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Smoking prevention

Wanjie Tang, Gang Wang, Tao Hu, Qian Dai, Jiajun Xu, Yanchun Yang, Jiuping Xu
BACKGROUND: Separation from migrant parents threatens the mental health of approximately 61 million left-behind children (LBC) in China. This study compared the prevalence of mental health and psychosocial problems between LBC and controls in Sichuan province, China. METHODS: We randomly recruited LBC and adolescents aged 12-16 years old from 16 rural high schools in 8 counties in Sichuan province. We compared frequency of school bullying, self-esteem, panic symptoms, depression and severe psychological distress(SPD) between LBC and controls from the same schools...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Ayhan Olcay, Erdem Tezcan, Emir Canturk, Bekir İnan, Hasan Karaoglu, Ceyhun Kucuk, Baris Akdemir, Onur Yolay
Population studies revealed that metal exposure through food, environment, and smoking was related with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. In this study, we determined complex chemical elements in surgical carotid endarterectomy specimens and carotid tissues from autopsies without atherosclerosis. Atherosclerotic plaques from 41 endarterectomies and normal carotid tissue from 30 autopsies were collected and elemental composition was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) method...
August 17, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Hanan E Badr, Konstantinos Francis
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of smoking and drug use among adolescent boys, and to examine adolescents' psychosocial factors, and suicidal behaviors associated with adolescents' substance use. METHODS: The Kuwait Global School-Based Student Health Survey employed a two-stage cluster sample design targeting a representative sample of adolescents. This study focused on the participated 1310 boys. Statistical analysis included Chi-square test, student t-test, and multivariate analysis...
August 7, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Hongyu Jing, Lingyun Liu, Junfeng Zhou, Hanxin Yao
BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow. COPD can progress to persistent decline of pulmonary function. This study explored the effect of CXCL10 on COPD induced by cigarette smoke (CS) and its underlying mechanism. MATERIAL AND METHODS Wild-type (WT) mice were randomly assigned into 3 groups: the control group, the CS group, and the intervention group. Mice in the CS group were exposed to CS and mice in the CXCL10 group were exposed to CS and CXCL10 neutralizing antibody...
August 17, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Manal Ibrahim Al-Kloub, Omar A Al-Khawaldeh, Mohammed ALBashtawy, Abdul-Monim Batiha, Mahmoud Al-Haliq
BACKGROUND: Disordered eating attitudes and behaviours are linked to poor physical and psychological outcomes. AIM: To examine the individual, psychological, and socio-cultural factors associated with disordered eating attitudes among Jordanian adolescents. METHODS: A stratified sampling method was used to select school students aged 15 to 18 years from three governates in Jordan in 2013/2014. Participants filled out questionnaires on socio-demographic variables, the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26; to discriminate adolescents with disordered eating); the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ; used to measure psychological factors associated with disordered eating); Body Mass Index was calculated and obesity evaluated according to international cut off points (to categorize normal weight, overweight, and obese adolescents, and these categories were used as individual factors associated with disordered eating)...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Practice
Susan T Ennett, Robert W Faris, Andrea M Hussong, Nisha Gottfredson, Veronica Cole
Although the contributions of friend selection and friend influence to adolescent homophily on substance use behaviors has been of enduring research interest, moderators of these processes have received relatively little research attention. Identification of factors that dampen or amplify selection and influence on substance use behaviors is important for informing prevention efforts. Whereas prior research has examined adolescent drinking, smoking, and marijuana use, the current study examined whether friend selection and friend influence operated on substance use involvement, an indicator of problematic use, and whether depressive symptomology moderated these processes...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Azlina Daud, Siti Zuhaidah Shahadan, Muhammad Ibrahim, Muhammad Lokman Md Isa, Samsul Deraman
OBJECTIVE: Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and association of triglyceride level and lifestyle factors among Malay obese class I and II adults. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study of 65 Malay obese class I and class II adults aged 20-62 years (21 male, 44 female) from sub-urban areas of Malaysia. Overnight fasting venous blood samples were obtained to determine the triglyceride level (mmol/L)...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
Timothy J Cunningham, Fang Xu, Machell Town
In recent decades, public health awareness of health disparities among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations has increased (1). Healthy People 2020 included objectives to improve health of LGBT persons.† Five key health-related behaviors were found to be likely associated with reduced all-cause mortality: never smoking, performing regular physical activity, consuming no or moderate amounts of alcohol, having a normal body weight, and obtaining sufficient sleep daily (2). CDC estimated these five health-related behaviors among adults aged ≥21 years by sexual orientation and transgender status using data from the 2016 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 25 U...
August 17, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Kyoung Hwa Ha, Yong Ho Lee, Sun Ok Song, Jae Woo Lee, Dong Wook Kim, Kyung Hee Cho, Dae Jung Kim
BACKGROUND: A diabetes risk score in Korean adults was developed and validated. METHODS: This study used the National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS) of 359,349 people without diabetes at baseline to derive an equation for predicting the risk of developing diabetes, using Cox proportional hazards regression models. External validation was conducted using data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Calibration and discrimination analyses were performed separately for men and women in the development and validation datasets...
July 6, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Katharina Diehl, Tatiana Görig, Laura Schilling, Rüdiger Greinert, Eckhard W Breitbart, Sven Schneider
BACKGROUND: Sunless tanning products (STPs) are often seen as "healthy alternative" to sunbathing and indoor tanning. However, STP use may entail indirect risks such as overestimating an individual's natural skin type, resulting in risky (natural and artificial) tanning behavior. We aimed to explore STP use in combination with other health-related risk behaviors (e.g. smoking), skin cancer risk, risk awareness of ultraviolet radiation, and preventive behavior. METHODS: We used data from the NCAM, a nationwide representative cross-sectional sample (n=3,000, aged 14-45, 48...
August 16, 2018: Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine
Yang Chen, Hongsheng Chen, Zhigang Li
Objective This study aimed to identify the relationship between city-level economic development and smoking behaviour. Methods Using multilevel mixed-effects logistic methods, we examined the relationship between smoking/passive smoking and respondents' lifestyles in the city. Results We found that respondents living in cities with higher per capita gross domestic product (GDP) were less likely to smoke than those living in cities with lower per capita GDP (odds ratio [OR] = 0.977, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0...
August 15, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Sajal Jain, Harpal S Buttar, Meena Chintameneni, Ginpreet Kaur
BACKGROUND: Inflammation-induced endothelial abnormalities, dietary habits, and tobacco smoking are considered to be the primary risk factors for causing atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including coronary heart disease (CHD), cerebrovascular disorders, peripheral arterial disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart defects, deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Prevention of CVDs with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agents has been a challenging task for decades...
August 15, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Eniko Albert-Lőrincz, Edit Paulik, Bela Szabo, Kristie Foley, Andrea Ildiko Gasparik
OBJECTIVE: To identify the effect of social capital on adolescent smoking. METHOD: A stratified random sample of 1313 7th and 8th grade students from three counties in Transylvania, Romania, completed a self-administered questionnaire on smoking-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. The impact of social capital was measured (personal and community activities, school achievements and smoking-related knowledge). Multivariate multinomial logistic regression models were used to measure the association between social participation and smoking...
August 11, 2018: Gaceta Sanitaria
S H Gan, L L Deng, X J Zhou, J L Yi, Q Q Zhou, Y P Li, R Zhou
Objective: To assess the prevalence of visual impairment and the influencing factors among rural residents aged 60 years and above in Yugan county, Jiangxi province. Researchers analyzed influencing factors and provided scientific rationale for blindness prevention and control. Methods: Stratified cluster random sampling was used in randomly selecting 3 789 rural residents aged ≥ 60 in Yugan county. Eligible residents were invited to receive ophthalmic examinations and epidemiological investigations. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to analyze any influencing factors...
August 11, 2018: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
Andrew Tomita, Jennifer I Manuel
Introduction: As a leading global disease risk factor, cigarette smoking has declined in some developed countries, but its health consequences are not well established in sub-Saharan Africa. This is particularly evident in South Africa, where few investigations have quantified the dually-neglected challenges of cigarette smoking and depression, despite decades of research from developed countries. We investigated the association between cigarette smoking and incident depression, with the hypothesis that adolescents are particularly vulnerable...
August 9, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Mohamed S Zulfarina, Razinah Sharif, Syed-Badrul Syarifah-Noratiqah, Ahmad M Sharkawi, Zaris-Sm Aqilah-Sm, Sabarul-Afian Mokhtar, Shuid A Nazrun, Isa Naina-Mohamed
Maximizing bone mineral accrual to attain an optimal peak bone mass (PBM), particularly during adolescence, appears to be an effective protective strategy in the prevention of osteoporosis. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of physical activity (PA), fat mass (FM), lean mass (LM), body mass index (BMI), calcium, or combination of vitamin D supplement intake, smoking and alcohol drinking status on bone health assessed by calcaneus quantitative ultrasound (QUS) in a healthy adolescent population. The participants comprised of 920 male and female secondary school adolescents aged 15-17 years old...
2018: PloS One
Nanny N M Soetedjo, Susan M McAllister, Cesar Ugarte-Gil, Adela G Firanescu, Katharina Ronacher, Bachti Alisjahbana, Anca L Costache, Carlos Zubiate, Stephanus T Malherbe, Raspati C Koesoemadinata, Yoko V Laurence, Fiona Pearson, Sarah Kerry-Barnard, Rovina Ruslami, David A J Moore, Mihai Ioana, Leanie Kleynhans, Hikmat Pernama, Philip C Hill, Maria Mota, Gerhard Walzl, Hazel M Dockrell, Julia A Critchley, Reinout van Crevel
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics and management of Diabetes mellitus (DM) patients from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). METHODS: We systematically characterized consecutive DM patients attending public health services in urban settings in Indonesia, Peru, Romania and South Africa, collecting data on DM treatment history, complications, drug treatment, obesity, HbA1c, and cardiovascular risk profile; and assessing treatment gaps against relevant national guidelines...
August 14, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Mario I Fernández, Maurizio Brausi, Peter E Clark, Michael S Cookson, H Barton Grossman, Makarand Khochikar, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Bernard Malavaud, Rafael Sanchez-Salas, Mark S Soloway, Robert S Svatek, Raghunandan Vikram, Alina Vrieling, Ashish M Kamat
PURPOSE: To update current recommendations on prevention, screening, diagnosis, and evaluation of bladder cancer (BC) based on a thorough assessment of the most recent literature on these topics. METHODS: A non-systematic review was performed, including articles until June 2017. A variety of original articles, reviews, and editorials were selected according to their epidemiologic, demographic, and clinical relevance. Assessment of the level of evidence and grade of recommendations was performed according to the International Consultation on Urological Diseases grading system...
August 13, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Gao Zhen, Wang Jing, Jing Jing, Dan Xu, Li Zheng, Fengsen Li
Objective. In China, the Chinese medicine formula modified zhisou powder (MZP) is commonly used to treat COPD with cold-dryness syndrome (CDSCOPD) to relieve cough and sputum. However, the underlying mechanisms of MZP on treating CDSCOPD remain to be elucidated. Methods . COPD and CDSCOPD rat models were established; MZP was given to CDSCOPD rats in the last 7 days of the 97-day model establishment. Then the rats were subjected to lung function measurement. Pathological changes in lungs were observed through paraffin section and H&E staining...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Alireza Karimi, Reza Razaghi
The mechanical functions of the lungs are concerned with ventilating the alveoli and aiding venous return to the heart. The mechanical properties of the lung allow this to be fulfilled with a very small expenditure of energy. Smoking via chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can affect this mechanical function through the alteration of the mechanical properties of the lung tissue. So far, no study has been conducted to experimentally compare the in vitro mechanical properties of the human lung tissue among the healthy nonsmokers and unhealthy smokers...
July 29, 2018: Technology and Health Care: Official Journal of the European Society for Engineering and Medicine
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