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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340051/cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-the-na-h-antiporter-nhx1-gene-promoter-from-an-extreme-halophyte-salicornia-brachiata
#1
Vivekanand Tiwari, Manish K Patel, Amit K Chaturvedi, Avinash Mishra, Bhavanath Jha
Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses which affect plant growth and productivity by imposing dual stress, ionic and osmotic stress, on plants. Halophytes which are adapted to complete their life cycle in saline soil keep the transcript expression of stress-responsive genes constitutively higher in the optimum growth environments, which can be further increased by several folds under stress conditions. The transcript expression of SbNHX1 gene, cloned from a leafless succulent halophyte Salicornia brachiata, was up-regulated under salinity stress, but its transcriptional regulation has not been studied so far...
October 16, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336627/comparison-between-online-and-offline-price-of-tobacco-products-using-novel-datasets
#2
Magdalena Opazo Breton, John Britton, Yue Huang, Ilze Bogdanovica
Price of tobacco products has traditionally been relevant both for the industry, to respond to policy changes, and for governments, as an effective tobacco control measure. However, monitoring prices across a wide range of brands and brand variants requires access to expensive commercial sales databases. This study aims to investigate the comparability of average tobacco prices from two commercial sources and an in-house monitoring database which provides daily data in real time at minimal cost. We used descriptive and regression analysis to compare the monthly average numbers of brands, brand variants, products and prices of cigarettes and hand-rolling tobacco using commercial data from Nielsen Scantrack and Kantar Worldpanel , and an online price database (OPD) created in Nottingham, for the period from May 2013 to February 2017...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336446/cumulative-psychosocial-risks-internal-asse-and-past-30-day-tobacco-use-among-middle-and-high-school-students-the-promise-of-internal-assets
#3
Myriam Forster, Gower L Amy, Eunice Areba, Barbara J McMorris
INTRODUCTION: Research has demonstrated a robust relationship between psychosocial risk factors (e.g., perceptions of health risk, peer and parent influences, and school climate) and adolescent tobacco use. However, whether internal assets (IAs), factors that promote healthy youth development, can mitigate the adverse effects of psychosocial risks on tobacco use has not been well researched. METHOD: Using a population-based sample of middle and high school students (N = 112,364), multilevel logistic and negative binomial regression models estimated the direct effects of cumulative psychosocial risks and IAs on student tobacco use (e...
October 11, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284626/-e-cigarettes-and-heat-not-burn-products-representative-data-on-consumer-behaviour-and-associated-factors-in-the-german-population-the-debra-study
#4
REVIEW
Daniel Kotz, Sabrina Kastaun
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) and heat-not-burn (HNB) devices are relatively new products that are increasingly used alternatively or complementary to ordinary tobacco products. OBJECTIVES: To analyse current data from the German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA) regarding the prevalence of EC and HNB device use and associated socioeconomic factors and smoking behaviour; compare reasons for EC use between adolescents and adults; describe the self-perceived risk of HNB devices...
October 4, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284624/-heat-not-burn-tobacco-devices-as-new-tobacco-industry-products-health-risks
#5
REVIEW
Elke Pieper, Nadja Mallock, Frank Henkler-Stephani, Andreas Luch
Increased tobacco control measures in recent years have directed the tobacco industry to develop alternative tobacco products, such as "heat not burn" (HnB) tobacco devices that are implied to be less hazardous than conventional cigarettes. There are extensive studies from manufacturers available, which show that the emissions of HnB tobacco devices have significantly lower levels of harmful substances compared to conventional cigarettes. In addition, manufacturers have published studies to investigate whether switching from a conventional tobacco cigarette to the HnB product reduces possible health risks...
October 4, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277513/neonicotinoid-insecticide-resistance-in-tobacco-thrips-thysanoptera-thripidae-of-mississippi
#6
Chelsie Darnell-Crumpton, Angus L Catchot, Donald R Cook, Jeffrey Gore, Darrin M Dodds, Shannon C Morsello, Fred R Musser
Insecticidal efficacy of neonicotinoid insecticides used against tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in cotton, Gossypium hirisutum L. (Malvales: Malvaceae), was evaluated for field populations collected in Mississippi during 2014-2016. Resistance was documented in 16 and 57% of populations to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, respectively. Resistance levels did not vary by host plant for any neonicotinoid, but resistance levels varied between the two main agricultural areas (Delta and Hills) of Mississippi and among years for some neonicotinoids...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272039/initiation-continuation-of-use-and-cessation-of-alternative-tobacco-products-among-young-adults-a-qualitative-study
#7
Milkie Vu, Betelihem Getachew, Jackelyn B Payne, Thomas R Kirchner, Carla J Berg
INTRODUCTION: Diverse non-cigarette alternative tobacco products are increasingly popular in the United States. This study investigates the reasons why young adults initiate and continue the use of these products, as well as potential motivations and approaches for quitting. Products assessed include cigarettes, little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs), smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, and hookahs. METHODS: We conducted 60 telephone interviews, of 30-minute duration, with tobacco users enrolled in colleges in Georgia...
February 2018: Tobacco Prevention & Cessation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271276/fighting-fire-with-fire-using-industry-market-research-to-identify-young-adults-at-risk-for-alternative-tobacco-product-and-other-substance-use
#8
Carla J Berg, Regine Haardörfer, Betelihem Getachew, Teresa Johnston, Bruce Foster, Michael Windle
Limited public health research has used psychographic profiling to segment young adults and examine their substance use behaviors. We aimed to conduct market research to identify young adult market segments at risk for alternative tobacco products (ATPs), alcohol, and marijuana use. Substance use; psychographics per the Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyle Scale (VALS); and other key variables were assessed at baseline in a longitudinal study of 3,418 students aged 18-25 from seven colleges/universities in the state of Georgia...
December 2017: Social Marketing Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266779/smokers-support-for-tobacco-endgame-measures-in-canada-findings-from-the-2016-international-tobacco-control-smoking-and-vaping-survey
#9
Janet Chung-Hall, Geoffrey T Fong, Pete Driezen, Lorraine Craig
BACKGROUND: The Canadian government has committed to an endgame target of less than 5% tobacco use by 2035. The aims of this study were to assess baseline levels of support for potential endgame policies among Canadian smokers, by province/region, demographic characteristics and smoking-related correlates, and to identify predictors of support. METHODS: We analyzed data for 3215 adult (age ≥ 18 yr) smokers from the Canadian arm of the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey...
July 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263928/messages-matter-the-tobacco-products-directive-nicotine-addiction-health-warning-versus-an-alternative-relative-risk-message-on-smokers-willingness-to-use-and-purchase-an-electronic-cigarette
#10
Sharon Cox, Daniel Frings, Reeda Ahmed, Lynne Dawkins
Introduction: Many countries have now mandated warning labels on e-cigarette products. One example, the EU TPD health warning states, "This product contains nicotine which is a highly addictive substance. [It is not recommended for use by non-smokers]". The impact of the EU TPD warning message on intentions to use, has not been explored within an EU population. Aims: Examine the effect of i) the TPD e-cigarette health warning and ii) an alternative relative risk message, on smokers' willingness to use, likelihood of purchase, and intention to use as a quit aid...
December 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30261245/are-we-guilty-of-errors-of-omission-on-the-potential-role-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-as-less-harmful-substitutes-for-combusted-tobacco-use
#11
Jack E Henningfield, Stephen T Higgins, Andrea C Villanti
Two of the more controversial tobacco control and regulatory strategies in recent years are the nicotine reduction and tobacco harm reduction (THR) strategies. They have become inextricably intertwined as a successful nicotine reduction policy might only be possible in an environment in which alternative, noncombusted forms of nicotine like electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are available to address the needs of those who were unable or unwilling to completely give up nicotine. Unfortunately, ENDS have emerged as particularly controversial, in part, because they are the first product to carry reduced risk potential while being broadly appealing to cigarette smokers across demographic groups and subpopulations, and to a much smaller extent nonsmokers including, and most controversial, adolescents...
September 24, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30177880/toward-an-improved-multi-criteria-drug-harm-assessment-process-and-evidence-based-drug-policies
#12
Veljko Dubljević
Drug scheduling within the international system of drug control and national legislation has been recently criticized as having insufficient footing in scientific evidence. The legal harms related to non-medical uses of certain drugs (e.g., cannabis) have arguably exceeded their physiological and social harmfulness compared to legally available substances (e.g., tobacco), which prompted some states to explore alternative regulation policies, similar to the drug regime in the Netherlands. Other legally prescribed drugs (e...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158204/awareness-and-use-of-heated-tobacco-products-among-us-adults-2016-2017
#13
Amy L Nyman, Scott R Weaver, Lucy Popova, Terry Frank Pechacek, Jidong Huang, David L Ashley, Michael P Eriksen
INTRODUCTION: Although heated tobacco products (HTP) have been on and off the commercial market for the past three decades (eg, Premier, Eclipse and Accord), they have not received widespread consumer acceptance as an alternative to combustible cigarettes. This may change with recent product innovations, shifts in consumer preferences and the tobacco market landscape and a US regulatory environment that may permit an internationally available HTP to be sold in the USA, possibly with a reduced exposure or risk statement...
August 29, 2018: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30143474/evaluation-of-biological-and-functional-changes-in-healthy-smokers-switching-to-the-tobacco-heating-system-2-2-versus-continued-tobacco-smoking-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-multicenter-study
#14
S Michael Ansari, Nicola Lama, Nicolas Blanc, Marija Bosilkovska, Andrea Donelli, Patrick Picavet, Gizelle Baker, Christelle Haziza, Frank Lüdicke
BACKGROUND: Tobacco harm reduction, substituting less harmful tobacco products for combustible cigarettes, is a complementary approach for smokers who would otherwise continue to smoke. The Philip Morris International (PMI) Tobacco Heating System (THS) 2.2 is a novel tobacco product with the potential to reduce the risk of harm in smokers compared to continued smoking of combustible cigarettes. It heats tobacco electrically in a controlled manner, never allowing the temperature to exceed 350°C, thereby preventing the combustion process from taking place and producing substantially lower levels of toxicants while providing nicotine, taste, ritual, and a sensory experience that closely parallels combustible cigarettes...
August 24, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30133747/mitochondrial-complex-i-dysfunction-increases-co-2-efflux-and-reconfigures-metabolic-fluxes-of-day-respiration-in-tobacco-leaves
#15
Jérémy Lothier, Rosine De Paepe, Guillaume Tcherkez
Mutants affected in complex I are useful to understand the role played by mitochondrial electron transport and redox metabolism in cellular homeostasis and signaling. However, their respiratory phenotype is incompletely described and a specific examination of day respiration (Rd ) is lacking. Here, we used isotopic methods and metabolomics to investigate the impact of complex I dysfunction on Rd in two respiratory mutants of forest tobacco (Nicotiana sylvestris): cytoplasmic male sterile II (CMSII) and nuclear male sterile 1 (NMS1), previously characterized for complex I disruption...
August 22, 2018: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30125014/patterns-and-profiles-of-adolescent-tobacco-users-results-from-the-virginia-youth-survey
#16
Megan E Sutter, Robin S Everhart, Samantha Miadich, Alyssa K Rudy, Aashir Nasim, Caroline O Cobb
Background: Cigarette smoking has decreased to a record low among youth across the United States, including in Virginia. Rates of alternative tobacco use, however, are rising and polytobacco use is common. A better understanding of the shifting use patterns and associated risk factors is important for informing tobacco prevention, cessation, and policy efforts. Methods: Weighted data from the 2013 Virginia Youth Survey were used. The sample was limited to 1168 youth who reported past 30-day tobacco use of ≥1 product (cigarettes, smokeless tobacco [smokeless], or cigars/little cigars/cigarillos [cigars])...
August 14, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121475/delay-discounting-and-e-cigarette-use-an-investigation-in-current-former-and-never-cigarette-smokers
#17
Jeffrey S Stein, Bryan W Heckman, Derek A Pope, Elan S Perry, Geoffrey T Fong, K Michael Cummings, Warren K Bickel
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smokers show greater delay discounting (devaluation of delayed consequences) than non-smokers, suggesting that rapid devaluation of the future contributes to tobacco use through a mechanism in which tobacco-related health consequences are too delayed to discourage smoking. However, little work has quantified delay discounting in relation to electronic cigarette (EC) use, a tobacco product that many users believe to pose fewer negative health consequences than cigarettes...
October 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110903/vape-club-exploring-non-profit-regulatory-models-for-the-supply-of-vaporised-nicotine-products
#18
Coral Gartner, Marilyn Bromberg, Tanya Musgrove, Kathy Luong
Vaporised nicotine products (VNPs) that are not approved as therapeutic goods are banned in some countries, including Australia, Singapore, and Thailand. We reviewed two non-profit regulatory options, private clubs and the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration Special Access Scheme (SAS) that have been applied to other controlled substances (such as cannabis) as a potential model for regulating VNPs as an alternative to prohibition. The legal status of private cannabis clubs varies between the United States, Canada, Belgium, Spain, and Uruguay...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066808/urinary-cotinine-in-tobacco-farmers-in-southern-brazil
#19
Anaclaudia Gastal Fassa, Rodrigo Dalke Meucci, Nadia Spada Fiori, Maria Laura Vidal Carrett, Neice Muller Xavier Faria
OBJECTIVE: To describe urinary cotinine levels in tobacco farmers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2,570 tobacco farmers. All participants that reported green tobacco sickness in the week prior to the interview plus a subsample of 492 pesticide applicators were included. We collected urinary samples and information about sociodemographic, behavioral, dietary, occupational characteristics, and pesticide poisoning during their lifetime. Stratification by sex and smoking was performed and the Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametrical tests were used to analyze cotinine means...
July 26, 2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060215/flavour-capsule-variants-performance-in-a-dark-market-implications-for-standardised-packaging
#20
Kerri Haggart, Janet Hoek, Mei-Ling Blank
Introduction: By increasing excise taxes, eliminating tobacco marketing and requiring standardised (plain) packaging of tobacco products, governments internationally have reduced smoking's allure. Yet product innovations, such as flavour capsule variants (FCVs), remain unregulated and may appeal to non-smokers. We examined the growth of FCVs in a country with a progressive policy environment. Methods: Each year, New Zealand tobacco companies must provide details of the number of cigarette sticks released for each brand and variant to the Ministry of Health...
July 28, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
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