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ischemic stroke inflammation

Gina Hadley, Daniel J Beard, Yvonne Couch, Ain A Neuhaus, Bryan A Adriaanse, Gabriele C DeLuca, Brad A Sutherland, Alastair M Buchan
The significant morbidity that accompanies stroke makes it one of the world's most devastating neurological disorders. Currently, proven effective therapies have been limited to thrombolysis and thrombectomy. The window for the administration of these therapies is narrow, hampered by the necessity of rapidly imaging patients. A therapy that could extend this window by protecting neurons may improve outcome. Endogenous neuroprotection has been shown to be, in part, due to changes in mTOR signalling pathways and the instigation of productive autophagy...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Chengliang Luo, Qiang Yang, Yuancai Liu, Shuanhu Zhou, Jiying Jiang, Russel J Reiter, Pallab Bhattacharya, Yongchun Cui, Hongwei Yang, He Ma, Jiemin Yao, Sean E Lawler, Xinmu Zhang, Jianfang Fu, Renato Rozental, Hany Aly, Mark D Johnson, E Antonio Chiocca, Xin Wang
Melatonin is a neurohormone associated with sleep and wakefulness and is mainly produced by the pineal gland in animals. Numerous physiological functions of melatonin have been demonstrated including anti-inflammation, suppressing neoplastic growth, circadian and endocrine rhythm regulation, and its potent antioxidant activity as well as its role in regeneration of various tissues including the nervous system, liver, bone, kidney, bladder, skin, and muscle, among others. In this review, we summarize the recent advances related to the multiple protective roles of melatonin receptor agonists, melatonin and N-acetylserotonin (NAS) in brain injury, liver damage, and bone health...
October 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Yu V Belov, G V Sinyavin, E V Barinov, A M Grabuzdov
Problem of internal carotid artery disease diagnosis appears to be crucial today. Complications of this pathology are strokes and transient ischemic attacks. There is no technology for their prediction or at least stratifying risks. Some recent researches are devoted to a new diagnostic method. This new technology is called Contrast Enhanced Ultrasonography (CEUS) and followed by outstanding results in studying the morphological peculiarities of internal carotid artery plaques and predicting the probability of complications...
2018: Khirurgiia
Sandeep Kumar, Darian Williams, Sanjoli Sur, Jun-Yao Wang, Hanjoong Jo
Atherosclerosis is the primary underlying cause of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, and peripheral artery disease. The disease preferentially occurs in arterial regions exposed to disturbed blood flow, in part, by altering expression of flow-sensitive coding- and non-coding genes. In this review, we summarize the role of noncoding RNAs, [microRNAs (miRNAs) and long noncoding RNAs(lncRNAs)], as regulators of gene expression and outline their relationship to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. While miRNAs are small noncoding genes that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by targeting mRNA transcripts, the lncRNAs regulate gene expression by diverse mechanisms, which are still emerging and incompletely understood...
October 7, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Eram Fauzia, Tarun Kumar Barbhuyan, Amit Kumar Shrivastava, Manish Kumar, Paarth Garg, Mohsin Ali Khan, Avril A B Robertson, Syed Shadab Raza
Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-related disorders, such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and peripheral vascular disease, are among the most frequent causes of disease and death. Tissue injury or death may result from the initial ischemic insult, primarily determined by the magnitude and duration of the interruption in blood supply and then by the subsequent reperfusion-induced damage. Various in vitro and in vivo models are currently available to study I/R mechanism in the brain and other tissues. However, thus far, no in ovo I/R model has been reported for understanding the I/R mechanisms and for faster drug screening...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Hala A Shaheen, Lamiaa I Daker, Mohammed M Abbass, Asmaa A Abd El Fattah
Background: Stroke is the third leading cause of death and leading cause of adult disability worldwide. Long-term disability is a significant problem among survivors; post-stroke inflammation is well known to contribute to the expansion of the ischemic lesion resulting in significant morbidity and disability. To study the impact of serum level of IL-8 on severity of disability in patients with acute ischemic stroke in the first 48 h post stroke. Methods: A cross-sectional case control study was conducted on 44 patients with acute ischemic stroke (in the first 48 h)...
2018: The Egyptian journal of neurology, psychiatry and neurosurgery
Cynthia S Samary, Alane B Ramos, Lígia A Maia, Nazareth N Rocha, Cíntia L Santos, Raquel F Magalhães, Amanda L Clevelario, Pedro M Pimentel-Coelho, Rosália Mendez-Otero, Fernanda F Cruz, Vera L Capelozzi, Tatiana P T Ferreira, Thea Koch, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Claudia C Dos Santos, Paolo Pelosi, Pedro L Silva, Patricia R M Rocco
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke causes brain inflammation, which we postulate may result in lung damage. Several studies have focused on stroke-induced immunosuppression and lung infection; however, the possibility that strokes may trigger lung inflammation has been overlooked. We hypothesized that even focal ischemic stroke might induce acute systemic and pulmonary inflammation, thus altering respiratory parameters, lung tissue integrity, and alveolar macrophage behavior. METHODS: Forty-eight Wistar rats were randomly assigned to ischemic stroke (Stroke) or sham surgery (Sham)...
October 5, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Mara Yone Dias Fernandes, Marta Regina Santos do Carmo, Analu Aragão Fonteles, Julliana Catharina de Sousa Neves, Ana Thaís Araújo da Silva, Juliana Fernandes Pereira, Emerson de Oliveira Ferreira, Neila Maria Rocha de Lima, Kelly Rose Tavares Neves, Geanne Matos de Andrade
The pathophysiology of ischemic stroke involves multiple events such as inflammation and oxidative stress which will lead to neuronal death and cognitive deficits. The (-)-α-bisabolol is a monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol found in various plants and mainly in Matricaria chamomilla, which exerts antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities. The aim of this work was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of (-)-α-bisabolol in mice underwent permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (pMCAO)...
October 1, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Kuo-Jen Wu, Seong-Jin Yu, Chia-Wen Chiang, Yu-Wei Lee, B Linju Yen, Pei-Chi Tseng, Chun-Sen Hsu, Li-Wei Kuo, Yun Wang
Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (WJ-MSCs) have distinct immunomodulatory and protective effects against kidney, liver, or heart injury. Limited studies have shown that WJ-MSCs attenuates oxygen-glucose deprivation-mediated inflammation in hippocampal slices. The neuroprotective effect of intracerebral WJ-MSC transplantation against stroke has not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of human WJ-MSC (hWJ-MSC) transplants in an animal model of stroke...
October 4, 2018: Cell Transplantation
L-L Guo, D-S Wang, Y-Y Xu, K-G Cui
OBJECTIVE: Vascular dementia (VD) is a type of memory, cognition, and behavior disorder caused by ischemic stroke or hemorrhagic stroke. It is a common pathogenesis of dementia that is only second to Alzheimer's disease. Inflammation plays a key role in VD. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is a kind of pro-inflammatory cytokine, while its mechanism in VD occurrence and development is still unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The healthy male rats were randomly divided into three groups, including sham group, VD model group (established by bilateral common carotid artery ligation), and IL-1β group (treated by IL-1β monoclonal antibody intracerebroventricular injection on based on model group)...
September 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Lu-Yao Ao, Yun-Yi Yan, Lin Zhou, Cheng-Yuan Li, Wan-Ting Li, Wei-Rong Fang, Yun-Man Li
Ischemic stroke is one of the leading health issues and the major cause of permanent disability in adults worldwide. Energy depletion and hypoxia occurring after ischemic stroke result in cell death, which activates resident glia cells and promotes the peripheral immune cells breaching into brain performing various functions even contradictory effects. The infiltration of immune cells may mediate neuron apoptosis and escalate ischemic damage, while it enhances neuron repair, differentiation, and neuroregeneration...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Fei Li, Xiaojing Wu, Qi Zhou, Dennis Weixi Zhu
At least 10% of the elderly population above the age of 70 carry a condition termed clonal hematopoiesis indeterminate potential (CHIP) due to oligoclonal expansion of mutated hematopoietic stem cells. Although CHIP is known to predispose patients to a higher risk of malignant blood disorders, the recent revelation of its association with higher morbidity and mortality of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and ischemic stroke is rather surprising. Two independent research groups published studies indicating that Tet2 mutated monocytes from mice modeling CHIP had a causal role in accelerating the growth of atherosclerotic lesions due to their pro-inflammation activities...
June 2018: Genes & Diseases
Mario Di Napoli, Mark Slevin, Aurel Popa-Wagner, Puneetpal Singh, Simona Lattanzi, Afshin A Divani
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important mediator and a hallmark of the acute-phase response to inflammation. High-sensitivity assays that accurately measure levels of CRP have been recommended for use in risk assessment in ischemic stroke patients. Elevation of CRP during the acute-phase response in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is also associated with the outcomes such as death and vascular complications. However, no association has been found with the increased risk of ICH. The aim of this review is to synthesize the published literature on the associations of CRP with acute ICH both as a risk biomarker and predictor of short- and long-term outcomes as well as its role as a pathogenic determinant...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Enrique Gallego-Colon, Wojciech Wojakowski, Tomasz Francuz
Atherosclerosis is a major underlying cause of ischemic heart diseases, ischemic stroke, and peripheral artery disease. Atherosclerotic plaque progression is characterized by chronic progressive inflammation of the arterial wall, endothelial cell dysfunction, and subendothelial lipoprotein retention. Incretin drugs, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors, are promising anti-hyperglycemic agents used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
September 14, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Wen-Hao Sun, Fan He, Nan-Nan Zhang, Zi-Ai Zhao, Hui-Sheng Chen
We propose that the neuroprotective effect of glucocorticoid in ischemic damage may be time dependent. The present study was designed to test the proposal and its possible mechanismin cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury model. Reperfusion injury was induced after 120 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Atdifferenttimepoints after MCAO, rats were treated with high dose dexamethasone (10mg/kg), and neurological deficit and infarct sizes were measured 2 h, 24 h after MCAO...
September 21, 2018: Brain Research
Berta Puig, Santra Brenna, Tim Magnus
When a main artery of the brain occludes, a cellular response involving multiple cell types follows. Cells directly affected by the lack of glucose and oxygen in the neuronal core die by necrosis. In the periphery surrounding the ischemic core (the so-called penumbra) neurons, astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, pericytes, and endothelial cells react to detrimental factors such as excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and inflammation in different ways. The fate of the neurons in this area is multifactorial, and communication between all the players is important for survival...
September 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Olivera Rajkovic, Geoffrey Potjewyd, Emmanuel Pinteaux
Inflammation is a major pathological event following ischemic stroke that contributes to secondary brain tissue damage leading to poor functional recovery. Following the initial ischemic insult, post-stroke inflammatory damage is driven by initiation of a central and peripheral innate immune response and disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), both of which are triggered by the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and infiltration of circulating immune cells. Stroke therapies are limited to early cerebral blood flow reperfusion, and whilst current strategies aim at targeting neurodegeneration and/or neuroinflammation, innovative research in the field of regenerative medicine aims at developing effective treatments that target both the acute and chronic phase of inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Shenpeng R Zhang, Marius Piepke, Hannah X Chu, Brad Rs Broughton, Raymond Shim, Connie Hy Wong, Seyoung Lee, Megan A Evans, Antony Vinh, Samy Sakkal, Thiruma V Arumugam, Tim Magnus, Samuel Huber, Mathias Gelderblom, Grant R Drummond, Christopher G Sobey, Hyun Ah Kim
Stroke triggers a complex inflammatory process in which the balance between pro- and antiinflammatory mediators is critical for the development of the brain infarct. However, systemic changes may also occur in parallel with brain inflammation. Here we demonstrate that administration of recombinant IL-33, a recently described member of the IL-1 superfamily of cytokines, promotes Th2-type effects following focal ischemic stroke, resulting in increased plasma levels of Th2-type cytokines and fewer proinflammatory (3-nitrotyrosine+F4/80+) microglia/macrophages in the brain...
September 20, 2018: JCI Insight
R Fang, N-N Zhao, K-X Zeng, Q Wen, P Xiao, X Luo, X-W Liu, Y-L Wang
OBJECTIVE: Stroke remains the most common malignant cerebrovascular event in the world. The correlation between the expression of miR-544 and the degree of cerebral ischemia reperfusion (CIR) injury has not been well recognized in recent years. This study focuses on the effect of miR-544 on inflammation and apoptosis after CIR. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Plasma expression of miR-544 in ischemic stroke (IS) patients and healthy controls was determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
September 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Stacey J Ellery, Madeleine G Goss, Nadine Brew, Hayley Dickinson, Nadia Hale, Domenic A LaRosa, David W Walker, Flora Y Wong
Neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) resulting from intrapartum asphyxia is a global problem that causes severe disabilities and up to 1 million deaths annually. A variant form of activated protein C, 3K3A-APC, has cytoprotective properties that attenuate brain injury in models of adult stroke. In this study, we compared the ability of 3K3A-APC and APC (wild-type (wt)) to attenuate neonatal brain injury, using the spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) model of intrapartum asphyxia. Pups were delivered at 38 days of gestation (term = 39 days), with an intrapartum hypoxic insult of 7...
September 17, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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