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Smoking prevention

Deborah Carvalho Malta, Regina Tomie Ivata Bernal, Eduardo Vieira Neto, Katia Audi Curci, Maria Tereza de Marsillac Pasinato, Raquel Medeiros Lisbôa, Renata Fernandes Cachapuz, Karla Santa Cruz Coelho
OBJECTIVE: To analyze trends in risk and protective factors for non-communicable diseases (NCD) and access to preventive tests in the population with health insurance in Brazilian state capitals between 2008 and 2015. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study that analyzed data collected from the Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for non-communicable diseases (NCD) Telephone Survey (Sistema Nacional de Vigilância de Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico - Vigitel) on adults aged 18 years and older...
November 29, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Susana Cararo Confortin, Lariane Mortean Ono, Aline Rodrigues Barbosa, Eleonora d'Orsi
This study aimed to verify the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with changes in socioeconomic, behavioral, and health factors in the elderly. The longitudinal population-based study included 598 elderly (≥ 60 years) in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State, in the South of Brazil. Sarcopenia was defined on the basis of appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI) according to gender (ASMI < 7.26kg/m² for men and < 5.5kg/m² for women). We assessed changes that occurred between the two study waves (2009/2010 and 2013/2014) in relation to socioeconomic, behavioral, and health factors...
November 29, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Darius Leskauskas, Virginija Adomaitienė, Cornelis A J De Jong, Birutė Vorevičiūtė, Rima Juknaitė
BACKGROUND: Concern is growing about the high prevalence of traditional and new forms of addictive behaviors among young people due to the health risks and a better understanding of the factors causing these behaviors is needed. AIM: To evaluate tendencies in the attitudes of Lithuanian schoolchildren toward addictive behaviors over a three year period and to ascertain the promoting and preventing factors of such behaviors. METHODS: The researchers developed a survey which was conducted twice over a three year period...
2018: PloS One
Duygu Koçyiğit, Lale Tokgözoğlu, Meral Kayıkçıoğlu, Servet Altay, Sinan Aydoğdu, Cem Barçın, Cem Bostan, Hüseyin Altuğ Çakmak, Alp Burak Çatakoğlu, Samim Emet, Oktay Ergene, Ali Kemal Kalkan, Barış Kaya, Cansın Kaya, Cihangir Kaymaz, Nevrez Koylan, Hakan Kültürsay, Aytekin Oğuz, Ebru Özpelit, Serkan Ünlü
OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that women receive fewer preventive recommendations regarding pharmacological treatment, lifestyle modifications, and cardiac rehabilitation compared with men who have a similar risk profile. This study was an investigation of the impact of gender on cardiovascular risk profile and secondary prevention measures for coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Turkish population. METHODS: Statistical analyses were based on the European Action on Secondary and Primary Prevention through Intervention to Reduce Events (EUROASPIRE)-IV cross-sectional survey data obtained from 17 centers in Turkey...
December 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Rajendra Kc, Shakti D Shukla, Sanjay S Gautam, Philip M Hansbro, Ronan F O'Toole
Chronic exposure to household indoor smoke and outdoor air pollution is a major contributor to global morbidity and mortality. The majority of these deaths occur in low and middle-income countries. Children, women, the elderly and people with underlying chronic conditions are most affected. In addition to reduced lung function, children exposed to biomass smoke have an increased risk of developing lower respiratory tract infections and asthma-related symptoms. In adults, chronic exposure to biomass smoke, ambient air pollution, and opportunistic exposure to fumes and dust are associated with an increased risk of developing chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer and respiratory infections, including tuberculosis...
December 5, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Lloyd Steele, James Palmer, Amelia Lloyd, James Fotheringham, Javaid Iqbal, Ever D Grech
BACKGROUND: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with worse outcomes after acute myocardial infarction. Data for survival after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) by SES in the current era of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is more limited. METHODS: Data was collected for all patients with acute STEMI undergoing primary PCI at The South Yorkshire Cardiothoracic Centre, UK between 2009 and 2014. A Cox regression analysis was used to assess differences in survival by SES quartile (using an area-level measure)...
November 23, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Shama Razzaq, Asaad Ahmed Nafees, Unaib Rabbani, Muhammad Irfan, Shahla Naeem, Muhammad Arslan Khan, Zafar Fatmi, Peter Burney
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of asthma and associated risk factors in the adult population of Karachi, Pakistan. METHODS: This multi-stage, cross-sectional survey was conducted from May 2014-August 2015; comprising 1629 adults in 75 randomly selected clusters in Karachi, Pakistan. Definitions included: 'self-reported asthma', 'reversibility in FEV1 ' and 'respiratory symptoms and reversibility in FEV1 '. RESULTS: Prevalence of asthma was 1...
December 4, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Hamid Chalian, Pegah Khoshpouri, Shervin Assari
Background : Perceived risk and worries of developing cancer are important constructs for cancer prevention. Many studies have investigated the relationship between health behaviors and subjective risk perception. However, factors correlated with lung cancer risk perception and worries in individuals more susceptible to lung cancer have rarely been investigated. Objective : To determine demographic, social, and behavioral determinants of cancer perceived risk and worries and to explore heterogeneities in these associations by the level of lung cancer risk in a nationally representative sample of American adults...
December 3, 2018: Medicina
Manuela Deidda, Claudia Geue, Noemi Kreif, Ruth Dundas, Emma McIntosh
Internationally, policy makers are increasingly focussed on reducing the detrimental consequences and rising costs associated with unhealthy diets, inactivity, smoking, alcohol and other risk factors on the health of their populations. This has led to an increase in the demand for evidence-based, cost-effective Population Health Interventions (PHIs) to reverse this trend. Given that research designs such as randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are often not suited to the evaluation of PHIs, Natural Experiments (NEs) are now frequently being used as a design to evaluate such complex, preventive PHIs...
November 27, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Suresh Joshi, Santosh Jatrana, Yin Paradies
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Earlier research evidence suggests that there is a difference and over time change in the prevalence of tobacco smoking between immigrants and native-born population. This study investigates the differences in smoking among immigrants from English speaking (ESC) and non-English speaking (NESC) countries relative to native-born (NB) Australians, and how those differences change with duration of residence (DoR) and age at arrival (AA). METHODS: Information on 12 634 individuals from the first twelve waves (2001-2012) of Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) longitudinal survey was analysed using multilevel group-mean-centred mixed logistic regression models...
December 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Fatima Ghaddar, Pascale Salameh, Nadine Saleh, Firas Farhat, Ramez Chahine, Nathalie Lahoud, Mira Hleyhel, Rouba K Zeidan
Background: Noncommunicable diseases are the leading cause of death in Lebanon, with cardiovascular diseases accounting for almost half of the annual deaths. Purpose: We aimed to determine awareness of noncardiac Lebanese hospitalized patients for their coronary artery disease risk factors, their level of adherence to medications or lifestyle modifications, and assess factors associated with awareness. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 14 hospitals with a total of 382 patients...
2018: Vascular Health and Risk Management
Edyta Suliga, Wojciech Rokita, Olga Adamczyk-Gruszka, Grażyna Pazera, Elżbieta Cieśla, Stanisław Głuszek
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to describe the dietary patterns in pregnant women and determine the association between diet factors, pre-pregnancy body mass index, socio-demographic characteristics and gestational weight gain. METHODS: The analysis was conducted on a group of 458 women. Cut-off values of gestational weight gain adequacy were based on recommendations published by the US Institute of Medicine and were body mass index-specific. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the risk of the occurrence of inadequate or excessive gestational weight gain...
December 3, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Takashi Tamura, Yuka Kadomatsu, Mineko Tsukamoto, Rieko Okada, Tae Sasakabe, Sayo Kawai, Asahi Hishida, Megumi Hara, Keitaro Tanaka, Ippei Shimoshikiryo, Toshiro Takezaki, Isao Watanabe, Daisuke Matsui, Takeshi Nishiyama, Sadao Suzuki, Kaori Endoh, Kiyonori Kuriki, Yoshikuni Kita, Sakurako Katsuura-Kamano, Kokichi Arisawa, Hiroaki Ikezaki, Norihiro Furusyo, Yuriko N Koyanagi, Isao Oze, Yohko Nakamura, Haruo Mikami, Mariko Naito, Kenji Wakai
Brief exposure to passive smoking immediately elevates blood pressure. However, little is known about the association between exposure to passive smoking and chronic hypertension. We aimed to examine this association in a cross-sectional study, after controlling multiple potential confounders.Participants included 32,098 lifetime nonsmokers (7,216 men and 24,882 women) enrolled in the Japan Multi-Institutional Collaborative Cohort Study. Passive smoking was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The single question about exposure to passive smoking had five response options: "sometimes or almost never," "almost every day, 2 hours/day or less," "almost every day, 2 to 4 hours/day," "almost every day, 4 to 6 hours/day," and "almost every day, 6 hours/day or longer...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Anahi Collado, Julia W Felton, Hailey Taylor, Ashley Eure, Richard Yi
Cigarette smoking represents the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the US and understanding its risk factors remains a critical public health endeavor. Low-income individuals and individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment are at heightened risk for cigarette smoking, yet the underlying factors between this association are understudied. Conscientiousness is one construct with potential explanatory relevance to both smoking and childhood neglect. The current investigation examined the association between childhood physical and emotional neglect with smoking (i...
November 29, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Louise Maple-Brown, I-Lynn Lee, Danielle Longmore, Federica Barzi, Christine Connors, Jacqueline A Boyle, Elizabeth Moore, Cherie Whitbread, Marie Kirkwood, Sian Graham, Vanya Hampton, Alison Simmonds, Paula Van Dokkum, Joanna Kelaart, Sujatha Thomas, Shridhar Chitturi, Sandra Eades, Sumaria Corpus, Michael Lynch, Zhong X Lu, Kerin O'Dea, Paul Zimmet, Jeremy Oats, Harold D McIntyre, Alex D H Brown, Jonathan E Shaw
Background: In Australia's Northern Territory, 33% of babies are born to Indigenous mothers, who experience high rates of hyperglycemia in pregnancy. We aimed to determine the extent to which pregnancy outcomes for Indigenous Australian women are explained by relative frequencies of diabetes type [type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and gestational diabetes (GDM)]. Methods: This prospective birth cohort study examined participants recruited from a hyperglycemia in pregnancy register...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Masanari Kuwabara, Yaswanth Chintaluru, Mehmet Kanbay, Koichiro Niwa, Ichiro Hisatome, Ana Andres-Hernando, Carlos Roncal-Jimenez, Minoru Ohno, Richard J Johnson, Miguel A Lanaspa
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to identify whether higher fasting blood glucose levels is predictive of hypertension by a large-scale longitudinal design. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective 5-year cohort study using the data from 13 201 Japanese individuals who underwent annual medical examinations in 2004 and were reevaluated 5 years later. This study included individuals without diabetes or hypertension between ages 30 and 85 years in 2004. The cumulative incidences of hypertension over 5 years in each 10 mg/dl of fasting blood glucose levels were calculated...
January 2019: Journal of Hypertension
Eunhee Park, Bong Gee Jang
Effective health education programs for adolescent substance use prevention need to be developed. However, the evidence supporting the use of specific instructional strategies for youth substance use prevention programs is insufficient. The purpose of this study was to develop and implement a community-based program aiming for smoking, alcohol, and substance use prevention based on multiple disciplinary literacy strategies. A one-group pretest-and-posttest comparison design was used to test the feasibility of the new substance use prevention program...
October 2018: Journal of Addictions Nursing
Hauh-Jyun Candy Chen, Chun-Ting Liu, Yi-Jou Li
Glyoxal is an oxoaldehyde generated from the degradation of glucose-protein conjugates and from lipid peroxidation in foods and in vivo, and it is also present in the environment (e.g. cigarette smoke). The major endogenous source of glyoxal is glucose autoxidation and the glyoxal concentrations in plasma are higher in diabetic patients than in nondiabetics. Glyoxal reacts with biomolecules forming covalently modified DNA and protein adducts. We previously developed sensitive and specific assays based on nanoflow liquid chromatographynanospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLCNSI/MS/MS) for quantification of DNA cross-linked adducts (dG-gx-dC and dG-gx-dA) and for hemoglobin adducts derived from glyoxal...
December 3, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Veronica Sciannameo, Angela Carta, Angelo d'Errico, Maria Teresa Giraudo, Francesca Fasanelli, Cecilia Arici, Milena Maule, Paolo Carnà, Paolo Destefanis, Luigi Rolle, Paolo Gontero, Giovanni Casetta, Andrea Zitella, Giuseppina Cucchiarale, Paolo Vineis, Stefano Porru, Carlotta Sacerdote, Fulvio Ricceri
PURPOSE: The main risk factor for bladder cancer (BC) is cigarette smoking, but also occupational exposure to carcinogens is relevant, causing about 4-10% of BC. We aimed at investigating the association between BC risk, occupations held in the past and exposure to occupational carcinogens, also assessing whether these associations were influenced by tumour grade. METHODS: We pooled data from two Italian case-control studies on male BC, analyzing 893 cases and 978 controls...
November 30, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Albert van den Berg, Christine L Mummery, Robert Passier, Andries D van der Meer
Organs-on-chips are microfluidic systems with controlled, dynamic microenvironments in which cultured cells exhibit functions that emulate organ-level physiology. They can in principle be 'personalised' to reflect individual physiology, for example by including blood samples, primary human tissue, and cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cells, as well as by tuning key physico-chemical parameters of the cell culture microenvironment based on personal health data. The personalised nature of such systems, combined with physiologically relevant read-outs, provides new opportunities for person-specific assessment of drug efficacy and safety, as well as personalised strategies for disease prevention and treatment; together, this is known as 'precision medicine'...
December 3, 2018: Lab on a Chip
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