukh, Mazen A Sid Ahmed, Muna Al Maslamani, Kyra Cottrell, Ella Trembizki, Lana Sundac, Heidi H Yu, Jian Li, Mark A Schembri, David M Whiley, David L Paterson, Scott A Beatson
Resistance to last-line polymyxins mediated by the plasmid-borne mobile colistin resistance gene ( mcr-1 ) represents a new threat to global human health. Here we present the complete genome sequence of an mcr-1 -positive multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strain (MS8345). We show that MS8345 belongs to serotype O2:K1:H4, has a large 241,164-bp IncHI2 plasmid that carries 15 other antibiotic resistance genes (including the extended-spectrum β-lactamase bla CTX-M-1 ) and 3 putative multidrug efflux systems, and contains 14 chromosomally encoded antibiotic resistance genes...
October 10, 2018: MSphere
Lei Wang, Mengya Niu, Cuixia Zheng, Hongjuan Zhao, Xiuxiu Niu, Li Li, Yujie Hu, Yingjie Zhang, Jinjin Shi, Zhenzhong Zhang
Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) always causes tumor hypoxia aggravation which can induce malignant cell proliferation and drug resistance. To overcome these disadvantages, a cascaded drug delivery system (Lipo/HMME/ACF@MnO2 -AS1411) is constructed for synergistic enhanced sonodynamic therapy. First, hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) and acriflavine (ACF) are encapsulated in the lipid layers and the inner aqueous cores of the liposomes, respectively. Then the ultrathin manganese dioxide (MnO2 ) nanosheets are coated on the surface of the liposomes by using KMnO4 and polyethylene glycol through "one step reduction and modification" method...
October 10, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Andrea Arena, Till S Zimmer, Jackelien van Scheppingen, Anatoly Korotkov, Jasper J Anink, Angelika Mühlebner, Floor E Jansen, Wim van Hecke, Wim G Spliet, Peter C van Rijen, Annamaria Vezzani, Johannes C Baayen, Sander Idema, Anand M Iyer, Marzia Perluigi, James D Mills, Erwin A van Vliet, Eleonora Aronica
Oxidative stress (OS) occurs in brains of patients with epilepsy and coincides with brain inflammation, and both phenomena contribute to seizure generation in animal models. We investigated whether expression of OS and brain inflammation markers co-occurred also in resected brain tissue of patients with epileptogenic cortical malformations: hemimegalencephaly (HME), focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and cortical tubers in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Moreover, we studied molecular mechanisms linking OS and inflammation in an in vitro model of neuronal function...
October 10, 2018: Brain Pathology
Cameron J Reid, Matthew Z DeMaere, Steven P Djordjevic
We recently identified clonal complex 10 (CC10) Escherichia coli as the predominant clonal group in two populations of healthy Australian food-production pigs. CC10 are highly successful, colonizing humans, food-production animals, fresh produce and environmental niches. Furthermore, E. coli within CC10 are frequently drug resistant and increasingly reported as human and animal extra-intestinal pathogens. In order to develop a high-resolution global phylogeny and determine the repertoire of antimicrobial-resistance genes, virulence-associated genes and plasmid types within this clonal group, we downloaded 228 publicly available CC10 short-read genome sequences for comparison with 20 porcine CC10 we have previously described...
October 10, 2018: Microbial Genomics
Jung A Kim, Soon Young Hwang, Hye Soo Chung, Nam Hoon Kim, Ji A Seo, Sin Gon Kim, Nan Hee Kim, Kyung Mook Choi, Sei Hyun Baik, Hye Jin Yoo
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is a serious public health concern, few studies have examined the clinical implications of SO in newly-diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. We evaluated the prevalence of the newly diagnosed, drug-naïve T2DM patients with low muscle mass with abdominal obesity and its association with insulin resistance and other diabetic complications. METHODS: We classified 233 drug-naïve T2DM subjects into four groups according to abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥90 cm in men and ≥85 cm in women) and low muscle mass status (appendicular skeletal muscle <7...
September 28, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Jillian M Haines, Pamela M Lee, Rachel M Hegedus, Julianne K Hwang, Michael H Court
Antiplatelet effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, aspirin) may be poor in some individuals. Additionally, no method exists for predicting poor ASA response (resistance) in individual dogs. This study's main objective was to determine whether poor ASA response results from pharmacodynamic or pharmacokinetic causes. ASA concentrations causing 50% inhibition of platelet aggregation (in vitro IC50) were determined using whole blood collected from 21 drug-free healthy dogs to evaluate intrinsic sensitivity of platelets to ASA...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Fernanda Ramos, Camila Balconi Marques, Caroline Zamperete Reginato, Fernando de Souza Rodrigues, Luis Antônio Sangioni, Fernanda Silveira Flôres Vogel, Luciana Pötter
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of treatment with different anthelmintic compounds on the productivity of naturally infected calves and the economic viability of these treatments within extensive breeding systems employing different nutritional strategies after weaning. For this purpose, 4 farms with 42-60 calves naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes were selected. The calves were distributed into 6 groups (7-10 animals each) per farm and treated with ivermectin 1%, ivermectin 3...
October 9, 2018: Parasitology Research
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