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a blood clot

Mian Ahmad, Johann Mathew, Usama Iqbal, Rayhan Tariq
Massive blood loss has been a dreaded complication of liver transplantation, and the accompanying transfusion is associated with adverse outcomes in the form of decreased patient and graft survival. With advances in both surgical techniques and anesthetic management during transplantation, blood and blood products requirements reduced significantly. However, transfusion practices vary among different centers. The altered coagulation parameters in patients with liver cirrhosis results in a state of "rebalanced hemostasis" and patients are just as likely to clot as they are to bleed...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Matthew J Lawrence, Gareth Davies, Michael Nyberg, Janet Whitley, Vanessa Evans, Rhodri Williams, Ylva Hellsten, Phillip A Evans
BACKGROUND: The long term benefits of exercise on the cardiovascular status of a patient have been proven, however, their benefit/risk relationship with exercise intensity is unclear. Furthermore, many thromboembolic diseases such as myocardial infarction and ischaemic stroke are associated with profound catecholamine release. In this study we explore the relationship between catecholamine release and hemodynamic changes and their effect on coagulation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy recreationally active males were recruited...
July 27, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Michael G Watson, Helen M Byrne, Charlie Macaskill, Mary R Myerscough
Atherosclerotic plaque growth is characterised by chronic, non-resolving inflammation that promotes the accumulation of cellular debris and extracellular fat in the inner artery wall. This material is highly thrombogenic, and plaque rupture can lead to the formation of blood clots that occlude major arteries and cause myocardial infarction or stroke. In advanced plaques, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are recruited from deeper in the artery wall to synthesise a cap of fibrous tissue that stabilises the plaque and sequesters the thrombogenic plaque content from the bloodstream...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Jennifer Teichman, Hina Razzaq Chaudhry, Michelle Sholzberg
The ability to monitor Factor VIII (FVIII) and Factor IX (FIX) levels is integral to the clinical management of hemophilia A and B patients, respectively. Factor activity levels are checked during regular follow-up, post-infusion of factor concentrates, during pre- and post-operative assessments, and when the presence of an inhibitor is suspected. However, the ability to accurately and reproducibly measure factor activity levels with standard coagulation assays has been challenging due to the emergence of recombinant factor concentrates with extended half-lives...
July 20, 2018: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
E K Nwangwa, K M Anachuna, E I Ekhoye, E Chijiokwu-Agbonifo
The status of hemostatic parameters, are useful physiological markers of organ and tissue damage anddysfunction. This study investigated the effect of Piroxicam on some hemostatic parameters of albino Wistar rats. Twentyfour (24) female albino Wistar rats were used for this study, they were randomly divided into four (4) groups of six (6) ratseach. Group A served as control, Group B and C were rats treated with 0.1 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg piroxicam while Group Dserved as 0.2 mg/kg piroxicam treated rats administered with Vitamin E...
June 30, 2018: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
Filipe Fontes Pinto, Célia Lopes, Fernanda Malhão, Ricardo Marcos
BACKGROUND: Blood centrifugation and buffy coats are at the cornerstone of hematology. In mammals, the buffy coat has a layered disposition (from bottom to top) with neutrophils on top of erythrocytes, followed by monocytes/lymphocytes, and platelets. In nonmammals, this distribution is unknown. Recently, the cell tube block (CTB) technique was developed to study the buffy coat, but it was never applied to nonmammal buffy coats. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate using the CTB technique to study reptilian and avian buffy coats and to propose its use for clinical applications...
August 8, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Oh Young Bang, Jong-Won Chung, Jeong Pyo Son, Wi-Sun Ryu, Dong-Eog Kim, Woo-Keun Seo, Gyeong-Moon Kim, Yoon-Chul Kim
Revascularization therapies have been established as the treatment mainstay for acute ischemic stroke. However, a substantial number of patients are either ineligible for revascularization therapy, or the treatment fails or is futile. At present, non-contrast computed tomography is the first-line neuroimaging modality for patients with acute stroke. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict the response to early revascularization therapy and to identify patients for delayed treatment is desirable...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Fereshteh Ghaderi, Hamid Hosseinikhah, Pouya Nezafati
INTRODUCTION: The mitral-aortic intervalvular fibrosa (MAIVF) has a vital role in the integrity of the mitral and aortic valves. Pseudoaneurysm of the MAIVF (P-MAIVF) usually ensues as a complication of aortic valve surgery, and endocarditis can itself result in several catastrophic complications. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old male with acute dyspnea was admitted to our hospital. Upon physical and cardiac examination, low blood pressure, low O2 saturation, tachycardia, and a muffled heart were observed...
June 13, 2018: Heart Surgery Forum
Andreas Kaesler, Felix Hesselmann, Mark Zander, Peter C Schlanstein, Georg Wagner, Philipp Bruners, Thomas Schmitz-Rode, Ulrich Steinseifer, Jutta Arens
The most common technical complication during ECMO is clot formation. A large clot inside a membrane oxygenator reduces effective membrane surface area and therefore gas transfer capabilities, and restricts blood flow through the device, resulting in an increased membrane oxygenator pressure drop (dpMO). The reasons for thrombotic events are manifold and highly patient specific. Thrombus formation inside the oxygenator during ECMO is usually unpredictable and remains an unsolved problem. Clot sizes and positions are well documented in the literature for the Maquet Quadrox-i Adult oxygenator based on CT data extracted from devices after patient treatment...
August 7, 2018: Artificial Organs
Mari Tuovila, Tiina Erkinaro, Vesa Koivukangas, Eeva-Riitta Savolainen, Päivi Laurila, Pasi Ohtonen, Tero Ala-Kokko
PURPOSE: Obesity causes a prothrombotic state and is known as a predisposing factor for thromboembolic events. In this pilot study, we assessed the impact of surgery for obesity and the subsequent weight loss on blood coagulation using traditional coagulation tests and thromboelastography (TEG). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied blood samples from 18 patients receiving bariatric surgery. Besides traditional blood coagulation tests and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) as a marker of inflammation, the TEG parameters reaction time (R), kinetics time (K), angle (α), maximum amplitude (MA), clot strength (G), and lysis percent at 60 min (LY60) were determined preoperatively and on the first postoperative day and 6 months after surgery...
August 7, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Shu Zhu, Bradley A Herbig, Xinren Yu, Jason Chen, Scott L Diamond
Microfluidic thrombosis assays allow the control of anticoagulation, hemodynamics, pharmacology, and procoagulant surfaces containing collagen ± tissue factor (TF). With corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI) ranging from low (1-4 μg/mL) to high levels (40-60 μg/mL), the function of Factor XIIa (FXIIa) can be modulated in the presence of low or high surface TF. With high CTI and no collagen/TF in the assay, no thrombin is generated during 15-min microfluidic perfusion. At low CTI (no TF), the generation of FXIa leads to fibrin polymerization at ~300 s after the initiation of flow over collagen, an onset time shortened at zero CTI and prolonged at high CTI...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Antoine Drieu, Damien Levard, Denis Vivien, Marina Rubio
So far, intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and mechanical removal of arterial blood clot (thrombectomy) are the only available treatments for acute ischemic stroke. However, the short therapeutic window and the lack of specialized stroke unit care make the overall availability of both treatments limited. Additional agents to combine with tPA administration or thrombectomy to enhance efficacy and improve outcomes associated with stroke are needed. Stroke-induced inflammatory processes are a response to the tissue damage due to the absence of blood supply but have been proposed also as key contributors to all the stages of the ischemic stroke pathophysiology...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
John P Kuckelman, Morgan Barron, Donald Moe, Michael Derickson, Cody Phillips, Joseph Kononchik, Michael Lallemand, Shannon Marko, Matthew Eckert, Matthew J Martin
BACKGROUND: Noncompressible hemorrhage can be controlled using resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA). Prolonged ischemia limits REBOA application during Zone 1 deployment. Intermittent inflation/deflation may effectively mitigate this problem. METHODS: A lethal abdominal vascular injury was created in 28 swines. Animals were randomized to controls (n = 7), 60 minutes full REBOA (FR, n = 5), time-based intermittent REBOA (iRT, n = 7), and pressure-based REBOA (iRP, n = 9)...
August 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Sarah B Cairo, Mary Arbuthnot, Laura Boomer, Michael W Dingeldein, Alexander Feliz, Samir Gadepalli, Christopher R Newton, Pramod Puligandla, Robert Ricca, Peter Rycus, Adam M Vogel, Guan Yu, Ziqiang Chen, David H Rothstein
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate trends in method of access (percutaneous cannulation vs open cannulation) for pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and determine the effects of cannulation method on morbidity and mortality. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: The Extracorporeal Life Support Organization's registry was queried for pediatric patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure from 2007 to 2015...
August 3, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Antonios N Pouliopoulos, Mark T Burgess, Elisa E Konofagou
Therapeutic ultrasound combined with preformed circulating microbubbles has enabled non-invasive and targeted drug delivery into the brain, tumors, and blood clots. Monitoring the microbubble activity is essential for the success of such therapies; however, skull and tissues limit our ability to detect low acoustic signals. Here, we show that by emitting consecutive therapeutic pulses of inverse polarity, the sensitivity in the detection of weak bubble acoustic signals during blood-brain barrier opening is enhanced compared to therapeutic pulses of the same polarity...
July 23, 2018: Applied Physics Letters
Assaf Arie Barg, Hagit Hauschner, Mudi Misgav, Aaron Lubetsky, Sarina Levy-Mendelowitz, Tami Livnat, Einat Avishai, Nurit Rosenberg, Gili Kenet
BACKGROUND: Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) is a disorder of platelet function. Standard therapy includes platelet transfusions, which may be hampered by antiplatelet antibodies. AIMS: To assess potential correlation between bleeding and number of active platelets in GT patients undergoing surgery. Clinical peri- operative patients' hemostasis was compared with flow cytometry analysis (FC), and whole blood clot formation. METHODS: GT patients undergoing surgery were included...
August 2, 2018: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
Peter Arend
The metabolic relationship between the formation of the ABO(H) blood group phenotype and human fertility is evident in the case of the (Oh) or Bombay blood type, which Charles Darwin would have interpreted as resulting from reduced male fertility in consanguinities, based on the history of his own family, the Darwin/Wedgwood Dynasty. The classic Bombay type occurs with the extremely rare, human-specific genotype (h/h; se/se), which (due to point mutations) does not encode fucosyltransferases 1(FUT1) and 2 (FUT2)...
July 21, 2018: Immunobiology
Thomas De Luca, Keely L Szilágyi, Katherine A Hargreaves, Kimberly S Collins, Eric A Benson
Preclinical studies in animals often require frequent blood sampling over prolonged periods. A preferred method in ratsis the implantation of a polyurethane catheter into the jugular vein, with heparinized glycerol as a lock solution. However,analysis of various biologic compounds (for example, microRNA) precludes the use of heparin. We used sodium citrate as an alternative to heparin but observed more frequent loss of catheter patency. We hypothesized that this effect was due toevaporation of lock solution at the exteriorized portion of the catheter, subsequent blood infiltration into the catheter, andultimately clot formation within the catheter...
August 3, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
John D Horn, Duncan J Maitland, Jonathan Hartman, Jason M Ortega
Cardiovascular implantable devices alter the biofluid dynamics and biochemistry of the blood in which they are placed. These perturbations can lead to thrombus formation which may or may not be desired, depending on the application. In this work, a computational model is developed that couples biofluid dynamics and biochemistry to predict the clotting response of blood to such devices. The model consists of 28 advection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equations to track proteins in the blood involved in clotting and utilizes boundary flux terms to model the initiation of the intrinsic clotting pathway at thrombogenic device surfaces...
August 3, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Sharon R Lewis, Michael W Pritchard, David Jw Evans, Andrew R Butler, Phil Alderson, Andrew F Smith, Ian Roberts
BACKGROUND: Critically ill people may lose fluid because of serious conditions, infections (e.g. sepsis), trauma, or burns, and need additional fluids urgently to prevent dehydration or kidney failure. Colloid or crystalloid solutions may be used for this purpose. Crystalloids have small molecules, are cheap, easy to use, and provide immediate fluid resuscitation, but may increase oedema. Colloids have larger molecules, cost more, and may provide swifter volume expansion in the intravascular space, but may induce allergic reactions, blood clotting disorders, and kidney failure...
August 3, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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