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History of pediatrics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819600/extensively-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-of-the-lumbar-spine-in-a-six-year-old-child-a-case-report
#1
Siddharth Sanjay Shah, Aakanksha Arvind Goregaonkar, Arvind Balkrishna Goregaonkar
INTRODUCTION: The emergence of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is a challenging paradigm shift faced by the TB control programs worldwide today. The treatment is further compounded with unique management difficulties faced in pediatric patients. Treatment of XDR-TB requires prolonged chemotherapy with second-line drugs which offer lesser potency and increased risk of drug-related side effects. We present a case of spinal XDR-TB in a child, managed with extended second-line antitubercular chemotherapy (ATT)...
March 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816966/causes-of-hematochezia-and-hemorrhagic-antibiotic-associated-colitis-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
Laura Stampfer, Andrea Deutschmann, Elisabeth Dür, Franz G Eitelberger, Theresia Fürpass, Gregor Gorkiewicz, Peter Heinz-Erian, Ingrid Heller, Kathrin Herzog, Barbara Hopfer, Reinhold Kerbl, Evelyn Klug, Robert Krause, Eva Leitner, Christoph Mache, Thomas Müller, Jasmin Pansy, Mirjam Pocivalnik, Eva Scheuba, Georg Schneditz, Gerolf Schweintzger, Edith Sterniczky, Ellen Zechner, Almuthe C Hauer, Christoph Högenauer, Karl Martin Hoffmann
Diseases causing hematochezia range from benign to potentially life-threatening. Systematic pediatric data on the causes of hematochezia are scarce. We studied the underlying causes and long-term outcome of hematochezia in children. We further investigated the relevance of antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis in children, especially if caused by Klebsiella oxytoca.Infants, children, and adolescents with hematochezia were recruited prospectively. Patients were grouped according to age (<1 year, 1-5 years, 6-13 years, >14 years)...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815823/ten-years-of-simulation-based-training-in-pediatric-anesthesia-the-inception-evolution-and-dissemination-of-the-managing-emergencies-in-paediatric-anaesthesia-mepa-course
#3
Tobias C Everett, Ralph MacKinnon, David de Beer, Matthew Taylor, Matthew Dylan Bould
2016 marked the 10-year anniversary of the inception of the Managing Emergencies in Paediatric Anaesthesia (MEPA) course. This simulation-based program was originally created to allow trainees in pediatric anesthesia to experience operating room emergencies which although infrequent, would be considered key competencies for any practicing anesthetist with responsibility for providing care to children. Since its original manifestation, the course has evolved in content, scope, and worldwide availability, such that it is now available at over 60 locations on five continents...
August 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815799/characterization-of-opioid-use-in-sickle-cell-disease
#4
Jin Han, Jifang Zhou, Santosh L Saraf, Victor R Gordeuk, Gregory S Calip
PURPOSE: Opioid analgesics are commonly used to treat vaso-occlusive pain episodes in sickle cell disease (SCD), but comprehensive evidence characterizing opioid use in this patient population is limited. Our objective was to characterize opioid use patterns among SCD patients using a large nationwide database. METHODS: A large, US medical claims database was utilized to identify a cohort of 3882 SCD patients, and characteristics of opioid use were analyzed. Clinical variables including age, gender, medication use, health care utilization, and medical history were evaluated for correlations with opioid use...
August 16, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814365/pediatric-admissions-after-dental-care-under-general-anesthesia-a-retrospective-study-at-a-tertiary-care-center
#5
Anna L Lucy, Roopa P Gandhi, Lilyana Gross, Bryan McNair
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with planned and unplanned pediatric hospital admissions following dental treatment under general anesthesia (DGA) in a tertiary care center. METHODS: Dental and medical records of 100 subjects one to 20 years of age, with a known history of admission after DGA, were reviewed retrospectively for patient-, procedure-, and anesthesia-related factors as well as adverse events following DGA. RESULTS: During the review period (December 3, 2011 to June 30, 2015), 10,371 subjects underwent DGA, of which 100 subjects (less than one percent) required admission...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Dentistry for Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814262/update-on-the-evaluation-and-management-of-brief-resolved-unexplained-events-previously-apparent-life-threatening-events
#6
Eric Zwemer, Ilene Claudius, Joel Tieder
BACKGROUND: The thirty-year-old term "apparent life-threatening event" (ALTE) is difficult to apply in clinical practice and research. The American Academy of Pediatrics now defines these events as brief resolved unexplained events (BRUEs), stratifies infants based on the risk of recurrence or of a serious underlying condition, and offers evidence-based management recommendations for infants at lower-risk. OBJECTIVE: To review recent ALTE literature as it relates to BRUEs...
August 16, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813765/bronchiolitis-in-infants-and-children
#7
Alexandra Schaller, Carl S Galloway
Bronchiolitis is among the most common illnesses in infants and children, and is the most common cause for hospitalization in infants in the U.S. This illness can be caused by many viruses, most commonly respiratory syncytial virus. It is diagnosed clinically by history and physical exam findings, with a narrow role for ancillary testing. Management is supportive, with medications demonstrating limited utility in multiple studies. Preventive measures include hand hygiene, breastfeeding, avoiding tobacco smoke exposure, and isolation precautions for hospitalized patients...
June 2017: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808577/transition-from-intravenous-to-enteral-ketamine-for-treatment-of-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus
#8
Michael A Pizzi, Prasuna Kamireddi, William O Tatum, Jerry J Shih, Daniel A Jackson, William D Freeman
BACKGROUND: Nonconvulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) is a diagnosis that is often challenging and one that may progress to refractory NCSE. Ketamine is a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist that increasingly has been used to treat refractory status epilepticus. Current Neurocritical Care Society guidelines recommend intravenous (IV) ketamine infusion as an alternative treatment for refractory status epilepticus in adults. On the other hand, enteral ketamine use in NCSE has been reported in only 6 cases (1 adult and 5 pediatric) in the literature to date...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806467/the-history-of-home-cardiorespiratory-monitoring
#9
Gary E Freed, Francis Martinez
Home cardiorespiratory monitoring has changed significantly since it was first introduced in the 1970s. It has improved from a simple alarm system to a sophisticated piece of equipment capable of monitoring the patient's electrocardiogram, respiratory effort, and oxygen saturations. In addition, the indications for using a monitor have also changed. The home monitor was initially used to reduce the incidence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Although there were several studies demonstrating the reduction of SIDS rates in communities where apnea programs existed, none was a prospective, double-blinded study or had adequate numbers to be clinically significant...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806466/medicolegal-death-investigation-of-sudden-unexpected-infant-deaths
#10
Roger A Mitchell, Constance DiAngelo, Daniel Morgan
This review article describes the role of the medicolegal death investigator and medical examiner or coroner (MEC) in the investigations of a sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) beginning with an introduction into the case types that should be investigated and how infant deaths fit into that legal framework. The article also provides an overview of the history of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention SUID investigation guidelines and process. The article concludes with a description of how the MEC correlates the scene investigation with autopsy findings, as well as the role of the MEC in cause of death determinations...
August 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805445/prevalence-and-predictors-of-learning-and-psychological-diagnoses-following-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#11
Tricia S Williams, Kyla P McDonald, Samantha D Roberts, Nomazulu Dlamini, Gabrielle deVeber, Robyn Westmacott
This study examined the prevalence of learning and psychological diagnoses and associated neurological and personal-environmental risk factors following perinatal and childhood arterial ischemic stroke. In our sample of 126 children and youth, 52.4% received a diagnosis following their assessment. Specifically, 32% had a single diagnosis and 21% had two or more diagnoses. Learning disability, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, and intellectual disability were the most prevalent diagnoses. Associated risk factors varied by diagnosis with lower intellectual functioning being the common risk factor across categories...
August 14, 2017: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804923/hypopigmented-mycosis-fungoides-with-large-cell-transformation-in-a-child
#12
Dinesh Pradhan, Jaroslaw J Jedrych, Jonhan Ho, Oleg E Akilov
Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF) is the most common variant of mycosis fungoides (MF) in children. Large-cell transformation in HMF has never been reported. Herein we report a case of HMF in an 8-year-old boy who presented with a 6-year history of hypopigmented patches on the bilateral arms, lower back, buttocks, posterior thighs, and lower legs. Biopsy revealed an abnormal CD8(+) epidermotropic T-cell infiltrate consistent with the diagnosis of MF. The T-cell clonality study was positive. The patient was started on narrowband ultraviolet B (NBUVB) phototherapy and topical steroids...
August 14, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804857/nobel-prize-nominees-hundred-years-ago-abraham-jacobi-1830-1919-and-otto-heubner-1843-1926
#13
Nils Hansson, Anne Oommen-Halbach, Arndt Borkhardt, Heiner Fangerau
Pediatrics directly and indirectly played an important role in the history of the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. However, the history of the Nobel Prize and pediatrics goes beyond the actual laureates. Based on original files in the archive of the Nobel committee of physiology or medicine at the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, this overview aims to shed new light on why the international pioneers of pediatrics Abraham Jacobi (1830-1919) and Otto Heubner (1843-1926) were nominated but never received the prize in 1918...
August 13, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804700/abridged-version-of-the-awmf-guideline-for-the-medical-clinical-diagnostics-of-indoor-mould-exposure-s2k-guideline-of-the-german-society-of-hygiene-environmental-medicine-and-preventive-medicine-ghup-in-collaboration-with-the-german-association-of-allergists
#14
Gerhard A Wiesmüller, Birger Heinzow, Ute Aurbach, Karl-Christian Bergmann, Albrecht Bufe, Walter Buzina, Oliver A Cornely, Steffen Engelhart, Guido Fischer, Thomas Gabrio, Werner Heinz, Caroline E W Herr, Jörg Kleine-Tebbe, Ludger Klimek, Martin Köberle, Herbert Lichtnecker, Thomas Lob-Corzilius, Rolf Merget, Norbert Mülleneisen, Dennis Nowak, Uta Rabe, Monika Raulf, Hans Peter Seidl, Jens-Oliver Steiß, Regine Szewszyk, Peter Thomas, Kerttu Valtanen, Julia Hurraß
This article is an abridged version of the AWMF mould guideline "Medical clinical diagnostics of indoor mould exposure" presented in April 2016 by the German Society of Hygiene, Environmental Medicine and Preventive Medicine (Gesellschaft für Hygiene, Umweltmedizin und Präventivmedizin, GHUP), in collaboration with the above-mentioned scientific medical societies, German and Austrian societies, medical associations and experts. Indoor mould growth is a potential health risk, even if a quantitative and/or causal relationship between the occurrence of individual mould species and health problems has yet to be established...
2017: Allergo Journal International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803186/asthma-exacerbations-and-triggers-in-children-in-tenor-impact-on-quality-of-life
#15
Bradley E Chipps, Tmirah Haselkorn, Karin Rosén, David R Mink, Benjamin L Trzaskoma, Allan T Luskin
BACKGROUND: Data examining associations between asthma exacerbations, triggers, and asthma-related quality of life (QOL) in children with severe/difficult-to-treat asthma are unavailable. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate real-world data on relationships between asthma exacerbations, triggers, and QOL in children using data from TENOR (The Epidemiology and Natural History of Asthma Outcomes and Treatment Regimens), a 3-year observational study of patients with severe/difficult-to-treat asthma, including those aged 6 to 12 years...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802910/inter-rater-reliability-of-physical-abuse-determinations-in-young-children-with-fractures
#16
Katherine E Buesser, John M Leventhal, Julie R Gaither, Victoria Tate, Daniel R Cooperman, Rebecca L Moles, Cicero T Silva, Lauren J Ehrlich, Melinda S Sharkey
As there is no "gold standard" in determining whether a fracture is caused by accident or abuse, agreement among medical providers is paramount. Using abstracted medical record data from 551 children <36months of age presenting to a pediatric emergency department, we examined the extent of agreement between specialists who evaluate children with fractures for suspected abuse. To simulate clinical scenarios, two pediatric orthopaedists and two child abuse pediatricians (CAPs) reviewed the full abstraction and imaging, whereas the two pediatric radiologists reviewed a brief history and imaging...
August 10, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802364/the-reliability-of-flexible-nasolaryngoscopy-in-the-identification-of-vocal-fold-movement-impairment-in-young-infants
#17
Yi-Chun Carol Liu, Tyler McElwee, Mary Musso, Tara L Rosenberg, Julina Ongkasuwan
OBJECTIVE: Flexible nasolaryngoscopy (FNL) is considered the gold standard for evaluation of vocal fold mobility but there has been no data on the reliability of interpretation in the infant population. Visualization may be limited by excessive movement, secretions, or floppy supraglottic structures that prevent accurate diagnosis of vocal fold movement impairment (VFMI). We sought to evaluate the inter- and intra-rater reliability of FNL for the evaluation of VFMI in young infants. STUDY TYPE: Case-control...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801782/common-pediatric-medical-emergencies-in-office-practice
#18
Bharat Mehra, Suresh Gupta
General Practitioners frequently see children with medical conditions that may evolve into an emergency if not promptly attended to. The most common emergencies encountered in pediatric office practice are respiratory distress, dehydration, anaphylaxis, seizures and trauma. Assessment of children is sometimes difficult as the signs and symptoms might be subtle and not markedly expressed. Also, normal value of vital signs vary with age, thus their interpretation requires discrete knowledge of age appropriate values...
August 12, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797007/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-of-pediatric-hydrocephalus
#19
David D Limbrick, Leandro Castaneyra-Ruiz, Roland H Han, Daniel Berger, James P McAllister, Diego M Morales
Hydrocephalus (HC) is a common, debilitating neurological condition that requires urgent clinical decision-making. At present, neurosurgeons rely heavily on a patient's history, physical examination findings, neuroimaging, and clinical judgment to make the diagnosis of HC or treatment failure (e.g., shunt malfunction). Unfortunately, these tools, even in combination, do not eliminate subjectivity in clinical decisions. In order to improve the management of infants and children with HC, there is an urgent need for new biomarkers to complement currently available tools and enable clinicians to confidently establish the diagnosis of HC, assess therapeutic efficacy/treatment failure, and evaluate current and future developmental challenges, so that every child has access to the resources they need to optimize their outcome and quality of life...
August 11, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796392/natural-history-of-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-during-childhood
#20
Kayla Md Cornett, Manoj P Menezes, Rosemary R Shy, Isabella Moroni, Emanuela Pagliano, Davide Pareyson, Timothy Estilow, Sabrina W Yum, Trupti Bhandari, Francesco Muntoni, Matilde Laura, Mary M Reilly, Richard S Finkel, Kate J Eichinger, David N Herrmann, Paula Bray, Mark Halaki, Michael E Shy, Joshua Burns
OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of disease progression in a longitudinal natural history study of children with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). METHODS: 206 (103 female) participants aged 3-20 years enrolled in the Inherited Neuropathies Consortium were assessed at baseline and 2-years. Demographic, anthropometric, and diagnostic information were collected. Disease progression was assessed with the CMT Pediatric Scale (CMTPedS), a reliable Rasch-built linearly weighted disability scale evaluating fine and gross motor function, strength, sensation, and balance...
August 10, 2017: Annals of Neurology
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