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Cancer Ai

Timothy J Key, Angela Balkwill, Kathryn E Bradbury, Gillian K Reeves, Ai Seon Kuan, Rachel F Simpson, Jane Green, Valerie Beral
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Wen-Chao Wang, Xiao-Feng Zhang, Jian Peng, Xi-Feng Li, Ai-Li Wang, Ya-Qin Bie, Le-Hua Shi, Mou-Bin Lin, Xiao-Feng Zhang
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells shed from either the primary tumor or its metastases that circulate in the peripheral blood. The CTCs are regarded as the source of tumor recurrence and metastasis and speculated as the indicators of residual tumors, thereby indicating a poor prognosis. Although CTCs play a vital role in tumor metastasis and recurrence, little is known about the underlying survival mechanisms in the blood circulation. The accumulating evidence has revealed that CTCs might survive in the peripheral blood by overcoming the mechanical damage due to shear stress, resistance to anoikis, evasion of immune destruction, and resistance to chemotherapy...
2018: BioMed Research International
Hongyan Ai, Wei Zhou, Zeqiang Wang, Guo Qiong, Zhouxi Chen, Shungang Deng
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of microRNAs-107 (miR-107) on autophagy, proliferation, and migration of breast cancer cells and its mechanism by targeting high mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1). METHODS: Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect the expression of miR-107 in breast cancer and its cell lines. In MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells, the expression of p62, Beclin1 protein, and the changes of cell proliferation and migration after overexpression of m miR-107 were detected by Western blotting, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, and transwell assays...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Zackariah Clement, James Kollias, Janne Bingham, Robert Whitfield, Melissa Bochner
Background: The risk of hormone positive breast cancer extends beyond 5 years. Extended duration of tamoxifen to 10 years has been shown to improve overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). In post-menopausal women aromatase inhibitor (AI) is the gold standard for adjuvant endocrine therapy. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showed benefit with extending the duration of AIs in post-menopausal women. However, the duration and the overall benefit is still controversial...
October 2018: Gland Surgery
Xuejun Ai, Lei Xiang, Zhi Huang, Shi Zhou, Shuai Zhang, Tao Zhang, Tianpeng Jiang
BACKGROUND: Phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (PIK3R1) could regulate cancer cell proliferation important for cancer cell proliferation; however, its role in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of PIK3R1 in HCC and examined the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: The expression of PIK3R1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR in a series of HCC tissues. The mRNA and protein expression of PIK3R1 was used by qRT-PCR and western blot assays in a series of human HCC cell lines, and then we choose MHCC97H and HCCLM3 cells as a model to investigate the effect of PIK3R1 on HCC progression...
November 29, 2018: Biological Research
Hang Xu, Ping Tan, Xi Jin, Jianzhong Ai, Tianhai Lin, Haoran Lei, Lu Yang, Qiang Wei
BACKGROUND: Pretreatment controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score is a novel index which was used to predict outcomes in cancer patients. We aim to explore the prognostic significance of CONUT score in patients with upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 662 UTUC patients between 2004 and 2016 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were categorized into three groups based on CONUT score (Normal: 0-1; Light: 2-4; Moderate/severe: 5-12)...
November 28, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Ting-Ting Wang, Li-Yun He, Ming Zhang, Shao-Mo Wang, Ai-Guang Zhao, Lei Chu, Li-Yuan Zhang, Sheng-Fu You, Jie You
OBJECTIVE: To develop an improved version of the Quality-of-Life Assessment instrument for Lung Cancer Patients Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine (QLASTCM-Lu) and to evaluate its psychometric property. METHODS: The structured group method and the theory in developing rating scale were employed to revise the preliminary scale. The psychometric property (reliability, validity, and responsiveness) of the established QLASTCM-Lu (modified) were evaluated by quality of life data measured in 100 lung cancer patients...
November 27, 2018: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
Soonhee Roh, Catherine E Burnette, Yeon-Shim Lee, Jarod T Giger, R Turner Goins, Daniel G Petereit, Michael J Lawler, Kyoung Hag Lee
Cancer is the leading cause of death among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) women, and depressive symptoms have been linked to higher mortality, but research on depressive symptoms among AIAN cancer patients has been scant. The purpose of this exploratory study was, using the Framework of Historical Oppression, Resilience, and Transcendence, to examine risk and protective factors related to depressive symptoms in American Indian (AI) women cancer survivors. We examined the relationships of adverse childhood experiences (ACE), perceived health status, resilience, and social support with depressive symptoms in Northern Plains AI women cancer survivors...
November 27, 2018: Women & Health
Zhao-Yan Liu, Xu-Ying Tan, Qi-Jiong Li, Gong-Cheng Liao, Ai-Ping Fang, Dao-Ming Zhang, Pei-Yan Chen, Xiao-Yan Wang, Yun Luo, Jing-An Long, Rong-Huan Zhong, Hui-Lian Zhu
Background: Evidence has suggested a potential link exists between trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a choline-derived metabolite produced by gut microbiota, and some cancers, but little is known for primary liver cancer (PLC). Methods: A case-control study was designed including 671 newly diagnosed PLC patients and 671 control subjects frequency-matched by age (±5 years) and sex, in Guangdong province, China. High-performance liquid chromatography with online electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to measure serum TMAO and choline...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Xueyan Zhang, Jing Chen, Ziying Ai, Zhewen Zhang, Li Lin, Hulai Wei
AIMS: Mounting studies have confirmed that cancer cells reprogram their metabolism during early carcinogenesis to develop many other hallmarks, and demonstrated a relationship between aerobic glycolysis and the occurrence of drug resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms and role in tumor drug resistance of aerobic glycolysis remain unclear. MAIN METHODS: We analyzed differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the RNA level between the multi-drug resistance (MDR) leukemia cell line K562/adriamycin (ADM) and its parental, drug-sensitive K562 cell line...
December 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Rosalind Deacon, Marcos de Noronha, Leah Shanley, Kaye Young
OBJECTIVE: To identify whether slow aquatic exercise in the form of modified Ai Chi is more effective than conventional (faster pace) aquatic therapy at reducing arm volume in women with or at risk of breast cancer related lymphoedema. METHODS: Randomized, cross-over controlled trial with concealed allocation and blinded assessment. Eighteen women with a history of breast cancer related lymphoedema were recruited. Participants received two intervention sessions (randomized order) with one week apart...
November 17, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
Xue Xin Yu, Ai Li Chen, Yue Ying Li, Dan Liu, Qian Fei Wang
Leukemia is a group of hematologic malignancy that has unfavorable prognosis and unclear mechanisms. In recent years, advances in leukemia research encompass the discovery of novel targets in acute myeloid leukemia drug resistance, epigenetic crosstalk in mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) leukemogenesis, genetic mechanisms of aggressive NK-cell leukemia, as well as the critical role of key epigenetic regulator in acute myeloid malignancy. Remarkably, researchers revealed that the histone modifying gene SETD2 as a new tumor suppressor and therapeutic target in patients with acute myeloid leukemia...
November 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Chung-Yu Huang, Wen-Shin Chang, Chia-Wen Tsai, Te-Chun Hsia, Te-Chun Shen, Da-Tian Bau, Hao-Ai Shui
Background: The incidence rate of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) has been documented to be high in Southeast Asia. Interleukin-18 (IL-18) is a multifunctional cytokine that augments interferon-γ production and acts as an important immunomediator in the development of several types of cancer. Patients and methods: This case-control study evaluated the role of IL-18 in NPC at the DNA level by genotyping its promoter polymorphisms at positions -656, -607, and -137 in a Taiwanese population...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Yasminka A Jakubek, F Anthony San Lucas, Paul Scheet
Motivation: Genetic analyses of cancer regularly include two or more samples from the same patient. Somatic copy number alterations leading to allelic imbalance (AI) play a critical role in cancer initiation and progression. Directional analysis and visualization of the alleles in imbalance in multi-sample settings allow for inference of recurrent mutations, providing insights into mutation rates, clonality and the genomic architecture and etiology of cancer. Results: The REpeat Chromosomal changes Uncovered by Reflection (RECUR) is an R application for the comparative analysis of AI profiles derived from SNP array and next-generation sequencing data...
November 21, 2018: Bioinformatics
Manisha Bahl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 20, 2018: Radiology
Alejandro Rodríguez-Ruiz, Elizabeth Krupinski, Jan-Jurre Mordang, Kathy Schilling, Sylvia H Heywang-Köbrunner, Ioannis Sechopoulos, Ritse M Mann
Purpose To compare breast cancer detection performance of radiologists reading mammographic examinations unaided versus supported by an artificial intelligence (AI) system. Materials and Methods An enriched retrospective, fully crossed, multireader, multicase, HIPAA-compliant study was performed. Screening digital mammographic examinations from 240 women (median age, 62 years; range, 39-89 years) performed between 2013 and 2017 were included. The 240 examinations (100 showing cancers, 40 leading to false-positive recalls, 100 normal) were interpreted by 14 Mammography Quality Standards Act-qualified radiologists, once with and once without AI support...
November 20, 2018: Radiology
Lynn Jongen, Giuseppe Floris, Bram Boeckx, Dominiek Smeets, Diether Lambrechts, Sara Vander Borght, Annouschka Laenen, Grace Mann, Richard E Cutler, Alshad S Lalani, Patrick Neven, Hans Wildiers
PURPOSE: The human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2) may harbour somatic mutations that drive breast tumorigenesis. Here, we study prevalence, tumour characteristics and disease outcome of ERBB2 mutations in a large unselected cohort of metastatic breast cancer (mBC) patients. METHODS: We retrospectively included all mBC patients with sufficient primary breast tumour, diagnosed between 2000 and 2015 (n = 775). Genomic DNA was subjected to a targeted-resequencing assay to identify hotspot mutations in exon 8, 17, 19, 20, and 21 of ERBB2...
November 19, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Harold J Burstein, Christina Lacchetti, Holly Anderson, Thomas A Buchholz, Nancy E Davidson, Karen A Gelmon, Sharon H Giordano, Clifford A Hudis, Alexander J Solky, Vered Stearns, Eric P Winer, Jennifer J Griggs
PURPOSE: To update the ASCO clinical practice guideline on adjuvant endocrine therapy based on emerging data about the optimal duration of aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment. METHODS: ASCO conducted a systematic review of randomized clinical trials from 2012 to 2018. Guideline recommendations were based on the Panel's review of the evidence from six trials. RESULTS: The six included studies of AI treatment beyond 5 years of therapy demonstrated that extension of AI treatment was not associated with an overall survival advantage but was significantly associated with lower risks of breast cancer recurrence and contralateral breast cancer compared with placebo...
November 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Jun Hamano, Ai Oishi, Yoshiyuki Kizawa
CONTEXT: Understanding the prevalence and characteristics of primary care outpatients being at risk of deteriorating and dying may allow general practitioners (GPs) to identify them, and initiate end-of-life discussions. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of primary care outpatients being at risk of deteriorating and dying, as determined by the Supportive and Palliative Care Indicators Tool (SPICT™). METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional observational study was conducted at 17 clinics with 22 GPs...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
George Simon, Courtney D DiNardo, Koichi Takahashi, Tina Cascone, Cynthia Powers, Rick Stevens, Joshua Allen, Mara B Antonoff, Daniel Gomez, Pat Keane, Fernando Suarez Saiz, Quynh Nguyen, Emily Roarty, Sherry Pierce, Jianjun Zhang, Emily Hardeman Barnhill, Kate Lakhani, Kenna Shaw, Brett Smith, Stephen Swisher, Rob High, P Andrew Futreal, John Heymach, Lynda Chin
BACKGROUND: Rapid advances in science challenge the timely adoption of evidence-based care in community settings. To bridge the gap between what is possible and what is practiced, we researched approaches to developing an artificial intelligence (AI) application that can provide real-time patient-specific decision support. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Oncology Expert Advisor (OEA) was designed to simulate peer-to-peer consultation with three core functions: patient history summarization, treatment options recommendation, and management advisory...
November 16, 2018: Oncologist
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