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Smoking prevention

Xingzhong Jin, Stuart A Kinner, Robyn Hopkins, Emily Stockings, Ryan J Courtney, Anthony Shakeshaft, Dennis Petrie, Timothy Dobbins, Kate Dolan
INTRODUCTION: Smoking remains the leading risk factor for disease burden and mortality worldwide. Heavy Smoking is often associated with poor Nutrition, Alcohol abuse and Physical inactivity (known as 'SNAP'). Australia's first prison smoking ban was introduced in the Northern Territory in July 2013. However, relapse to smoking after release from prison is normative. Holistic and cost-effective interventions are needed to maintain post-release abstinence to realise the potential public health impact of smoke-free prison policies...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Rachel F McCloud, Mesfin A Bekalu, Nicole Maddox, Sara J Minsky, Kasisomayajula Viswanath
BACKGROUND: National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers provide key cancer research, prevention, and treatment services to members of their catchment area. Characterization of these areas may be complex given the diverse needs of the populations within, particularly those from low socioeconomic position (SEP). The purpose of this paper is to describe the characterization of the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer (DF/HCC) catchment area through using a two-pronged approach. METHODS: Participants (n=1,511) were recruited through 1) an online, probability-based survey (n=1,013) and 2) a supplementary, in-person survey from priority groups (African Americans, Latinos, blue collar workers, low SEP, homeless, n=498) within Massachusetts...
October 19, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Shengbang Zheng, Baodong Yao
Risk factors for first-ever stroke have been studied extensively, while those for recurrent stroke are not accurately understood. To provide the adequate secondary prevention for the patients, it is necessary to reveal the risk factors that dominate recurrent stroke. Multiple databases were adopted to search for the relevant studies and full-text articles involving in the risk factors for stroke recurrence were reviewed. Meta-analyses were performed with Review Manager 5.0 to estimate the impact of risk factors included, and forest plots, quality analysis and bias analysis for the articles included were also conducted...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Stephen T Higgins
This Special Issue of Preventive Medicine (PM) is the 5th in a series on behavior change, health, and health disparities. Unhealthy behavior patterns (i.e., lifestyle choices) including cigarette smoking and other substance abuse, physical inactivity, unhealthy food choices, and non-adherence with recommended medical regimens, undermine U.S. population health by increasing risk for chronic disease and premature death. This Special Issue brings together scholarly contributions from the emerging area of tobacco regulatory science to examine current topics of critical importance to reducing the burden of cigarette smoking on U...
December 2018: Preventive Medicine
Gerd Hasenfuß
Prevention strategies for cardiac events depend of the risk for such an event. A very high risk is defined by a risk >10% over 10 years. For example, a patient with known coronary artery disease has such a very high risk to die. However a patient with diabetes and severe hypertension without known coronary artery disease carries the same risk. Here, secondary prevention and primary prevention overlap. Prevention guidelines include a number of general recommendations such as changes in behavior, smoking intervention strategies, nutrition, body weight, and physical activity...
October 19, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
Shinjini Ganguly, Ayan Chandra, Indu B Chatterjee
Urothelial cancer of the renal pelvis (CRP) is predominantly associated with cigarette smoking. However, the molecular pathogenesis of initiation and progression of cigarette smoke (CS)-induced CRP is unknown. Majority of CRP is high grade and high stage at presentation and has a high recurrence rate even after surgery. Earlier we reported that prolonged treatment (24 weeks) of a guinea pig model with p-benzoquinone (p-BQ), a product of CS in vivo, produced carcinoma in situ in the renal pelvis, a noninvasive cancer...
2018: Toxicology Reports
G Li, J S Wang, S D Qin, J Zhang, N DU, J Zhang, X Sun, H Ren
OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical effect of the oxygen drive aerosol in halation with budesonide and ambroxol in the prevention of adult post-thoracotomy pneumonia. METHODS: This was a randomized, open and parallel controlled trial. We chose 80 cases of patients in the department of thoracic surgery in the First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University which fitted our criteria as the research object. The selected patients were randomly divided into the active group and the control group, and the active group underwent oxygen drive aerosol inhalation (2 mg budesonide combined 60 mg ambroxol) for 3 days before operation, and the control group without preoperative aerosol inhalation, and their postoperative therapy was the same...
October 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Natzi Sakalihasan, Jean-Baptiste Michel, Athanasios Katsargyris, Helena Kuivaniemi, Jean-Olivier Defraigne, Alain Nchimi, Janet T Powell, Koichi Yoshimura, Rebecka Hultgren
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized dilatation of the infrarenal aorta. AAA is a multifactorial disease, and genetic and environmental factors play a part; smoking, male sex and a positive family history are the most important risk factors, and AAA is most common in men >65 years of age. AAA results from changes in the aortic wall structure, including thinning of the media and adventitia due to the loss of vascular smooth muscle cells and degradation of the extracellular matrix. If the mechanical stress of the blood pressure acting on the wall exceeds the wall strength, the AAA ruptures, causing life-threatening intra-abdominal haemorrhage - the mortality for patients with ruptured AAA is 65-85%...
October 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
Jose Barboza
Tobacco use is the most preventable cause of death worldwide, with over 7 million deaths per year. Smoking during pregnancy causes harm to the mother, fetus, and can result in problems for the infant from childhood into adulthood. Practitioners should ask all expectant mothers about tobacco use. For expectant mothers who smoke or recently quit, practitioners should advice to quit and provide psychosocial interventions. Rates of smoking during pregnancy differ between geographical locations, with estimates of 10...
October 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Krista Christensen, Carey E Gleason, Julie A Mares
OBJECTIVES: Dietary carotenoids may limit neuronal damage from free radicals, potentially serving as a modifiable risk factor for cognitive decline. We examined intake of lutein and zeaxanthin (L and Z) in relation to cognitive performance among 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants aged ≥60 years. METHODS: L and Z intake from foods and supplements was estimated from two non-consecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Outcomes included the CERAD Word Learning sub-test score, Animal Fluency test score, and Digit Symbol Substitution test score...
October 16, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Graham Devereux, Seonaidh Cotton, Shona Fielding, Nicola McMeekin, Peter J Barnes, Andrew Briggs, Graham Burns, Rekha Chaudhuri, Henry Chrystyn, Lisa Davies, Anthony De Soyza, Simon Gompertz, John Haughney, Karen Innes, Joanna Kaniewska, Amanda Lee, Alyn Morice, John Norrie, Anita Sullivan, Andrew Wilson, David Price
Importance: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health issue and theophylline is used extensively. Preclinical investigations have demonstrated that low plasma concentrations (1-5 mg/L) of theophylline enhance antiinflammatory effects of corticosteroids in COPD. Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of adding low-dose theophylline to inhaled corticosteroids in COPD. Design, Setting, and Participants: The TWICS (theophylline with inhaled corticosteroids) trial was a pragmatic, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial that enrolled patients with COPD between February 6, 2014, and August 31, 2016...
October 16, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Zhonghai Li, Hao Yang, Mozhen Liu, Ming Lu, Jin Chu, Shuxun Hou, Tiesheng Hou
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective clinical series. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical features and the risk factors for recurrent lumbar disc herniation (rLDH) in China. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: rLDH is a common cause of poor outcomes after lumbar microdiscectomy surgery. Risk factors for rLDH are increasingly being investigated. However, results in these previous studies were not always consistent. METHODS: Between June 2005 and July 2012, 321 consecutive patients with single-level LDH, who underwent surgery, were enrolled in this study...
November 1, 2018: Spine
Sheng-Hsuan Chien, Yao-Chung Liu, Chia-Jen Liu, Po-Shen Ko, Hao-Yuan Wang, Liang-Tsai Hsiao, Tzeon-Jye Chiou, Jin-Hwang Liu, Jyh-Pyng Gau
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Patients with acute leukemia undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) are exposed to high risk of developing invasive fungal infections, and the invasive mold infections (IMIs) are becoming more and more common after transplantation. Here, we conducted a retrospective study to analyze demographics, microbiology, and risk factors for IMIs development in adult acute leukemia patients undergoing allo-HSCT. METHODS: We reviewed 245 adult acute leukemia patients undergoing allo-HSCT from January 2003 to December 2014...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Tadeusz Osadnik, Natalia Pawlas, Marta Lonnie, Kamila Osadnik, Mateusz Lejawa, Lidia Wądołowska, Kamil Bujak, Martyna Fronczek, Rafał Reguła, Marcin Gawlita, Joanna Katarzyna Strzelczyk, Marta Góral, Marek Gierlotka, Lech Poloński, Mariusz Gąsior
Dietary habits of healthy offspring with a positive family history of premature coronary artery disease (P-CAD) have not been studied so far. The aim of this study was twofold: (1) to identify dietary patterns in a sample of young healthy adults with (cases) and without (controls) family history of P-CAD, and (2) to study the association between dietary patterns and family history of P-CAD. The data came from the MAGNETIC case-control study. The participants were healthy adults aged 18⁻35 years old, with ( n = 351) and without a family history of P-CAD ( n = 338)...
October 12, 2018: Nutrients
Melissa Anne Wright, Daniel Steffens, Ravi Lee Huilgol
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in Australia is currently poorly characterized. The risk factor profile for PAD is changing with the population ageing, diabetes increasing and smoking rates declining. The management of PAD is also evolving, with advances in medical management and endovascular technique. The trends in PAD prevalence and surgical management have implications for preventative medicine, the Australian health system and vascular surgery. We report and analyse trends in PAD surgical intervention performed between 2001 and 2015...
October 15, 2018: ANZ Journal of Surgery
Susanna C Larsson, Karl Michaëlsson, Stephen Burgess
Identification of causative risk factors amenable for modification is essential for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Observational studies have identified associations between several potentially modifiable risk factors and osteoporosis. However, observational studies are susceptible to confounding, reverse causation bias, and measurement error, all of which limit their ability to provide causal estimates of the effect of exposures on outcomes, thereby reducing their ability to inform prevention and treatment strategies against bone loss and fractures...
October 12, 2018: Bone
Tatiana Basáñez, Anuja Majmundar, Tess Boley Cruz, Jennifer B Unger
E-cigarettes were initially introduced as a less harmful alternative to combustible cigarettes, but marketing efforts may now be exceeding these claims by associating e-cigarettes with words related to healthy foods. These associations could mislead people to assume vaping is a healthy practice. Tweets from January to March 2017 were obtained from the Twitter Streaming Application Programming Interface (API) to assess content about vaping linked to healthy food words. Tweets were classified into one of nine categories along with their source (marketer vs...
December 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Yelena Bird, Killian Forbeteh, Chijioke Nwankwo, John Moraros
Background: Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Over the last decade, increased immigration has significantly shifted Canada's demographic profile. According to a 2011 National Household Survey, approximately 20.6% of the Canadian population was immigrants, the highest among the G8 countries. It is estimated that by 2031, one-in-three Canadian's will be an immigrant. This study examined the ethno-specific preference of cigarette smoking and smoking initiation among Canadian immigrants...
2018: Patient Preference and Adherence
Roland von Känel, Nadja Heimgartner, Monika Stutz, Claudia Zuccarella-Hackl, Alexander Hänsel, Ulrike Ehlert, Petra H Wirtz
BACKGROUND: Stress-induced prothrombotic changes are mediated by the sympathetic nervous system and critically involved in mental triggering of acute coronary syndromes, but the underlying psychobiology is not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that a norepinephrine (NE) infusion to mimic effects of stress-induced NE release on blood coagulation elicits prothrombotic changes and examined to what extent these would be mediated by an alpha-adrenergic mechanism. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a single-blind placebo-controlled within-subjects design, 24 middle-aged, non-smoking, non-obese and normotensive men participated in three experimental trials with an interval between one and two weeks...
September 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Lara Silvia Oliveira Conegundes, Juliana Y Valente, Camila Bertini Martins, Solange Andreoni, Zila M Sanchez
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the sociodemographic, school, and family factors associated with the patterns of binge drinking and frequent or heavy drinking among adolescents. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study, nested in a randomized controlled trial, of 6285 seventh and eighth grade adolescent students from Brazilian public schools. The associations between binge drinking (consumption of five or more doses of alcohol on a single occasion) in the last 12 months and frequent or heavy drinking (alcohol consumption on six or more days) in the last month and the several factors were analyzed through weighted logistic regression...
October 12, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
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