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Kang Min Park, Byung In Lee, Kyong Jin Shin, Sam Yeol Ha, JinSe Park, Si Eun Kim, Hyung Chan Kim, Tae Hyung Kim, Chi Woong Mun, Sung Eun Kim
Although juvenile myoclonic epilepsy has been considered as a disorder of thalamo-cortical circuit, it is not determined the causality relationship between thalamus and cortex. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a disorder of thalamus or cortex. Twenty-nine patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and 20 normal controls were enrolled in this study. In addition, we included 10 patients with childhood absence epilepsy as a disease control group. Using whole-brain T1-weighted MRIs, we analyzed the volumes of the structures, including hippocampus, thalamus, and total cortex, with FreeSurfer 5...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Sungjin Im, Sang-Gu Lee, Jeonghwan Lee, Siekyeong Kim, Chul-Jin Shin, Jeong-Woo Son, Gawon Ju, Sang-Ick Lee
OBJECTIVE: The structural alteration of brain shown in patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) can originate from both alcohol effects and genetic or developmental processes. We compared surface-based parameters of patients with AUD with healthy controls to prove the applicability of surface-based morphometry with head size correction and to determine the areas that were sensitive to brain alteration related to AUD. METHODS: Twenty-six abstinent male patients with AUD (alcohol group, mean abstinence=13...
September 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
Eunsoo Won, Sunyoung Choi, June Kang, Min-Soo Lee, Byung-Joo Ham
BACKGROUND: Orbitofrontal cortex alterations have been suggested to underlie the impaired mood regulation in depression. MAOA-uVNTR (monoamine oxidase A-upstream variable number of tandem repeats) polymorphism has been reported to be associated with major depressive disorder by various studies. The influence of MAOA-uVNTR genotype on function and structure of the orbitofrontal cortex has previously been reported. In this study, we investigated the difference in orbitofrontal cortex thickness between medication-naïve female patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls, and the influence of MAOA-uVNTR genotype on orbitofrontal cortex thickness in depression...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
Kyu-Man Han, Daseul Kim, Youngbo Sim, June Kang, Aram Kim, Eunsoo Won, Woo-Suk Tae, Byung-Joo Ham
BACKGROUND: Morphologic changes of the brainstem in major depressive disorder (MDD) have rarely been reported in neuroimaging studies, even though, monoaminergic neurotransmitters are synthesized in several brainstem regions. We aimed to investigate volume changes in each region of the brainstem and their association with antidepressant use or the remission status of MDD. METHODS: A total of 126 patients with MDD and 101 healthy controls underwent T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Gajendra J Katuwal, Stefi A Baum, Nathan D Cahill, Chase C Dougherty, Eli Evans, David W Evans, Gregory J Moore, Andrew M Michael
Previous studies applying automatic preprocessing methods on Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI) report inconsistent neuroanatomical abnormalities in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). In this study we investigate inter-method differences as a possible cause behind these inconsistent findings. In particular, we focus on the estimation of the following brain volumes: gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and total intra cranial volume (TIV). T1-weighted sMRIs of 417 ASD subjects and 459 typically developing controls (TDC) from the ABIDE dataset were estimated using three popular preprocessing methods: SPM, FSL, and FreeSurfer (FS)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Rene Seiger, Andreas Hahn, Allan Hummer, Georg S Kranz, Sebastian Ganger, Michael Woletz, Christoph Kraus, Ronald Sladky, Alexander Kautzky, Siegfried Kasper, Christian Windischberger, Rupert Lanzenberger
Sex-steroid hormones are primarily involved in sexual differentiation and development and are thought to underlie processes related to cognition and emotion. However, divergent results have been reported concerning the effects of hormone administration on brain structure including side effects like brain atrophy and dementia. Cross-sex hormone therapy in transgender subjects offers a unique model for studying the effects of sex hormones on the living human brain. In this study, 25 Female-to-Male (FtM) and 14 Male-to-Female (MtF) subjects underwent MRI examinations at baseline and after a period of at least 4-months of continuous cross-sex hormone administration...
October 5, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Mariana P Nucci, Katerina Lukasova, João R Sato, Edson Amaro
To describe cerebral (structural and functional MRI) and neuropsychological long term changes in moderate drowning victim's compared to healthy volunteers in working memory and motor domains. We studied 15 adult drowning victim's in chronic stage (DV - out of 157 eligible cases of sea water rescues with moderate drowning classification) paired to 18 healthy controls (HC). All participants were investigated using intelligence, memory, and attention neuropsychological standard tests and underwent functional (motor and working memory tasks) and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a 3 T system...
October 12, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Philip S J Weston, Jennifer M Nicholas, Manja Lehmann, Natalie S Ryan, Yuying Liang, Kirsty Macpherson, Marc Modat, Martin N Rossor, Jonathan M Schott, Sebastien Ourselin, Nick C Fox
OBJECTIVE: To identify a cortical signature pattern of cortical thinning in familial Alzheimer disease (FAD) and assess its utility in detecting and tracking presymptomatic neurodegeneration. METHODS: We recruited 43 FAD mutation carriers-36 PSEN1, 7 APP (20 symptomatic, 23 presymptomatic)-and 42 healthy controls to a longitudinal clinical and MRI study. T1-weighted MRI scans were acquired at baseline in all participants; 55 individuals (33 mutation carriers; 22 controls) had multiple (mean 2...
October 12, 2016: Neurology
Yuankai Huo, Andrew J Asman, Andrew J Plassard, Bennett A Landman
Total intracranial volume (TICV) is an essential covariate in brain volumetric analyses. The prevalent brain imaging software packages provide automatic TICV estimates. FreeSurfer and FSL estimate TICV using a scaling factor while SPM12 accumulates probabilities of brain tissues. None of the three provide explicit skull/CSF boundary (SCB) since it is challenging to distinguish these dark structures in a T1-weighted image. However, explicit SCB not only leads to a natural way of obtaining TICV (i.e., counting voxels inside the skull) but also allows sub-definition of TICV, for example, the posterior fossa volume (PFV)...
October 11, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Alexander Frizell Santillo, Karl Lundblad, Markus Nilsson, Maria Landqvist Waldö, Danielle van Westen, Jimmy Lätt, Erik Blennow Nordström, Susanna Vestberg, Olof Lindberg, Christer Nilsson
Disinhibition is an important symptom in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the clinico-anatomical underpinnings remain controversial. We explored the anatomical correlates of disinhibition in neurodegenerative disease using the perspective of grey and white matter imaging. Disinhibition was assessed with a neuropsychological test and a caregiver information-based clinical rating scale in 21 patients with prefrontal syndromes due to behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 12) or progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 25)...
2016: PloS One
Elijah Mak, Sean J Colloby, Alan Thomas, John T O'Brien
Late-life depression (LLD) has been associated with both generalized and focal neuroanatomical changes including gray matter atrophy and white matter abnormalities. However, previous literature has not been consistent and, in particular, its impact on the topology organization of brain networks remains to be established. In this multimodal study, we first examined cortical thickness, and applied graph theory to investigate structural covariance networks in LLD. Thirty-three subjects with LLD and 25 controls underwent T1-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and clinical assessments...
August 24, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Danielle Lefebvre, Lisa Marie Langevin, Natalia Jaworska, Ashley D Harris, R Marc Lebel, Yamile Jasaui, Adam Kirton, T Christopher Wilkes, Mariko Sembo, Rose Swansburg, Frank P MacMaster
BACKGROUND: Smaller hippocampal volumes, as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) indexed alterations in brain metabolites have been identified in adults with major depressive disorder (MDD). Our group has found similar effects in MDD youth. However, this has not been studied in youth with treatment resistant MDD (TRD), nor has the interaction between regional N-acetyl-aspartate and volume deficits. N-acetyl-aspartate is an amino acid in the synthesis pathway of glutamate, and serves a marker of neuronal viability/number...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Michael Bodnar, Ashok K Malla, Carolina Makowski, M Mallar Chakravarty, Ridha Joober, Martin Lepage
BACKGROUND: Current neuroscience literature has related treatment with aripiprazole to improved memory performance and subcellular changes in the hippocampus. AIMS: To explore the volumetric changes in hippocampal grey matter in people with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) treated with second-generation antipsychotics. METHOD: Baseline and 1-year follow-up magnetic resonance images were obtained. Hippocampal volumes were estimated by using FreeSurfer and MAGeT-Brain...
March 2016: BJPsych Open
Johanna von Gumberz, Mina Mahmoudi, Kim Young, Sven Schippling, Roland Martin, Christoph Heesen, Susanne Siemonsen, Jan-Patrick Stellmann
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the best biomarker of inflammatory disease activity in relapsing remitting Multiple Sclerosis (RRMS) so far but the association with disability is weak. Appearance of new MRI-lesions is used to evaluate response to immunotherapies in individual patients as well as being the most common primary outcome in phase-2 trials. Measurements of brain atrophy show promising outcomes in natural cohort studies and some phase-2 trials. From a theoretical perspective they might represent irreversible neurodegeneration and be more closely associated with disability...
2016: PeerJ
David Drijkoningen, Sima Chalavi, Stefan Sunaert, Jacques Duysens, Stephan P Swinnen, Karen Caeyenberghs
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often leads to impairments in gait performance. However, the underlying neurostructural pathology of these gait deficits is poorly understood. We aimed to investigate regional grey matter (GM) volume in young moderate-to-severe TBI participants (n=18, age 13y11m ± 3y1m) as compared to typically developing participants (TD; n=30, 14y10m ± 2y2m) and assess whether reduced volume was related to impaired gait performance in TBI participants. Cortical and subcortical GM structures, involved in the neural control of gait, were selected as regions of interest (ROIs) and their volume was extracted using Freesurfer...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Martin Meyer, Patrick Neff, Franziskus Liem, Tobias Kleinjung, Steffi Weidt, Berthold Langguth, Martin Schecklmann
Structural neuroimaging techniques have been used to identify cortical and subcortical regions constituting the neuroarchitecture of tinnitus. One recent investigation used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to analyze a sample of tinnitus patients (TI, n=257) [1]. A negative relationship between individual distress and cortical volume (CV) in bilateral auditory regions was observed. However, CV has meanwhile been identified as a neuroanatomical measurement that confounds genetically distinct neuroanatomical traits, namely cortical thickness (CT) and cortical surface area (CSA)...
September 23, 2016: Hearing Research
Nabi Zorlu, Vanessa Louise Cropley, Pelin Kurtgoz Zorlu, Dursun Hakan Delibas, Zehra Hilal Adibelli, Emel Pasa Baskin, Özgür Sipahi Esen, Emre Bora, Christos Pantelis
Findings of surface-based morphometry studies in major depressive disorder (MDD) are still inconsistent. Given that cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in MDD and has documented negative effects on the brain, it is possible that some of the inconsistencies may be partly explained by cigarette use. The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of cigarette smoking on brain structure in MDD. 50 MDD patients (25 smokers and 25 non-smokers) and 22 age, education, gender and BMI matched non-smoker healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Daichi Sone, Miho Ota, Norihide Maikusa, Yukio Kimura, Kaoru Sumida, Kota Yokoyama, Etsuko Imabayashi, Masako Watanabe, Yutaka Watanabe, Mitsutoshi Okazaki, Noriko Sato, Hiroshi Matsuda
PURPOSE: Cases of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with ipsilateral amygdala enlargement (AE) have increasingly been reported. However, the white matter (WM) abnormalities of TLE patients with AE remain poorly investigated. Here we explored macrostructural and microstructural WM abnormalities in TLE patients with AE compared to normal controls and TLE patients with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We selected 17 patients with unilateral TLE with AE (TLE-AE) based on automated amygdala volumetry using FreeSurfer software, and 34 healthy controls and 35 patients with unilateral TLE with HS (TLE-HS) were also recruited...
September 11, 2016: Epilepsy Research
Bernardo Canedo Bizzo, Tiago Arruda Sanchez, Gustavo Tukamoto, Nicolle Zimmermann, Tania Maria Netto, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in brain cortical thickness of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with and without episodic memory impairment and healthy controls. METHODS: We studied 51 patients divided in 2 groups (SLE with episodic memory deficit, n = 17; SLE without episodic memory deficit, n = 34) by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and 34 healthy controls. Groups were paired based on sex, age, education, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and accumulation of disease burden...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Mais Al-Kawaz, Elizabeth Monohan, Eric Morris, Jai S Perumal, Nancy Nealon, Timothy Vartanian, Susan A Gauthier
BACKGROUND: African Americans with multiple sclerosis (AAwMS) have different disease phenotypes when compared to Caucasians Americans with MS (CAwMS). The pathologic basis of this difference in disease presentation is unknown. METHODS: Fifty-Four AAwMS and 54 CAwMS were appropriately matched for age, gender, treatment duration, and disease duration. FreeSurfer was used to segment brain white matter and gray matter from T1 images and compute thalamic volume. Regional cortical thickness was calculated using QDEC...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
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