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Shusuke Takeshita, Satoru Ogawa, Yoshinobu Nakayama, Nobuhiro Mukai, Yasufumi Nakajima, Toshiki Mizobe, Teiji Sawa, Kenichi A Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) concentrate reduces allogeneic blood transfusions, but it may increase thromboembolic complications in complex cardiac surgery. The mixture of activated factor VII (FVIIa) and factor X (FX) (FVIIa/FX) (FVIIa:FX = 1:10) is a novel bypassing agent for hemophilia patients. We hypothesized that the combination of FX and FVIIa could improve thrombin generation (TG) in acquired multifactorial coagulation defects such as seen in cardiac surgery and conducted in vitro evaluation of FVIIa/FX in parallel with other coagulation factor concentrates using in vitro and in vivo diluted plasma samples...
October 12, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Hind J Jawad, Mustafa Sarimollaoglu, Alexandru S Biris, Vladimir P Zharov
In vivo photoacoustic (PA) flow cytometry (PAFC) has great clinical potential for early, noninvasive diagnosis of cancer, infections (e.g., malaria and bacteremia), sickle anemia, and cardiovascular disorders, including stroke prevention through detection of circulating white clots with negative PA contrast. For clinical applications, this diagnostic platform still requires optimization and calibration. We have already demonstrated that this need can be partially addressed by in vivo examination of large mouse blood vessels, which are similar to human vessels used...
October 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Roland von Känel, Nadja Heimgartner, Monika Stutz, Claudia Zuccarella-Hackl, Alexander Hänsel, Ulrike Ehlert, Petra H Wirtz
BACKGROUND: Stress-induced prothrombotic changes are mediated by the sympathetic nervous system and critically involved in mental triggering of acute coronary syndromes, but the underlying psychobiology is not fully understood. We tested the hypothesis that a norepinephrine (NE) infusion to mimic effects of stress-induced NE release on blood coagulation elicits prothrombotic changes and examined to what extent these would be mediated by an alpha-adrenergic mechanism. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a single-blind placebo-controlled within-subjects design, 24 middle-aged, non-smoking, non-obese and normotensive men participated in three experimental trials with an interval between one and two weeks...
September 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Alison Bonis, Leah Anderson, Gaëlle Talhouarne, Emily Schueller, Jenna Unke, Catherine Krus, Jordan Stokka, Anna Koepke, Brittany Lehrer, Anthony Schuh, Jeremiah J Andersen, Scott Cooper
13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) enter hibernation as a survival strategy during extreme environmental conditions. Typical ground squirrel hibernation is characterized by prolonged periods of torpor with significantly reduced heart rate, blood pressure, and blood flow, interrupted every few weeks by brief interbout arousals (IBA) during which blood flow fluctuates dramatically. These physiological conditions should increase the risk of stasis-induced blood clots and myocardial ischemia...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
Stefano Ghirardello, Genny Raffaeli, Erica Scalambrino, Veena Chantarangkul, Giacomo Cavallaro, Andrea Artoni, Fabio Mosca, Armando Tripodi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Despite the potential benefits of thromboelastography (TEG) for bedside hemostatic assessment in critical care settings, its accuracy remains to be determined, especially in critically ill neonates. We determined the intra-assay reproducibility of TEG parameters: Reaction time (R), clot kinetics (K) and Maximum Amplitude (MA) in a cohort of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. SUBJECTS: One hundred VLBW newborns...
October 9, 2018: Early Human Development
Akira Sato, Keiju Nakazawa, Ayano Sugawara, Yoji Yamazaki, Keiichi Ebina
β2 -Glycoprotein I (β2 -GPI) is a plasma protein that binds to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and negatively charged substances, and inhibits platelet activation and blood coagulation. In this study, we investigated the interaction of β2 -GPI with a negatively charged lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) on platelet aggregation and blood clotting. Two negatively charged lysophospholipids, LPA and lysophosphatidylserine, specifically inhibited the binding of β2 -GPI to oxidized LDL in a concentration-dependent manner...
October 9, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Proteins and proteomics
Katrijn R Six, Willem Delabie, Katrien M J Devreese, Lacey Johnson, Denese C Marks, Larry J Dumont, Veerle Compernolle, Hendrik B Feys
BACKGROUND: Transfusion of cryopreserved platelets (cryoplatelets) is not common but may replace standard liquid-preserved platelets (PLTs) in specific circumstances. To better understand cryoplatelet function, frozen concentrates from different manufacturing sites were compared. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Cryoplatelets from Denver, Colorado (DEN); Sydney, Australia (SYD); and Ghent, Belgium (GHE) were compared (n = 6). A paired noncryopreserved control was included in Ghent...
October 12, 2018: Transfusion
Ana Filipa Guedes, Filomena A Carvalho, Marco M Domingues, Fraser L Macrae, Helen R McPherson, Aliaa Sabban, Ivo C Martins, Cédric Duval, Nuno C Santos, Robert As Ariëns
AIM: γ' fibrinogen has been associated with thrombosis. Here the interactions between γ'γ' or γAγA fibrinogen and red blood cells (RBCs), and their role on fibrin clot properties were studied. MATERIALS & METHODS: Atomic Force microscopy (AFM)-based force spectroscopy, rheological, electron and confocal microscopy, and computational approaches were conducted for both fibrinogen variants. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: AFM shows that the recombinant human (rh)γ'γ' fibrinogen increases the binding force and the frequency of the binding to RBCs compared with rhγAγA, promoting cell aggregation...
October 12, 2018: Nanomedicine
Claire Pailleret, Georges Jourdi, Virginie Siguret, Isabelle Gouin-Thibault, Sophie Gandrille, Alain Stepanian, Emmanuel Curis, Jean-Louis Golmard, Pascale Gaussem, Bernard Le Bonniec, Charles M Samama
BACKGROUND: Rapid detection of the anticoagulant effect of oral factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors may be essential in several emergency clinical situations. Specific assays quantifying the drugs are performed in plasma and require a turnaround time that is too long to be useful in emergency situations. Rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) is a whole blood coagulation assay of blood viscoelasticity and could be of interest for FXa inhibitor detection in emergency. However, conventional ROTEM reagents only detect high amounts of inhibitors...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Sofia D Santos, Miguel Xavier, Diana M Leite, Débora A Moreira, Beatriz Custódio, Marília Torrado, Rita Castro, Victoria Leiro, João Rodrigues, Helena Tomás, Ana P Pêgo
Drug delivery to the central nervous system is restricted by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, with the onset of stroke, the BBB becomes leaky, providing a window of opportunity to passively target the brain. Here, cationic poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers of different generations were functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to reduce cytotoxicity and prolong blood circulation half-life, aiming for a safe in vivo drug delivery system in a stroke scenario. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) was covalently tethered to the dendrimer backbone and used as a small surrogate drug as well as for tracking purposes...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Erin M Mays, David C Dorman, Colleen McKendry, Rita M Hanel
OBJECTIVE: To document if a transient hypercoagulable state occurs in healthy dogs following abrupt cessation of unfractionated heparin (UFH) therapy. DESIGN: Prospective experimental pilot study. SETTING: University research facility. ANIMALS: Seven adult random-source male dogs. INTERVENTION: Thromboelastography (TEG) and thrombin-antithrombin (TAT) complex formation were used to assess coagulation status in healthy dogs...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Yanhong Liu, Hong Gao, Yue Hu, Jie Ding, Meiling Ge, Qing Ye
AIM: To ensure that sample quality meets the requirements of experimental research, the gynecology and obstetrics biobank of the Nanjing Drum Tower hospital designed different quality control methods for relevant types of samples. A range of quality control procedures has been formulated. METHODS: The sample types were frozen tissue, paraffin-embedded tissue, optimal cutting temperature (OCT)-embedded tissue, plasma, buffy coat, serum, blood clots, and urine. Different categories of samples from a random selection of 1% of cases were analyzed for quality control experiments: (i) frozen tissue, buffy coat, and blood clots: RNA and DNA were extracted and the concentration, purity, and integrity were determined; (ii) paraffin-embedded tissue: morphological observations were made after hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical detection of β-actin or CD10; (iii) OCT-embedded tissue: hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence detection of β-actin; and (iv) frozen tissue samples derived from different organs of 18 fetal autopsy specimens with different cold ischemia times (CITs), 0-12 hours, 12-18 hours, 18-24 hours, and 24-48 hours, were chosen to study RNA quality...
October 6, 2018: Biopreservation and Biobanking
Artur Y Prilepskii, Anna F Fakhardo, Andrey S Drozdov, Vasiliy V Vinogradov, Ivan P Dudanov, Alexander A Shtil, Petr P Bel'tyukov, Alexey M Shibeko, Ekaterina M Koltsova, Dmitry Y Nechipurenko, Vladimir V Vinogradov
Mortality and disabilities as outcomes of cardiovascular diseases are primarily related to blood clotting. Optimization of thrombolytic drugs is aimed at the prevention of side effects (in particular, bleeding) associated with a disbalance between coagulation and anticoagulation caused by systemically administered agents. Minimally invasive and efficient approaches to deliver the thrombolytic agent to the site of clot formation are needed. Herein we report a novel nanocomposite prepared by heparin-mediated cross-linking of urokinase with magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs@uPA)...
October 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Chrysoula Papageorgiou, Georges Jourdi, Eusebe Adjambri, Amanda Walborn, Priya Patel, Jawed Fareed, Ismail Elalamy, Debra Hoppensteadt, Grigoris T Gerotziafas
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is an acquired clinicobiological syndrome characterized by widespread activation of coagulation leading to fibrin deposition in the vasculature, organ dysfunction, consumption of clotting factors and platelets, and life-threatening hemorrhage. Disseminated intravascular coagulation is provoked by several underlying disorders (sepsis, cancer, trauma, and pregnancy complicated with eclampsia or other calamities). Treatment of the underlying disease and elimination of the trigger mechanism are the cornerstone therapeutic approaches...
October 8, 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
Courtney E Baker, Tanya Marvi, Thomas M Austin, Shelby Payne, Megan E Mignemi, David Gailani, Allison P Wheeler, Thanh T Nguyen, Steven A Lovejoy, Jeffrey E Martus, Gregory A Mencio, Jonathan G Schoenecker
BACKGROUND: Children undergoing posterior spinal fusion experience high blood loss often necessitating transfusion. An appropriately activated coagulation system provides hemostasis during surgery, but pathologic dysregulation can cause progressive bleeding and increased transfusions. Despite receiving antifibrinolytics for clot stabilization, many patients still require transfusions. AIMS: We sought to examine the association of dilutional coagulopathy with blood loss and blood transfusion in posterior spinal fusion for pediatric scoliosis patients...
October 8, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Xinyu Liu, Miriam Hoene, Xiaolin Wang, Peiyuan Yin, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Guowang Xu, Rainer Lehmann
In analytical chemistry serum as well as plasma are recommended as sample material of choice. However, blood processing for the generation of serum or plasma is rather different. Whether plasma or serum is the preferable sample material is still controversial discussed. We performed in paired samples three UHPLC-mass spectrometry-driven metabolomics studies. In study 1 metabolite profiles of serum vs plasma were compared. 46% out of 216 identified metabolites showed significant different levels (paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test, p < 0...
December 11, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Andrew Wang, Sarah C Huen, Harding H Luan, Kelly Baker, Henry Rinder, Carmen J Booth, Ruslan Medzhitov
Sickness behaviors are a conserved set of stereotypic responses to inflammatory diseases. We recently demonstrated that interfering with inflammation-induced anorexia led to metabolic changes that had profound effects on survival of acute inflammatory conditions. We found that different inflammatory states needed to be coordinated with corresponding metabolic programs to actuate tissue-protective mechanisms. Survival of viral inflammation required intact glucose utilization pathways, whereas survival of bacterial inflammation required alternative fuel substrates and ketogenic programs...
October 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sabri Sudirman, Yuan-Hua Hsu, Jia-Ling He, Zwe-Ling Kong
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a known medical burden in most developed countries and a significant cause of morbidity. The IBD label includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Pharmacological and surgical intervention are the two main management approaches for IBD. Some drugs have been developed for IBD therapy, but accessibility is limited due to high costs. Furthermore, these agents have demonstrated inactivity over long-term treatment courses. Therefore, an urgent need is present for new treatment options that are safe, able to sustain clinical remission, and improve mucosal gut healing...
2018: PloS One
V Taune, M Skeppholm, A Ågren, G Gryfelt, R E Malmström, A Wikman, J Van Ryn, H Wallén
BACKGROUND: Rapid determination of the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran is essential in emergency situations. OBJECTIVE: To study a viscoelastic test (rotation thromboelastometry; ROTEM) for rapid determination of dabigatran in whole blood samples. METHOD: ROTEM measurements were performed comparing two triggers (thrombin-based vs commercial tissue factor based trigger Ex-tem) in samples from 10 healthy donors spiked with dabigatran (20-500 ng/mL), and in samples from 35 patients on dabigatran treatment; 10 healthy subjects served as controls...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Ke-Cheng Tang, Zhi-Peng Yang, Qiu Zeng, Jing Wang, Feng Guo, Yu Zhao
Lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (LEDVT) a common peripheral vascular disease, caused by a blood clot in a deep vein is usually accompanied by swelling of the lower limbs. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been reported to play roles in LEDVT. We investigated the effect of miR-495 on LEDVT via TLR4 signaling pathway through IL1R1. LEDVT mouse model was established, and the femoral vein (FV) tissues were collected to detect expressions of miR-495, IL1R1, and TLR4 signaling-related genes. The expressions of both CD31 and CD34 (markers for endothelial progenitor cells) in the FV endothelial cells as well as the proportion of CD31+ /CD34+ cells in peripheral blood were measured in order to evaluate thrombosis...
October 4, 2018: Bioscience Reports
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