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Alternative tobacco product

Coral Gartner, Marilyn Bromberg, Tanya Musgrove, Kathy Luong
Vaporised nicotine products (VNPs) that are not approved as therapeutic goods are banned in some countries, including Australia, Singapore, and Thailand. We reviewed two non-profit regulatory options, private clubs and the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration Special Access Scheme (SAS) that have been applied to other controlled substances (such as cannabis) as a potential model for regulating VNPs as an alternative to prohibition. The legal status of private cannabis clubs varies between the United States, Canada, Belgium, Spain, and Uruguay...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Anaclaudia Gastal Fassa, Rodrigo Dalke Meucci, Nadia Spada Fiori, Maria Laura Vidal Carrett, Neice Muller Xavier Faria
OBJECTIVE: To describe urinary cotinine levels in tobacco farmers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2,570 tobacco farmers. All participants that reported green tobacco sickness in the week prior to the interview plus a subsample of 492 pesticide applicators were included. We collected urinary samples and information about sociodemographic, behavioral, dietary, occupational characteristics, and pesticide poisoning during their lifetime. Stratification by sex and smoking was performed and the Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis non-parametrical tests were used to analyze cotinine means...
July 26, 2018: Revista de Saúde Pública
Kerri Haggart, Janet Hoek, Mei-Ling Blank
Introduction: By increasing excise taxes, eliminating tobacco marketing and requiring standardised (plain) packaging of tobacco products, governments internationally have reduced smoking's allure. Yet product innovations, such as flavour capsule variants (FCVs), remain unregulated and may appeal to non-smokers. We examined the growth of FCVs in a country with a progressive policy environment. Methods: Each year, New Zealand tobacco companies must provide details of the number of cigarette sticks released for each brand and variant to the Ministry of Health...
July 28, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Yvonne Vallès, Claire K Inman, Brandilyn A Peters, Raghib Ali, Laila Abdel Wareth, Abdishakur Abdulle, Habiba Alsafar, Fatme Al Anouti, Ayesha Al Dhaheri, Divya Galani, Muna Haji, Aisha Al Hamiz, Ayesha Al Hosani, Mohammed Al Houqani, Abdulla Al Junaibi, Marina Kazim, Tomas Kirchhoff, Wael Al Mahmeed, Fatma Al Maskari, Abdullah Alnaeemi, Naima Oumeziane, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Ann Marie Schmidt, Michael Weitzman, Eiman Al Zaabi, Scott Sherman, Richard B Hayes, Jiyoung Ahn
Cigarette smoking alters the oral microbiome; however, the effect of alternative tobacco products remains unclear. Middle Eastern tobacco products like dokha and shisha, are becoming globally widespread. We tested for the first time in a Middle Eastern population the hypothesis that different tobacco products impact the oral microbiome. The oral microbiome of 330 subjects from the United Arab Emirates Healthy Future Study was assessed by amplifying the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from mouthwash samples. Tobacco consumption was assessed using a structured questionnaire and further validated by urine cotinine levels...
July 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Julie B Wang, Jeffrey E Olgin, Gregory Nah, Eric Vittinghoff, Janine K Cataldo, Mark J Pletcher, Gregory M Marcus
E-cigarettes are promoted as healthier alternatives to conventional cigarettes. Many cigarette smokers use both products. It is unknown whether the additional use of e-cigarettes among cigarette smokers (dual users) is associated with reduced exposure to tobacco-related health risks. Cross-sectional analysis was performed using baseline data from the Health eHeart Study, among English-speaking adults, mostly from the United States. Cigarette use (# cigarettes/day) and/or e-cigarette use (# days, # cartridges, and # puffs) were compared between cigarette only users vs...
2018: PloS One
Atena Zahedi, Rattapol Phandthong, Angela Chaili, Guadalupe Remark, Prue Talbot
OBJECTIVES: Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is the initial step enabling the metastasis of cancer cells, which often leads to death. Although smoking is a major risk factor for lung cancer, there is still widespread use of conventional cigarettes. Recently, the tobacco industry has been transformed by the introduction of electronic cigarettes (ECs), which have lower levels of carcinogens and may provide a safer alternative. Here, we investigate the ability of EC liquids and aerosols to induce an EMT in A549 lung cancer cells...
August 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
Yuliyana Beleva, James Russell Pike, Stephen Miller, Bin Xie, Susan L Ames, Alan W Stacy
Introduction: As adolescent tobacco use shifts from traditional cigarettes to alternative products, it is important to understand the influence of point-of-sale (POS) advertising on product use. This research investigated whether the percentage of POS advertising for a particular product, known as the share of advertising voice (SAV), moderated the relationship between exposure to POS tobacco advertisements and tobacco use among at-risk youth. Methods: Longitudinal self-report data from 746 students attending 20 alternative high schools in southern California was merged with observational data cataloging 2,101 advertisements for cigarettes, e-cigarettes, cigars, and smokeless tobacco from 87 tobacco retail outlets within a half-mile of the schools...
July 19, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
M Belushkin, M Esposito, G Jaccard, C Jeannet, A Korneliou, D Tafin Djoko
Testing standards for tobacco and related products are an important basis for product science-based regulation. The recent emergence and rapid growth of products offering an alternative to continued smoking for adult smokers who would otherwise continue to smoke, urgently calls for the establishment of quality and assessment standards relevant for these products. The two main categories of products under consideration are electronic cigarettes and heated tobacco products, which both deliver nicotine in the aerosol that is not smoke, because tobacco is not burned in the process, and in particular no solid particles are generated as a result...
July 2, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Betelihem Getachew, Jackelyn B Payne, Milkie Vu, Drishti Pillai, Jill Shah, Hagai Levine, Carla J Berg
Objectives With increased alternative tobacco product (ATP) use and lagging public health action, we explored perceptions of ATPs, anti-tobacco messaging, and tobacco regulation among young adults. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 60 Georgia college students aged 18-25 using: (1) cigarettes, little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs), smokeless tobacco, or e-cigarettes ≥15 days of the past 30; or (2) hookah ≥10 of the past 30 days (due to lower frequency of use). Of 99 participants recruited, 80 consented, and 60 participated...
July 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
Vanessa Vasconcelos, Hazel Gilbert
BACKGROUND: The introduction of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has provided smokers with an alternative source of nicotine. Interest and use of the device has increased exponentially in the last decade with an estimated 2.9 m adult users in Great Britain. Research so far on the attitudes and perceptions of smokers to this new product has largely focussed on the views of current e-cigarette users, smokers attempting to quit and former cigarette smokers.AimThis study aimed to explore the views of current tobacco smokers who were not using e-cigarettes and not looking for a cessation method, their understanding and knowledge of e-cigarettes, and their views of e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid provided by the National Health Service (NHS)...
July 2, 2018: Primary Health Care Research & Development
Lin Cai, Juanni Chen, Zhongwei Liu, Hancheng Wang, Huikuan Yang, Wei Ding
Magnesium (Mg) is an essential mineral element for plants and is nontoxic to organisms. In this study, we took advantage of nanotechnologies to systematically investigate the antibacterial mechanisms of magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgONPs) against the phytopathogen Ralstonia solanacearum ( R. solanacearum ) in vitro and in vivo for the first time. R. solanacearum has contributed to catastrophic bacterial wilt, which has resulted in the world-wide reduction of tobacco production. The results demonstrated that MgONPs possessed statistically significant concentration-dependent antibacterial activity, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were measured as 200 and 250 μg/mL, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jessica L Fetterman, Robert M Weisbrod, Bihua Feng, Reena Bastin, Shawn T Tuttle, Monica Holbrook, Gregory Baker, Rose Marie Robertson, Daniel J Conklin, Aruni Bhatnagar, Naomi M Hamburg
OBJECTIVE: Use of alternative tobacco products including electronic cigarettes is rapidly rising. The wide variety of flavored tobacco products available is of great appeal to smokers and youth. The flavorings added to tobacco products have been deemed safe for ingestion, but the cardiovascular health effects are unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 9 flavors on vascular endothelial cell function. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Freshly isolated endothelial cells from participants who use nonmenthol- or menthol-flavored tobacco cigarettes showed impaired A23187-stimulated nitric oxide production compared with endothelial cells from nonsmoking participants...
July 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Ingo Appelhagen, Anders Keim Wulff-Vester, Micael Wendell, Anne-Kathrine Hvoslef-Eide, Julia Russell, Anne Oertel, Stefan Martens, Hans-Peter Mock, Cathie Martin, Andrea Matros
Anthocyanins are widely distributed, glycosylated, water-soluble plant pigments, which give many fruits and flowers their red, purple or blue colouration. Their beneficial effects in a dietary context have encouraged increasing use of anthocyanins as natural colourants in the food and cosmetic industries. However, the limited availability and diversity of anthocyanins commercially have initiated searches for alternative sources of these natural colourants. In plants, high-level production of secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, can be achieved by engineering of regulatory genes as well as genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes...
June 8, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Janet Chung-Hall, Lorraine Craig, Shannon Gravely, Natalie Sansone, Geoffrey T Fong
OBJECTIVE: To present findings of a narrative review on the implementation and effectiveness of 17 Articles of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) during the Treaty's first decade. DATA SOURCES: Published reports on global FCTC implementation; searches of four databases through June 2016; hand-search of publications/online resources; tobacco control experts. STUDY SELECTION: WHO Convention Secretariat global progress reports (2010, 2012, 2014); 2015 WHO report on the global tobacco epidemic; studies of social, behavioural, health, economic and/or environmental impacts of FCTC policies...
June 7, 2018: Tobacco Control
Y Tony Yang
In July 2017, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that it wants to reduce the nicotine in cigarettes to make them less addictive. Also, it is delaying for several years a key regulation affecting cigars and e-cigarettes, including flavored vaping products that tend to appeal to younger consumers. Specifically, it postponed the requirement that such products be approved by the agency. Both actions are part of a comprehensive plan to eventually wean smokers off conventional cigarettes and steer them toward less harmful alternative forms of nicotine...
August 2018: Preventive Medicine
Tzu Tsun Luk, Man Ping Wang, Lok Tung Leung, Jianjiu Chen, Yongda Wu, Tai Hing Lam, Sai Yin Ho
BACKGROUND: The role of family relationship in adolescent use of emerging tobacco products, which have become increasingly popular, is unknown. We examined the associations of perceived family relationship quality with current use of poly-tobacco products including cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), waterpipe and smokeless tobacco in adolescents. METHODS: Data from a representative sample of 42,250 US grade 7-12 equivalent students (mean ± SD age 14...
October 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Demetrios Kouretas, Aristides Tsatsakis, Konstantinos Poulas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 26, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
John Buckell, Joachim Marti, Jody L Sindelar
OBJECTIVES: To provide the policy-relevant estimates of impacts of alternative flavour bans on preferences and demand for cigarettes and e-cigarettes in adult smokers and recent quitters. METHODS: A best-best discrete choice experiment (DCE) is used to elicit smokers' and recent quitters' preferences for flavours, price, health impact and nicotine level in cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Choice of tobacco products and an opt-out option were examined. An efficient design yielded 36 choice sets...
May 28, 2018: Tobacco Control
Vladimir Sidorov, Charles Armstrong, Thomas Ream, Xudong Ye, Annie Saltarikos
A new method based on mixing and wounding of callus tissue was used to transfer plastid or nuclear DNA between cells. Methods alternative to sexual hybridization can be powerful tools for crop improvement. We have developed a new hybridization technology based on wounding a mixed population of cells of two parents growing in vitro as callus ("cell grafting"), and have demonstrated the utility of this system for plastid or nuclear genome transfer. In our proof-of concept experiments, non-organized growing tissue (callus) from tobacco var...
August 2018: Plant Cell Reports
Daniela Castiglia, Serena Leone, Rachele Tamburino, Lorenza Sannino, Jole Fonderico, Chiara Melchiorre, Andrea Carpentieri, Stefania Grillo, Delia Picone, Nunzia Scotti
Plastid-based MNEI protein mutants retain the structure, stability and sweetness of their bacterial counterparts, confirming the attractiveness of the plastid transformation technology for high-yield production of recombinant proteins. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes has dramatically increased the industrial demand for the development and use of alternatives to sugar and traditional sweeteners. Sweet proteins, such as MNEI, a single chain derivative of monellin, are the most promising candidates for industrial applications...
August 2018: Planta
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