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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30553964/bacterial-cellulose-production-by-acetobacter-xylinum-atcc-23767-using-tobacco-waste-extract-as-culture-medium
#1
Jianbin Ye, Shanshan Zheng, Zhan Zhang, Feng Yang, Ke Ma, Yinjie Feng, Jianqiang Zheng, Duobin Mao, Xuepeng Yang
In this study, bacterial cellulose (BC) was synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum ATCC 23767 using tobacco waste extract (TWE) as a carbon source. Nicotine was found to be an inhibitory factor for BC synthesis, but it can be removed at pH 9.0 by steam distillation. After removing nicotine, the BC production was 2.27 g/L in TWE prepared with solid-liquid (S-L) ratio at 1:10. To further enhance the BC production, two fermentation stages were performed over 16 days by re-adjusting the pH to 6.5 at 7 days, after the first fermentation stage was completed...
December 10, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30550122/-new-tobacco-products-a-threat-for-tobacco-control-and-public-health-of-mexico
#2
Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu, Inti Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Luis Zavala-Arciniega, Edna Arillo-Santillán
The new tobacco products that include electronic cigarettes (called "E Cig", "e-hookahs", "mods", "vape-pens"), electronic nicotine delivery systems (SEAN, Spanish acronym), similar systems without nicotine (SSSN, Spanish acronym) and alternative nicotine consumption systems (SACN, Spanish acronym), are positioned in the global market with a discourse of harm reduction and risk minimization. This manuscript summarizes the scientific evidence and presents a regulatory proposal for this technological innovation, oriented to guide the decision making of legislators, government institutions and organized civil society...
September 2018: Salud Pública de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30543893/grass-root-approaches-to-control-levels-of-carcinogenic-nitrosamines-nnn-and-nnk-in-smokeless-tobacco-products
#3
Alpana K Gupta, Sonam Tulsyan, Mausumi Bharadwaj, Ravi Mehrotra
Due to the extensive ban on public smoking, tobacco companies focused their business on new smokeless tobacco (SLT) products promoting them as a harm reduction strategy and a safer alternative to cigarettes. Two nitrosamines, N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and nicotine-derived nitrosamine ketone (NNK), present in SLT, listed as group 1 human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, are found to be the prime agents for most of cancers in SLT users. This review illustrates the mechanism of cancer induction by NNN and NNK in humans along with factors influencing the formation of NNN and NNK at various stages of tobacco manufacturing...
December 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30452712/neighborhood-differences-in-alternative-tobacco-product-availability-and-advertising-in-new-york-city-implications-for-health-disparities
#4
Daniel P Giovenco, Torra E Spillane, July M Merizier
Introduction: Alternative tobacco products (ATPs), such as cigars, smokeless tobacco, and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), have a strong presence in the U.S. retail environment amid declining cigarette consumption. This study documented the promotion of ATPs in tobacco retailers in New York City and examined associations with neighborhood demographics. Methods: Data on product availability and advertising were collected from a stratified, random sample of tobacco retailers in 2017 (n=796)...
November 18, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30409179/sex-and-sexual-orientation-in-relation-to-tobacco-use-among-young-adult-college-students-in-the-us-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Jingjing Li, Regine Haardörfer, Milkie Vu, Michael Windle, Carla J Berg
BACKGROUND: Sexual minority young adults represent a high-risk population for tobacco use. This study examined cigarette and alternative tobacco product (ATP) use prevalence across sexual orientation (heterosexual, gay/lesbian, and bisexual) among college-attending young adult men and women, respectively. METHODS: Baseline data from a two-year longitudinal study of 3386 young adult college students aged 18-25 in Georgia were analyzed. Correlates examined included sociodemographics (age, sex, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, college type, and parental education)...
November 8, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30401669/lung-function-in-users-of-a-smoke-free-electronic-device-with-heatsticks-iqos-versus-smokers-of-conventional-cigarettes-protocol-for-a-longitudinal-cohort-observational-study
#6
Almaz Sharman, Baurzhan Zhussupov, Dana Sharman, Irina Kim, Elmira Yerenchina
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a global public health problem. It is the third-leading cause of death in the world, the fourth leading cause of death in Kazakhstan, and is strongly associated with smoking. Smoking cessation reduces the severity of respiratory symptoms and COPD exacerbations. Heated tobacco products, such as HeatSticks heated by the iQOS device, a smoke-free electronic device, may serve as less risky alternatives to conventional combustible cigarettes...
November 5, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30392025/are-electronic-cigarettes-a-healthier-alternative-to-conventional-tobacco-smoking
#7
REVIEW
Jan Löhler, Barbara Wollenberg
Electronic cigarettes (EC) with and without nicotine are used by more and more consumers within the last decade. The long-term risks of vapor inhalation are unknown. This study should describe the state of the art of knowledge with respect to the following four items: (1) ingredients of the vapor and their potential risks, the influence of EC on smoking of combustible tobacco to (2) adults and (3) the youth, and (4) the side effects of passive vaping. The vapor of EC contains, in comparison to tobacco smoke, less harmful substances, qualitatively and quantitatively...
November 3, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30370737/-formaldehyde-in-electronic-cigarettes-and-in-heat-not-burn-products-let-s-make-the-point
#8
Cinzia De Marco, Alessandro Borgini, Ario Alberto Ruprecht, Chiara Veronese, Roberto Mazza, Martina Bertoldi, Andrea Tittarelli, Alessandra Scaburri, Anna Chiara Ogliari, Vincenzo Zagà, Paolo Contiero, Giovanna Tagliabue, Roberto Boffi
The spread of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) and of the so-called heat-not-burn (HnB), also known as heated tobacco products, presented as a less harmful alternative to traditional cigarettes, required further in-depth studies to demonstrate the real benefits or possible risks linked to this type of habit among smokers and possible new smokers. There are numerous harmful substances produced by these devices, such as metals, organic compounds, and aldehydes. The presence of formaldehyde is particularly worrying: its indoor concentration is 2...
September 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367714/the-effect-of-electronic-cigarettes-on-dental-enamel-color
#9
Karen Pintado-Palomino, Cecilia Vilela Vasconcelos Barros de Almeida, Christiano Oliveira-Santos, Fernanda Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Camila Tirapelli
OBJECTIVE: The use of electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) has recently increased as an alternative to conventional smoking tobacco products. The literature is scarce on the effects of ECIGs on dental and oral structures. Therefore, the objective of this study was to observe whether ECIG aerosol could alter the color of dental enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-three bovine enamel specimens were randomly separated into groups (n = 7) and treated with aerosols with different e-liquid flavors (neutral, menthol, and tobacco) and nicotine content (0, 12, and 18 mg)...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340051/cloning-and-functional-characterization-of-the-na-h-antiporter-nhx1-gene-promoter-from-an-extreme-halophyte-salicornia-brachiata
#10
Vivekanand Tiwari, Manish K Patel, Amit K Chaturvedi, Avinash Mishra, Bhavanath Jha
Salinity is one of the major abiotic stresses which affect plant growth and productivity by imposing dual stress, ionic and osmotic stress, on plants. Halophytes which are adapted to complete their life cycle in saline soil keep the transcript expression of stress-responsive genes constitutively higher in the optimum growth environments, which can be further increased by several folds under stress conditions. The transcript expression of SbNHX1 gene, cloned from a leafless succulent halophyte Salicornia brachiata, was up-regulated under salinity stress, but its transcriptional regulation has not been studied so far...
January 30, 2019: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336627/comparison-between-online-and-offline-price-of-tobacco-products-using-novel-datasets
#11
Magdalena Opazo Breton, John Britton, Yue Huang, Ilze Bogdanovica
Price of tobacco products has traditionally been relevant both for the industry, to respond to policy changes, and for governments, as an effective tobacco control measure. However, monitoring prices across a wide range of brands and brand variants requires access to expensive commercial sales databases. This study aims to investigate the comparability of average tobacco prices from two commercial sources and an in-house monitoring database which provides daily data in real time at minimal cost. We used descriptive and regression analysis to compare the monthly average numbers of brands, brand variants, products and prices of cigarettes and hand-rolling tobacco using commercial data from Nielsen Scantrack and Kantar Worldpanel , and an online price database (OPD) created in Nottingham, for the period from May 2013 to February 2017...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30336446/cumulative-psychosocial-risks-internal-asse-and-past-30-day-tobacco-use-among-middle-and-high-school-students-the-promise-of-internal-assets
#12
Myriam Forster, Gower L Amy, Eunice Areba, Barbara J McMorris
INTRODUCTION: Research has demonstrated a robust relationship between psychosocial risk factors (e.g., perceptions of health risk, peer and parent influences, and school climate) and adolescent tobacco use. However, whether internal assets (IAs), factors that promote healthy youth development, can mitigate the adverse effects of psychosocial risks on tobacco use has not been well researched. METHOD: Using a population-based sample of middle and high school students (N = 112,364), multilevel logistic and negative binomial regression models estimated the direct effects of cumulative psychosocial risks and IAs on student tobacco use (e...
February 2019: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284626/-e-cigarettes-and-heat-not-burn-products-representative-data-on-consumer-behaviour-and-associated-factors-in-the-german-population-the-debra-study
#13
REVIEW
Daniel Kotz, Sabrina Kastaun
BACKGROUND: Electronic cigarettes (ECs) and heat-not-burn (HNB) devices are relatively new products that are increasingly used alternatively or complementary to ordinary tobacco products. OBJECTIVES: To analyse current data from the German Study on Tobacco Use (DEBRA) regarding the prevalence of EC and HNB device use and associated socioeconomic factors and smoking behaviour; compare reasons for EC use between adolescents and adults; describe the self-perceived risk of HNB devices...
November 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284624/-heat-not-burn-tobacco-devices-as-new-tobacco-industry-products-health-risks
#14
REVIEW
Elke Pieper, Nadja Mallock, Frank Henkler-Stephani, Andreas Luch
Increased tobacco control measures in recent years have directed the tobacco industry to develop alternative tobacco products, such as "heat not burn" (HnB) tobacco devices that are implied to be less hazardous than conventional cigarettes. There are extensive studies from manufacturers available, which show that the emissions of HnB tobacco devices have significantly lower levels of harmful substances compared to conventional cigarettes. In addition, manufacturers have published studies to investigate whether switching from a conventional tobacco cigarette to the HnB product reduces possible health risks...
November 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30277513/neonicotinoid-insecticide-resistance-in-tobacco-thrips-thysanoptera-thripidae-of-mississippi
#15
Chelsie Darnell-Crumpton, Angus L Catchot, Donald R Cook, Jeffrey Gore, Darrin M Dodds, Shannon C Morsello, Fred R Musser
Insecticidal efficacy of neonicotinoid insecticides used against tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in cotton, Gossypium hirisutum L. (Malvales: Malvaceae), was evaluated for field populations collected in Mississippi during 2014-2016. Resistance was documented in 16 and 57% of populations to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, respectively. Resistance levels did not vary by host plant for any neonicotinoid, but resistance levels varied between the two main agricultural areas (Delta and Hills) of Mississippi and among years for some neonicotinoids...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30272039/initiation-continuation-of-use-and-cessation-of-alternative-tobacco-products-among-young-adults-a-qualitative-study
#16
Milkie Vu, Betelihem Getachew, Jackelyn B Payne, Thomas R Kirchner, Carla J Berg
INTRODUCTION: Diverse non-cigarette alternative tobacco products are increasingly popular in the United States. This study investigates the reasons why young adults initiate and continue the use of these products, as well as potential motivations and approaches for quitting. Products assessed include cigarettes, little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs), smokeless tobacco, e-cigarettes, and hookahs. METHODS: We conducted 60 telephone interviews, of 30-minute duration, with tobacco users enrolled in colleges in Georgia...
February 2018: Tobacco Prevention & Cessation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271276/fighting-fire-with-fire-using-industry-market-research-to-identify-young-adults-at-risk-for-alternative-tobacco-product-and-other-substance-use
#17
Carla J Berg, Regine Haardörfer, Betelihem Getachew, Teresa Johnston, Bruce Foster, Michael Windle
Limited public health research has used psychographic profiling to segment young adults and examine their substance use behaviors. We aimed to conduct market research to identify young adult market segments at risk for alternative tobacco products (ATPs), alcohol, and marijuana use. Substance use; psychographics per the Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyle Scale (VALS); and other key variables were assessed at baseline in a longitudinal study of 3,418 students aged 18-25 from seven colleges/universities in the state of Georgia...
December 2017: Social Marketing Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266779/smokers-support-for-tobacco-endgame-measures-in-canada-findings-from-the-2016-international-tobacco-control-smoking-and-vaping-survey
#18
Janet Chung-Hall, Geoffrey T Fong, Pete Driezen, Lorraine Craig
BACKGROUND: The Canadian government has committed to an endgame target of less than 5% tobacco use by 2035. The aims of this study were to assess baseline levels of support for potential endgame policies among Canadian smokers, by province/region, demographic characteristics and smoking-related correlates, and to identify predictors of support. METHODS: We analyzed data for 3215 adult (age ≥ 18 yr) smokers from the Canadian arm of the 2016 International Tobacco Control Four Country Smoking and Vaping Survey...
July 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263928/messages-matter-the-tobacco-products-directive-nicotine-addiction-health-warning-versus-an-alternative-relative-risk-message-on-smokers-willingness-to-use-and-purchase-an-electronic-cigarette
#19
Sharon Cox, Daniel Frings, Reeda Ahmed, Lynne Dawkins
Introduction: Many countries have now mandated warning labels on e-cigarette products. One example, the EU TPD health warning states, "This product contains nicotine which is a highly addictive substance. [It is not recommended for use by non-smokers]". The impact of the EU TPD warning message on intentions to use, has not been explored within an EU population. Aims: Examine the effect of i) the TPD e-cigarette health warning and ii) an alternative relative risk message, on smokers' willingness to use, likelihood of purchase, and intention to use as a quit aid...
December 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30261245/are-we-guilty-of-errors-of-omission-on-the-potential-role-of-electronic-nicotine-delivery-systems-as-less-harmful-substitutes-for-combusted-tobacco-use
#20
Jack E Henningfield, Stephen T Higgins, Andrea C Villanti
Two of the more controversial tobacco control and regulatory strategies in recent years are the nicotine reduction and tobacco harm reduction (THR) strategies. They have become inextricably intertwined as a successful nicotine reduction policy might only be possible in an environment in which alternative, noncombusted forms of nicotine like electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are available to address the needs of those who were unable or unwilling to completely give up nicotine. Unfortunately, ENDS have emerged as particularly controversial, in part, because they are the first product to carry reduced risk potential while being broadly appealing to cigarette smokers across demographic groups and subpopulations, and to a much smaller extent nonsmokers including, and most controversial, adolescents...
September 24, 2018: Preventive Medicine
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