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Tobacco smoking

Lisa M Gatzke-Kopp, Michael T Willoughby, Siri M Warkentien, Thomas O'Connor, Douglas A Granger, Clancy Blair
Introduction: Infants and young children may be at an increased risk for second- and thirdhand exposure to tobacco smoke because of increased respiration rate and exposure to surface residue. However, relatively fewer studies have examined biomarkers of exposure (cotinine) in children under age 4 years. This study examines the magnitude and chronicity of exposure across early childhood among children from low-income families in order to better characterize contextual risk factors associated with exposure...
December 5, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Muhammad Shaikh Hassan, Md Kamrul Hossain, Hafiz T A Khan
Background: Among university students, large numbers are involved with smoking and suffer from many chronic diseases. This study examined tobacco smoking prevalence and potential predictors among university students in Sylhet Division, Bangladesh. Methods: A total of 416 students were selected for face-to-face interviews. Logistic regression analysis was used to fulfil the specific objectives of the study. Results: It was discovered that the prevalence of smoking among university students in Sylhet Division was 37% and almost half of current male students were smokers...
December 4, 2018: International Health
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Ana Luiza Curi Hallal, Ísis Eloah Machado, Rogério Ruscitto do Prado, Patrícia Pereira Vasconcelos de Oliveira, Maryane Oliveira Campos, Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza
OBJECTIVE: To identify the frequency and factors associated with the use of waterpipe and other tobacco products among Brazilian students. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the National Adolescent Student Health Survey. The sample consisted of 9th-grade students from elementary school. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the use of tobacco products in 2012 and 2015. To explore the relationship between the use of other tobacco products and factors such as sociodemographic characteristics, family, mental health, and life habits, we calculated the adjusted odds ratio...
November 29, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Hellen de Araújo Antunes, María Fernanda Rivadeneira-Guerrero, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de Goulart, Nágila Soares Xavier Oenning
Illicit drug use is related to individual characteristics; however, social and family environments seem to be associated with this consumption. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the relationships between parents or guardians and Brazilian adolescents that use illicit drugs. This is a cross-sectional study with data from the Brazilian National Survey of School Health (PeNSE, 2015), in which the target population was school children from the ninth grade (eighth year). A total of 102,072 students were included in the current research, being 52,782 females and 49,290 males...
November 29, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Yanyun He, Ce Shang, Frank J Chaloupka
OBJECTIVES: This study calculates cigarette affordability for 78 countries worldwide from 2001 to 2014 using the Relative Income Price (RIP) ratio defined as the percentage of per capita GDP required to purchase 100 packs of cigarettes using the lowest price from Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) database, examine the association between cigarette affordability and cigarette consumption, and calculate the affordability elasticity of demand. DESIGN AND METHODS: RIP (2001-2014) was calculated for 16 low-income economies, 19 lower middle-income economies, 13 upper middle-income economies, and 30 high-income economies...
2018: PloS One
Andrew J Ghio, Joleen M Soukup, Michael C Madden
The epidemiologic investigation has successively delineated associations of air pollution exposure with non-malignant and malignant lung disease, cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, pregnancy outcomes, perinatal effects and other extra-pulmonary disease including diabetes. Defining these relationships between air pollution exposure and human health closely parallels results of an earlier epidemiologic investigation into cigarette smoking and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), two other particle-related exposures...
December 5, 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
James G Scott, Lori Matuschka, Solja Niemelä, Jouko Miettunen, Brett Emmerson, Antti Mustonen
There has been emerging evidence of an association between tobacco smoking and schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD). Two meta-analyses have reported that people who smoke tobacco have an ~2-fold increased risk of incident schizophrenia or psychosis, even after adjusting for confounding factors. This study aimed to critically appraise the research which has examined the association between tobacco smoking and SSD against the Bradford Hill criteria for causality, to determine the strength of the evidence for a causal relationship...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Oliver Pérez-Bautista, Martha Montaño, Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Joaquín Zúñiga-Ramos, Mariana Camacho-Priego, Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Ivette Buendía-Roldan, Yadira Velasco-Torres, Carlos Ramos
BACKGROUND: The main causes of COPD are tobacco smoking (COPD-TS) and biomass smoke exposure (COPD-BS). COPD-TS is known to induce changes in adipokines, incretins, and peptide hormones, frequent biomarkers of inflammation; however, it is unknown if similar changes occur in COPD-BS. METHODS: Clinical and physiological characteristics, and serum concentration of C-peptide, ghrelin, GIP, GLP-1, glucagon, insulin, leptin, PAI-1, resistin, and visfatin were measured in women with COPD-BS, COPD-TS, and healthy controls...
December 4, 2018: Respiratory Research
Shama Razzaq, Asaad Ahmed Nafees, Unaib Rabbani, Muhammad Irfan, Shahla Naeem, Muhammad Arslan Khan, Zafar Fatmi, Peter Burney
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of asthma and associated risk factors in the adult population of Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: This multi-stage, cross-sectional survey was conducted from May 2014-August 2015; comprising 1629 adults in 75 randomly selected clusters in Karachi, Pakistan. Definitions included: 'self-reported asthma', 'reversibility in FEV1 ' and 'respiratory symptoms and reversibility in FEV1 '. RESULTS: Prevalence of asthma was 1...
December 4, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Youngs Chang, Sanghyun Cho, Ikhan Kim, Jinwook Bahk, Young-Ho Khang
OBJECTIVES: This study examined trends in inequality in cigarette smoking prevalence by income according to recent anti-smoking policies in Korea. METHODS: The data used in this study were drawn from three nationally representative surveys, the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, the Korea Community Health Survey, and the Social Survey of Statistics Korea. We calculated the age-standardized smoking prevalence, the slope index of inequality, and the relative index of inequality by income level as a socioeconomic position indicator...
November 2018: Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Yebang Ŭihakhoe Chi
Magdalena Chełchowska, Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Joanna Gajewska, Joanna Mazur, Leszek Lewandowski, Marzanna Reśko-Zachara, Tomasz M Maciejewski
Smoking tobacco can impair proper vascular endothelial functioning. This is exhibited through reduced nitric oxide synthesis as well as activity due to accompanying oxidative stress. We examined the relationship between nitric oxide and markers of oxidative stress/antioxidant defense in serum of smoking and non-smoking pregnant women. Subjects included 99 healthy pregnant women, who were tested for nitric oxide (NO), endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) nitric oxide synthase, total oxidant capacity (TOC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Manuel Zumbado, Octavio P Luzardo, Ángel Rodríguez-Hernández, Luis D Boada, Luis Alberto Henríquez-Hernández
Environmental pollution due to various elements is increasing all across the planet owing to their use in industrial processes. The tobacco plants and the vegetables used in the manufacturing of smoking paper may accumulate these elements from the environment. Thus, tobacco and smoking paper may be relevant contributors among the content of elements in cigarettes, including some emerging pollutants such as rare earth elements (REEs). Thirty-two elements related to hi-tech industrial processes were analyzed in tobacco, rolling paper, and filters (n = 257 samples) by ICP-MS...
November 22, 2018: Environmental Research
Nafeesa Vawda, Robyn N Banerjee, Brock J Debenham
BACKGROUND: Tobacco exposure is known to affect the biological behavior of HPV positive OPC with intermediate outcomes relative to tumors that are HPV associated with no smoking exposure and smoking related HPV negative tumors. We aim to evaluate the impact of smoking on outcomes of patients with HPV associated locally advanced OPC when stratified by treatment modality. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective chart review was undertaken on 352 patients with known p16 overexpressing locally advanced OPC and who were managed with curative intent therapy from 2006 - 2015...
December 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Suresh Joshi, Santosh Jatrana, Yin Paradies
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Earlier research evidence suggests that there is a difference and over time change in the prevalence of tobacco smoking between immigrants and native-born population. This study investigates the differences in smoking among immigrants from English speaking (ESC) and non-English speaking (NESC) countries relative to native-born (NB) Australians, and how those differences change with duration of residence (DoR) and age at arrival (AA). METHODS: Information on 12 634 individuals from the first twelve waves (2001-2012) of Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) longitudinal survey was analysed using multilevel group-mean-centred mixed logistic regression models...
December 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Julia Hansen, Reiner Hanewinkel, Matthis Morgenstern
The aim of this study was to investigate the association between exposure to electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) advertisements and use of e-cigarettes, combustible cigarettes and hookahs. A cross-sectional survey of 6902 German students (mean age 13.1 years, 51.3% male) recruited in six German states was performed. Exposure to e-cigarette advertisements was measured with self-rated contact frequency to three advertising images. Multilevel mixed-effect logistic regression models were used to assess associations between exposure to e-cigarette advertisement and use of e-cigarettes, combustible cigarettes and hookahs (ever and past 30 days)...
October 2018: ERJ Open Research
Santiago Gorostiza, David Saurí
The scientific literature distinguishes between primary or natural and secondary or human-induced salinization. Assessing this distinction is of vital importance to assign liabilities and responsibilities in pollution cases and for designing the best policy and management actions. In this context, actors interested in downplaying the role of certain drivers of human-induced salinization can attempt to neglect its importance by referring to natural salinization, in a similar fashion to other pollution and health-related cases, from tobacco smoke to climate change...
December 3, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Danielle E Ramo, Meredith Meacham, Johannes Thrul, Alina Belohlavek, Urmimala Sarkar, Gary Humfleet
PURPOSE: LGBTQ+ young adults are disproportionately affected by tobacco use and associated health conditions. A culturally tailored intervention may improve smoking cessation with this priority population. We conducted focus groups to inform development of a social media intervention to help LGBTQ+ young adults quit smoking. METHODS: We conducted two focus groups with LGBTQ+ young adults (N = 27) throughout the United States in a Facebook secret group online setting...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Sayed Esmaeil Mousavi, Heresh Amini, Pouria Heydarpour, Fatemeh Amini Chermahini, Lode Godderis
Beyond vitamin D (VD) effect on bone homeostasis, numerous physiological functions in human health have been described for this versatile prohormone. In 2016, 95% of the world's population lived in areas where annual mean ambient particulate matter (<2.5 μm) levels exceeded the World Health Organization guideline value (Shaddick et al., 2018). On the other hand, industries disperse thousands of chemicals continually into the environment. Further, considerable fraction of populations are exposed to tobacco smoke...
November 30, 2018: Environment International
Bryan W Heckman, K Michael Cummings, Jonathan J K Stoltman, Jennifer Dahne, Ron Borland, Geoffrey T Fong, Matthew J Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Cessation fatigue, a construct theorized to reflect exhaustion of coping resources due to quitting smoking, has been found to predict relapse. This study examines the association between cessation fatigue and duration of abstinence among 1397 adult former smokers who participated in the 2016 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Smoking and Vaping Wave 1 Survey (4CV). We hypothesized lower levels of cessation fatigue will be correlated with longer duration of abstinence...
November 23, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Takashi Tamura, Yuka Kadomatsu, Mineko Tsukamoto, Rieko Okada, Tae Sasakabe, Sayo Kawai, Asahi Hishida, Megumi Hara, Keitaro Tanaka, Ippei Shimoshikiryo, Toshiro Takezaki, Isao Watanabe, Daisuke Matsui, Takeshi Nishiyama, Sadao Suzuki, Kaori Endoh, Kiyonori Kuriki, Yoshikuni Kita, Sakurako Katsuura-Kamano, Kokichi Arisawa, Hiroaki Ikezaki, Norihiro Furusyo, Yuriko N Koyanagi, Isao Oze, Yohko Nakamura, Haruo Mikami, Mariko Naito, Kenji Wakai
Brief exposure to passive smoking immediately elevates blood pressure. However, little is known about the association between exposure to passive smoking and chronic hypertension. We aimed to examine this association in a cross-sectional study, after controlling multiple potential confounders.Participants included 32,098 lifetime nonsmokers (7,216 men and 24,882 women) enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Passive smoking was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The single question about exposure to passive smoking had five response options: "sometimes or almost never," "almost every day, 2 hours/day or less," "almost every day, 2 to 4 hours/day," "almost every day, 4 to 6 hours/day," and "almost every day, 6 hours/day or longer...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
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