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Tobacco smoking

Samuel Kaiser, Frederico Luis Felipe Soares, Jorge Armando Ardila, Marcelo Caetano Alexandre Marcelo, Jailson Cardoso Dias, Liliane Medianeira Favero Porte, Carlos Gonçalves, Oscar F S Pontes, Guilherme Post Sabin
Tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), mainly the 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), are known carcinogens. Part of the NNK found in smoke is provided from matrix-bound NNK and its determination is extremely relevant. However, the reference extraction procedure of matrix-bound NNK is time consuming, labor-intensive, and has a limited analytical capacity. Three different methodologies were proposed to predict matrix-bound NNK. Simple linear regression (LR) with soluble NNK; multiple linear regression (MLR) considering soluble NNK and characteristic parameters of the samples; and orthogonal partial least squares (O-PLS) regression using high-throughput screening by flow injection analysis coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HTS-FIA-HRMS) data...
August 16, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Rubab Qureshi, Yuri Jadotte, Peijia Zha, Sallie Ann Porter, Cheryl Holly, Susan Salmond, Elizabeth Ann Watkins
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the review was to determine if prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increases the risk of obesity and overweight in children. INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries. This is of great concern as childhood obesity is associated with early onset of chronic diseases such as coronary artery disease, type II diabetes and hypertension in adulthood. Extensive research suggests a multifactorial etiology...
August 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Takako Fujita, Akira Babazono, Yumi Harano, Peng Jiang
Tobacco-free policy in Japan lags behind those of most developed countries. Evidence is required to promote strong implementation of existing policies. This study aimed to assess whether exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) influences the incidence of streptococcal infection in young children, to further support the need for effective tobacco-free policies in Japan. This study used medical administrative claim and health check data from the Japan Health Insurance Association Fukuoka branch. Participants were beneficiaries' dependents younger than age 4 years...
August 16, 2018: Population Health Management
Ahmad M Al-Bashaireh, Linda G Haddad, Michael Weaver, Debra Lynch Kelly, Xing Chengguo, Saunjoo Yoon
This systematic review explored associations between smoking and health outcomes involving the musculoskeletal system. AMSTAR criteria were followed. A comprehensive search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct returned 243 articles meeting inclusion criteria. A majority of studies found smoking has negative effects on the musculoskeletal system. In research on bones, smoking was associated with lower BMD, increased fracture risk, periodontitis, alveolar bone loss, and dental implant failure. In research on joints, smoking was associated with increased joint disease activity, poor functional outcomes, and poor therapeutic response...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Titus Josef Brinker, Christian Martin Brieske, Stefan Esser, Joachim Klode, Ute Mons, Anil Batra, Tobias Rüther, Werner Seeger, Alexander H Enk, Christof von Kalle, Carola Berking, Markus V Heppt, Martina V Gatzka, Breno Bernardes-Souza, Richard F Schlenk, Dirk Schadendorf
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence for the effectiveness of addressing tobacco use in health care settings. However, few smokers receive cessation advice when visiting a hospital. Implementing smoking cessation technology in outpatient waiting rooms could be an effective strategy for change, with the potential to expose almost all patients visiting a health care provider without preluding physician action needed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop an intervention for smoking cessation that would make use of the time patients spend in a waiting room by passively exposing them to a face-aging, public morphing, tablet-based app, to pilot the intervention in a waiting room of an HIV outpatient clinic, and to measure the perceptions of this intervention among smoking and nonsmoking HIV patients...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Michael W Otto, Gladys N Pachas, Corinne Cather, Susanne S Hoeppner, Samantha J Moshier, Bridget A Hearon, Heather Burrell Ward, Alexandra B Laffer, Jasper A J Smits, A Eden Evins
Recent studies underscore the importance of studying d-cycloserine (DCS) augmentation under conditions of adequate cue exposure treatment (CET) and protection from reconditioning experiences. In this randomized trial, we evaluated the efficacy of DCS for augmenting CET for smoking cessation under these conditions. Sixty-two smokers attained at least 18 hours abstinence following 4 weeks of smoking cessation treatment and were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of DCS (n=30) or placebo (n=32) prior to each of two sessions of CET...
August 16, 2018: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
Coral Gartner, Marilyn Bromberg, Tanya Musgrove, Kathy Luong
Vaporised nicotine products (VNPs) that are not approved as therapeutic goods are banned in some countries, including Australia, Singapore, and Thailand. We reviewed two non-profit regulatory options, private clubs and the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration Special Access Scheme (SAS) that have been applied to other controlled substances (such as cannabis) as a potential model for regulating VNPs as an alternative to prohibition. The legal status of private cannabis clubs varies between the United States, Canada, Belgium, Spain, and Uruguay...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sajal Jain, Harpal S Buttar, Meena Chintameneni, Ginpreet Kaur
BACKGROUND: Inflammation-induced endothelial abnormalities, dietary habits, and tobacco smoking are considered to be the primary risk factors for causing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disorders, peripheral arterial disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart defects, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Prevention of CVDs with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents has been a challenging task for decades...
August 15, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Courtney Mitchell, Cheneal Puljević, Ross Coomber, Alan White, Sarah L Cresswell, Jasper Bowman, Stuart A Kinner
Following the implementation of prison smoke-free policies, there have been reports of prisoners creating substitute cigarettes made from nicotine replacement therapy patches or lozenges infused with tea leaves ("teabacco"). No studies have analyzed the chemical constituents of teabacco made from nicotine lozenges, so as to document any potential related health hazards. Teabacco samples were made by a participant who reported creating teabacco while incarcerated in a smoke-free prison in Queensland, Australia, and the process was video-recorded for replication in a laboratory...
August 14, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Cayla M O'Hair, Kathryn Armstrong, Helena J V Rutherford
Background: A significant number of women continue to smoke tobacco during pregnancy despite the increased risk of complications to fetal and infant development. Therefore, effective interventions are needed to assist pregnant women with the process of tobacco cessation. Traditional counseling programs have demonstrated some success; however, novel approaches that target stress as a mechanism in the maintenance of addiction would be valuable. Objective: To examine the role of stress in addiction and the utility of massage therapy to decrease stress during pregnancy...
August 2018: International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork
Eniko Albert-Lőrincz, Edit Paulik, Bela Szabo, Kristie Foley, Andrea Ildiko Gasparik
OBJECTIVE: To identify the effect of social capital on adolescent smoking. METHOD: A stratified random sample of 1313 7th and 8th grade students from three counties in Transylvania, Romania, completed a self-administered questionnaire on smoking-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. The impact of social capital was measured (personal and community activities, school achievements and smoking-related knowledge). Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used to measure the association between social participation and smoking...
August 11, 2018: Gaceta Sanitaria
Micah J Savin, Summer G Frank-Pearce, Kim Pulvers, Damon J Vidrine
BACKGROUND: This secondary analysis aims to describe, over time, the relationship between HIV disease progression and intention to quit cigarette smoking among current monocigarette users with and without a lifetime history of polytobacco use. METHODS: Participants completed a baseline assessment at the time of HIV care initiation and four follow-up assessments (3, 6, 9, and 12-months). Assessments included biochemically verified smoking status and audio computer-assisted self-interviews assessing psychosocial, substance use, and clinical variables known to influence smoking behaviors...
June 19, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Thomas Kocar, Roland W Freudenmann, Manfred Spitzer, Heiko Graf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
R C Wiener, C Shen, P A Findley, N Dwibedi, U Sambamoorthi
BACKGROUND: Depression has been linked to poor oral health among patients seeking dental care. However, systematic research on the relationship between depressive symptoms and oral health is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of depressive symptoms with untreated dental caries among adults aged 21-64 years. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional secondary analysis. SETTING: The data were extracted national data collected in the United States (2013-2014 National Health Nutrition and Examination Survey)...
August 9, 2018: Community Dental Health
Mario I Fernández, Maurizio Brausi, Peter E Clark, Michael S Cookson, H Barton Grossman, Makarand Khochikar, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Bernard Malavaud, Rafael Sanchez-Salas, Mark S Soloway, Robert S Svatek, Raghunandan Vikram, Alina Vrieling, Ashish M Kamat
PURPOSE: To update current recommendations on prevention, screening, diagnosis, and evaluation of bladder cancer (BC) based on a thorough assessment of the most recent literature on these topics. METHODS: A non-systematic review was performed, including articles until June 2017. A variety of original articles, reviews, and editorials were selected according to their epidemiologic, demographic, and clinical relevance. Assessment of the level of evidence and grade of recommendations was performed according to the International Consultation on Urological Diseases grading system...
August 13, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Alexander B Barker, Kathy Whittamore, John Britton, Jo Cranwell
AIMS: Exposure to audiovisual tobacco content in media is a risk factor for smoking in young people. While tobacco content in films has been extensively documented, content in mainstream television has received relatively little attention. We report an analysis of tobacco content in a sample of UK free-to-air prime-time television broadcasts in 2015, and compare this with a similar analysis from 2010. DESIGN: Content analysis of all programmes and advertisements or trailers broadcast on the five national UK free-to-air channels in the UK between 18:00 and 22:00 during three separate weeks in September, October and November 2015...
August 13, 2018: Tobacco Control
Bo Yang, Daniel Owusu, Lucy Popova
INTRODUCTION: Health agencies are grappling with communicating risks of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) compared with combusted cigarettes. This study examined smokers' responses to two types of comparative risk messages with one type incorporating more negative antismoking elements in the design. METHODS: In an online experiment, 1400 US adult (18+ years) current smokers and recent quitters were randomised to view one of three comparative risk messages about e-cigarettes (CR messages), one of three comparative risk messages that included more negative antismoking elements in the design (CR- messages) or a control message...
August 13, 2018: Tobacco Control
Robyn M Lucas, Rachael M Rodney Harris
If environmental exposures are shown to cause an adverse health outcome, reducing exposure should reduce the disease risk. Links between exposures and outcomes are typically based on 'associations' derived from observational studies, and causality may not be clear. Randomized controlled trials to 'prove' causality are often not feasible or ethical. Here the history of evidence that tobacco smoking causes lung cancer-from observational studies-is compared to that of low sun exposure and/or low vitamin D status as causal risk factors for the autoimmune disease, multiple sclerosis (MS)...
August 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Erica N Peters, Evan S Herrmann, Amy M Cohn, Victoria H Coleman-Cowger, Carson Smith, Bartosz Koszowski, Wallace B Pickworth
The United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is taking unprecedented steps to regulate tobacco products in order to improve public health. The FDA recently announced its intention to set product standards to reduce the nicotine content in cigarettes available in the US to a minimally- or non-addictive level through an advance notice of proposed rulemaking (ANPRM) (Gottlieb and Zeller, 2017). Because of the strong connection of cigarette smoking to alcohol drinking, there is compelling reason for alcohol-focused researchers to consider how future mandated market-wide reductions of nicotine levels in cigarettes would have downstream impact on drinking behavior...
August 13, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Boyd R Rorabaugh, Lisanne Sprague, Haval Norman, Sarah L Seeley, Manoranjan S D'Souza
This study assessed the role of regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2) in nicotine-induced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects using RGS2 wildtype (WT) and RGS2 knockout (KO) mice. RGS2 negatively regulates monoaminergic neurotransmission, which is implicated in the pathology of anxiety and depression. We hypothesized that deletion of RGS2 would enhance nicotine-induced anxiolytic- and antidepressant-like effects, which were assessed using the elevated plus maze and tail suspension tests, respectively...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
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