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Ear radiology

Yohan Song, Jennifer C Alyono, Ryan A Bartholomew, Yona Vaisbuch, Carleton Eduardo Corrales, Nikolas H Blevins
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of radiographic cochlear-facial nerve dehiscence (CFD). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective radiological study. SETTING: Two tertiary-referral centers. PATIENTS: Two hundred six temporal-bone computed tomography (CT) scans (405 total ears) of otology/neurotology patients from two academic institutions between the years 2014 and 2017. INTERVENTION: Diagnostic. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The cochlear-facial nerve partition width (CFPW) was measured on coronal CT sections and defined as the shortest distance between the cochlear basal turn and facial nerve (FN) labyrinthine segment...
October 4, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
L Mei, X P Chen, J Yang
Objective: To explore the detection approach and aetiology of single-side deafness(SSD) in children and provide evidence for diagnoses and treatment. Method: A retrospective study was performed. Medical history and radiological data of children with unilateral deafness were analyzed. Result: The mean age at diagnosis was 6 years old. The mean age at diagnosis was 7.7 month because of failure of universal newborn hearing screening. Inner ear malformations were identified in 80.6% of cases. Cochlear nerve deficiency(CND) was observed in almost 77...
August 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Jakub R Pękala, Przemysław A Pękala, Bikash Satapathy, Brandon Michael Henry, Bendik Skinningsrud, Mateusz Paziewski, R Shane Tubbs, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski
PURPOSE: The foramen tympanicum (FT) represents a developmental anomaly that forms due to incomplete fusion of processes of the tympanic ring. Its presence in the population is controversial and it has been associated with a number of otologic complications. The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the prevalence, anatomical characteristics, and ethnic variations of the FT and compare these parameters in cadaveric and radiologic studies. METHODS: An extensive search was conducted through the major electronic databases, and identified articles were separated into 2 groups based on their methodology: cadaveric and radiologic studies...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Magdy Gouda, Wail Fayez Nasr, Mohammad El-Sayed Abd Elbary, Magdy M A Razek
The main goal of surgery of cholesteatoma is eradication of the disease and revision surgery is indicated when a dry and safe ear has not been achieved. Residual cholesteatoma usually occurs at the sites that are difficult to reach with an operating microscope, such as posterior tympanum and anterior epitympanic recess. Computed tomography can be performed to delineate the extent of disease. High-resolution computed tomography scanning is important for planning for surgery and is indicated for all revision mastoid operations...
September 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Jae-Yoon Kang, Jee-Hye Chung, Hee-Sung Park, Yong-Ho Park, Jin Woong Choi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the radiologic parameters related to success of round window (RW) approach for cochlear implantation (CI). DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Academic-tertiary centre. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-four consecutive patients without inner ear anomaly who underwent CI with the intent of the RW approach were included. The RW approach was performed through the facial recess after posterior tympanotomy (RW group)...
August 9, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
Ankit Gupta, Shyam Gupta, Akhil Kumar, Sameek Bhattacharaya, Manoj Jha, Vinay Tiwari
Vascular anomalies are categorized into vascular tumours or vascular malformations on the basis of clinical features and histopathology. The literature regarding high flow arteriovenous malformations of the auricle is rare. A case of a patient clinically diagnosed with an arteriovenous malformation of the external ear and was managed with preoperative embolization, surgical excision and reconstruction of ear with split thickness skin graft, is presented. The pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnostic work up, radiological intervention and management options regarding arteriovenous malformations are discussed...
May 2018: World Journal of Plastic Surgery
Kalyan Sharma, Sudhir Kumar Yadav, Bimbadhar Valluru, Ling Liu
RATIONALE: Clear cell sarcoma of tendon and aponeurosis (CCSTA) or soft parts is a rare malignant melanin producing tumor entity that is derived from the neural crest cells originating from soft tissues displaying melanocytic differentiation. Diagnosis of CCSTA is difficult as it is dependent on age, size, location, necrosis, calcifications, cystic degeneration, and local to distant metastatic deposits. These tumors have very poor prognosis with a survival rate of 5-10 years because of local recurrence, early to late metastasis to lymph nodes, lungs, bones, and liver...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Shaimaa Abdelsattar Mohammad, Tougan Taha Abdelaziz, Mohamed I Gadelhak, Hanan H Afifi, Ghada M H Abdel-Salam
PURPOSE: Despite its clinical implications, the MRI features of developmental facial paresis (DFP) were described in a few case reports. This study aims to describe MRI features of DFP in relation to the embryological development with a proposed radiological new grading system. METHODS: The clinical records and MRI of the brain and internal auditory canal of 11 children with DFP were retrospectively reviewed. The following sequences were analyzed: axial, oblique sagittal SPACE of the internal auditory canal and brainstem; axial T2, T1WI and coronal T2WI of the brain...
October 2018: Neuroradiology
Badr Eldin Mostafa, Lobna El Fiky
BACKGROUND: Congenital cholesteatomas (CC) arise from epithelial remnants around the petrous bone. They enlarge gradually causing progressive destruction and functional damage to the ear and surrounding structures. Because of their insidious course, most patients are misdiagnosed and present late with complications. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of 41 cases diagnosed as CC and followed up for 2 years. All patients underwent full audiological evaluation and a radiological study (CT, MRI)...
2018: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
Charlotte Nygaard, Henry Jensen, Jakob Christensen, Peter Vedsted
Introduction: Detailed knowledge of prediagnostic health care use among patients with primary intracranial tumors is sparse. We aimed to investigate the health care use among adults during the 2 years preceding a diagnosis of a benign or malignant primary intracranial tumor in Denmark. Methods: We conducted a population-based matched cohort study using historical data from Danish nationwide registries, including all patients aged 30-90 years diagnosed with a first-time primary intracranial tumor from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2014, and with no prior cancer diagnosis (n=5,926)...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
I McKay-Davies, K Selvarajah, M Neeff, H Sillars
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain in what proportion the vertical segment of the intratemporal carotid artery on its medial aspect anatomically separates the peri-tubal cells and Eustachian tube from the remainder of the pneumatised spaces of the temporal bone. METHOD: A retrospective review was conducted of 222 adult and 29 paediatric consecutive computed tomography scans of petrous temporal bones from a single tertiary referral centre. RESULTS: In 96 per cent of temporal bones, the carotid artery formed a lateral barrier (with no communication pathway medially) between air spaces anterior and posterior to it...
August 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
John P Marinelli, Stephen P Cass, Scott E Mann, David S Haynes, Jacob B Hunter, Brandon Isaacson, Alex D Sweeney, Stanley Pelosi, Thomas O Willcox, Brendan P O'Connell, Michael Rivera, John I Lane, Matthew L Carlson
OBJECTIVE: To date, less than 150 cases of middle ear adenomatous neuroendocrine tumors (MEANTs) have been reported in the English literature. The objective of this study was to provide a contemporary analysis of these rare lesions and develop a consensus-driven staging system. STUDY DESIGN: Multi-institutional retrospective histopathologic, radiologic, and clinical review. SETTING: Six tertiary referral centers. PATIENTS: Thirty-two patients with pathologically confirmed MEANT...
September 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Lukas Anschuetz, Matteo Alicandri-Ciufelli, Marco Bonali, Matteo Fermi, Marco Caversaccio, Livio Presutti, Daniele Marchioni
Objective The aim of this study is to describe the endoscopic anatomy of the subtympanic sinus (STS), establish a classification according to its extension regarding the level of the facial nerve (FN), and assess the feasibility of the transcanal endoscopic approach to the STS. Study Design Experimental anatomic research. Setting Temporal bone laboratory. Methods We performed endoscopic dissection of 34 human whole head and ear block specimens. Of those, 29 underwent high-resolution computed tomography. The STS was classified according to its extension regarding the level of the FN: type A, no extension medial to the FN; type B, extension to the medial limit of the FN; type C, extension of the sinus medially and posteriorly from the FN into the mastoid cavity...
July 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Sanjeev Kumar, Baidya Nath Majhi, Krishna Kumar Yadav, S P Agrawal, Ragini Singh
To see the radiological anatomy of inner ear malformations in hearing impaired children. This study was a prospective observational study done at a tertiary care teaching hospital in north India. The included were children of 1-7 years with first time detected severe to profound SNHL. The evaluation of hearing was done by brainstem evoked response audiometry. Those with history of chronic suppurative otitis media and conductive hearing loss were excluded. The all included were undergone high resolution computed tomography of the tympano-mastoid region...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Jose Ricardo Magliocco Ceroni, Diogo Cordeiro de Queiroz Soares, Larissa de Cássia Testai, Rachel Sayuri Honjo Kawahira, Guilherme Lopes Yamamoto, Sofia Mizuho Miura Sugayama, Luiz Antonio Nunes de Oliveira, Debora Romeo Bertola, Chong Ae Kim
OBJECTIVES: To characterize the natural history of 39 achondroplastic patients diagnosed by clinical, radiological and molecular assessments. METHODS: Observational and retrospective study of 39 patients who were attended at a public tertiary level hospital between 1995 and 2016. RESULTS: Diagnosis was made prenatally in 11 patients, at birth in 9 patients and within the first year of life in 13 patients. The most prevalent clinical findings were short stature, high forehead, trident hands, genu varum and macrocephaly...
July 2, 2018: Clinics
S Saccomanno, F Greco, E DE Corso, D Lucidi, R Deli, A D'Addona, G Paludetti
Eagle's syndrome is a condition associated with the elongation of the styloid process or calcification of the stylohyoid ligament, clinically characterised by throat and neck pain, radiating into the ear. In this report, we describe the case of a 60-year-old woman who presented with a severe unilateral trigeminal and glossopharyngeal neuralgia. The patient was subjected to conservative therapy for four months and did not report improvement of the symptoms. After several consultations with different physicians, a diagnosis was accomplished by radiological investigation (multidetector computer tomography with multi-planar reconstructions and 3D volumetric reconstructions)...
April 2018: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Esther X Vivas, Nicholas J Panella, Kristen L Baugnon
Objectives To describe patient characteristics, audiometric outcomes, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal patterns in patients with suspected labyrinthine hemorrhage. Study Design Retrospective review. Setting Tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods Radiology database was queried for terms related to labyrinth hemorrhage or labyrinthitis and then selected for patients in which labyrinthine hemorrhage was suspected in the report. Eleven patients were identified and all treated at our institution...
June 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Sunil Manjila, Timothy Bazil, Matthew Kay, Unni K Udayasankar, Maroun Semaan
OBJECTIVE There is no definitive or consensus classification system for the jugular bulb position that can be uniformly communicated between a radiologist, neurootologist, and neurosurgeon. A high-riding jugular bulb (HRJB) has been variably defined as a jugular bulb that rises to or above the level of the basal turn of the cochlea, within 2 mm of the internal auditory canal (IAC), or to the level of the superior tympanic annulus. Overall, there is a seeming lack of consensus, especially when MRI and/or CT are used for jugular bulb evaluation without a dedicated imaging study of the venous anatomy such as digital subtraction angiography or CT or MR venography...
July 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
I A Anikin, T A Bokuchava
We have undertaken the analysis of the specific clinical manifestations of acquired cholesteatoma of the middle ear in 437 chronic patients suffering from this pathology. 96.1% of them presented with primarily acquired cholesteatoma of the middle ear (including 53.3% having attic cholesteatoma, 22.8% with sinus cholesteatoma, and 19.9% of tensa retraction cholesteatoma). 3.9% of the patients exhibited a different mechanism of development of cholesteatoma. The secondary acquired mesotympanic cholesteatoma formed in association with the long-term chronic inflammation of the middle ear, concomitant perforation of the tympanic membrane and epithelial invasion from the edge of the tympanic membrane perforation and middle ear cavity...
2018: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
Veronica Macchi, Edgardo Enrico Edoardo Picardi, Andrea Porzionato, Aldo Morra, Lineo Tabarin, Flaviano Gusella, Bruno Grignon, Raffaele De Caro
PURPOSE: In forensic clinical anatomy computed tomography (CT) is used in post-mortem radiological investigation as an objective nondestructive documentation of the body surface and of the interior of the body. This technique is applied also in paleopathology, in particular in mummy studies, with the aim of providing a permanent record of the mummy's features, investigating the embalming procedure employed and analyzing the extent of the preservation in detail. METHODS: For the Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy, the mortal remains of Saint Leopold Mandic and Saint Pio da Pietralcina, as examples of Mercy known by everyone, have been brought to Rome in February 2016...
August 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
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