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blood brain barrier ischemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309728/mmp-9-upregulation-is-attenuated-by-the-monoclonal-tlr2-antagonist-t2-5-after-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-reoxygenation-in-rat-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#1
Hongyan Zhu, Rongrong Dai, Hao Fu, Qiang Meng
BACKGROUND: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption plays a key role in the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke. Matrix metalloproteinases-2/9 (MMP-2/9) have been shown to participate in the disruption of the BBB and hemorrhagic transformation after cerebral ischemia. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) may also be correlated with endothelial cell injury during ischemia-reperfusion events. However, the correlation between MMP-2/9 and TLR2 on endothelial cells after ischemia has not yet been evaluated...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308255/pamam-dendrimers-blood-brain-barrier-transport-and-neuronal-uptake-after-focal-brain-ischemia
#2
Sofia D Santos, Miguel Xavier, Diana M Leite, Débora A Moreira, Beatriz Custódio, Marília Torrado, Rita Castro, Victoria Leiro, João Rodrigues, Helena Tomás, Ana P Pêgo
Drug delivery to the central nervous system is restricted by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, with the onset of stroke, the BBB becomes leaky, providing a window of opportunity to passively target the brain. Here, cationic poly(amido amine) (PAMAM) dendrimers of different generations were functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to reduce cytotoxicity and prolong blood circulation half-life, aiming for a safe in vivo drug delivery system in a stroke scenario. Rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC) was covalently tethered to the dendrimer backbone and used as a small surrogate drug as well as for tracking purposes...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30287160/insulin-like-growth-factor-igf-1-treatment-stabilizes-the-microvascular-cytoskeleton-under-ischemic-conditions
#3
Shameena Bake, Andre Okoreeh, Homa Khosravian, Farida Sohrabji
Our previous studies showed that Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 reduced blood brain barrier pemeability and decreased infarct volume caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) in middle aged female rats. Similarly, cultures of primary brain microvessel endothelial cells from middle-aged female rats and exposed to stroke-like conditions (oxygen glucose deprivation; OGD) confirmed that IGF-1 reduced dye transfer across this cell monolayer. Surprisingly, IGF-1 did not attenuate endothelial cell death caused by OGD...
October 1, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284494/would-antioxidant-loaded-nanoparticles-present-an-effective-treatment-for-ischemic-stroke
#4
Michael J Poellmann, Jiyoon Bu, Seungpyo Hong
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide and is in urgent need of new treatment options. The only approved treatment for stroke restores blood flow to the brain, but much of the tissue damage occurs during the subsequent reperfusion. Antioxidant therapies that directly address ischemia-reperfusion injury have shown promise in preclinical results. In this review, we discuss that reformulating antioxidant therapies as nanomedicine can potentially overcome the barriers that have kept these therapies from succeeding in the clinic...
October 4, 2018: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30282370/tau-protein-dysfunction-after-brain-ischemia
#5
Ryszard Pluta, Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł, Sławomir Januszewski, Stanisław J Czuczwar
Brain ischemia comprises blood-brain barrier, glial, and neuronal cells. The blood-brain barrier controls permeability of different substances and the composition of the neuronal cells 'milieu', which is required for their physiological functioning. Recent evidence indicates that brain ischemia itself and ischemic blood-brain barrier dysfunction is associated with the accumulation of neurotoxic molecules within brain tissue, e.g., different parts of amyloid-β protein precursor and changed pathologically tau protein...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30276507/mir-539-targets-mmp-9-to-regulate-the-permeability-of-blood-brain-barrier-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-of-brain
#6
Feng Fan, Jiao Yang, Yuanjie Xu, Sheng Guan
Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury severely threatens human life, while the potential mechanism underlying it is still need further exploration. The rat model of cerebral I/R injury was established using middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The rat microvascular endothelial cell line bEND.3 was exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) to mimic ischemic condition in vitro. Evans blue was performed to determine the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Real-time PCR and western blot were performed to determine gene expression in mRNA and protein level, individually...
October 1, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30245743/role-of-polymorphonuclear-neutrophils-in-the-reperfused-ischemic-brain-insights-from-cell-type-specific-immunodepletion-and-fluorescence-microscopy-studies
#7
REVIEW
Dirk M Hermann, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Matthias Gunzer
Polymorphonuclear neutrophil granulocytes (PMNs) are part of the early post-ischemic immune response that orchestrates the removal of infarcted brain tissue. PMNs contribute to secondary brain injury in experimental stroke models. In human patients, high PMN-to-lymphocyte ratios in peripheral blood are predictive of poor stroke outcome. Following earlier studies indicating that the cerebral microvasculature forms an efficient barrier that impedes PMN brain entry even under conditions of ischemia, more recent studies combining intravital two-photon microscopy and ex vivo immunohistochemistry unequivocally demonstrated the accumulation of PMNs in the ischemic brain parenchyma...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30242870/tenascin-c-in-brain-injuries-and-edema-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-findings-from-basic-and-clinical-studies
#8
REVIEW
Hidenori Suzuki, Masashi Fujimoto, Fumihiro Kawakita, Lei Liu, Yoshinari Nakatsuka, Fumi Nakano, Hirofumi Nishikawa, Takeshi Okada, Hideki Kanamaru, Kyoko Imanaka-Yoshida, Toshimichi Yoshida, Masato Shiba
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by a rupture of cerebral aneurysms remains the most devastating cerebrovascular disease. Early brain injury (EBI) is increasingly recognized to be the primary determinant for poor outcomes, and also considered to cause delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) after SAH. Both clinical and experimental literatures emphasize the impact of global cerebral edema in EBI as negative prognostic and direct pathological factors. The nature of the global cerebral edema is a mixture of cytotoxic and vasogenic edema, both of which may be caused by post-SAH induction of tenascin-C (TNC) that is an inducible, non-structural, secreted and multifunctional matricellular protein...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233364/combined-use-of-emodin-and-ginsenoside-rb1-exerts-synergistic-neuroprotection-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-rats
#9
Yan Li, Qing-Qing Xu, Chun-Shuo Shan, Yi-Hua Shi, Yong Wang, Guo-Qing Zheng
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) generally causes neurological dysfunction and poses a serious threat to public health. Here, we aimed to assess the independent and combined effects of ginsenoside Rb1 (GRb1) and Emodin on neuroprotection through regulating Connexin 43 (Cx43) and Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) model rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham group, I/R group, Emodin group, GRb1 group and Emodin+GRb1 group. They were further allocated to four subgroups according to the 6h, 1d, 3d, and 7d time points except the sham group...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30233326/inhibition-of-hif-1%C3%AE-reduced-blood-brain-barrier-damage-by-regulating-mmp-2-and-vegf-during-acute-cerebral-ischemia
#10
Yufei Shen, Jingxia Gu, Ziyun Liu, Congying Xu, Shuxia Qian, Xiaoling Zhang, Beiqun Zhou, Qiaobing Guan, Yanyun Sun, Yanping Wang, Xinchun Jin
Increase of blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability after acute ischemia stroke is a predictor to intracerebral hemorrhage transformation (HT) for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) thrombolysis and post-endovascular treatment. Previous studies showed that 2-h ischemia induced damage of BBB integrity and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) made major contribution to this disruption. A recent study showed that blocking β2-adrenergic receptor (β2-AR) alleviated ischemia-induced BBB injury by reducing hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) level...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198826/the-importance-of-comorbidities-in-ischemic-stroke-impact-of-hypertension-on-the-cerebral-circulation
#11
Marilyn J Cipolla, David S Liebeskind, Siu-Lung Chan
Comorbidities are a hallmark of stroke that both increase the incidence of stroke and worsen outcome. Hypertension is prevalent in the stroke population and the most important modifiable risk factor for stroke. Hypertensive disorders promote stroke through increased shear stress, endothelial dysfunction, and large artery stiffness that transmits pulsatile flow to the cerebral microcirculation. Hypertension also promotes cerebral small vessel disease through several mechanisms, including hypoperfusion, diminished autoregulatory capacity and localized increase in blood-brain barrier permeability...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30186497/activation-of-epha4-induced-by-ephrina1-exacerbates-disruption-of-the-blood-brain-barrier-following-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-via-the-rho-rock-signaling-pathway
#12
Fangbin Chen, Zhiyang Liu, Wei Peng, Zhiqin Gao, Hui Ouyang, Tongjun Yan, Songbai Ding, Zhankui Cai, Bin Zhao, Longjin Mao, Zhiyong Cao
Vascular dementia (VD) is a syndrome characterized by progressive cognitive decline. According to previous studies, stroke is considered to be a risk factor for VD. The disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is pivotal to the pathology of stroke, as it contributes to post-stroke inflammation and edema. It has been reported that the Eph/Ephrin signaling pathway serves an important role in central nervous system injury. However, the role of EphrinA1/EphA4 signaling in BBB damage following ischemic stroke has not yet been reported...
September 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30186167/beneficial-role-of-rosuvastatin-in-blood-brain-barrier-damage-following-experimental-ischemic-stroke
#13
Dan Lu, Hong-Cheng Mai, Yu-Bin Liang, Bing-Dong Xu, An-Ding Xu, Yu-Sheng Zhang
Hemorrhage transformation is the most challenging preventable complication in thrombolytic therapy and is related to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA)-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. Intraperitoneal injections of normal or high doses of rosuvastatin were administered to Balb/c mice 20 min prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery for 3 h followed by reperfusion with rt-PA thrombolytic therapy and cerebral blood flow monitoring to investigate whether a high or normal dose of rosuvastatin reduces BBB damage after brain ischemia and rt-PA reperfusion...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30175635/applications-of-carbonic-anhydrases-inhibitors-in-renal-and-central-nervous-system-diseases
#14
Claudiu T Supuran
There are tissues and organs, among which kidneys and the central nervous system (CNS), rich in various isoforms of the metalloenzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1). Their role is to regulate pH, to provide bicarbonate or H+ ions for electrolyte secretion and possibly a metabolic one. Considering these two systems, CA inhibitors are clinically used mainly as diuretics and antiepileptics, but novel applications in the management of drug-induced renal injury, sleep apnea, migraine, lowering intracranial pressure, cognitive impairment, neuropathic pain, and cerebral ischemia have emerged...
October 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30174621/antioxidant-melatonin-potential-functions-in-improving-cerebral-autoregulation-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#15
REVIEW
Zhen-Ni Guo, Hang Jin, Huijie Sun, Yingkai Zhao, Jia Liu, Hongyin Ma, Xin Sun, Yi Yang
Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a subtype of stroke with high mortality and morbidity. Impaired cerebral autoregulation following SAH has been reported owing to effects on sympathetic control, endothelial function, myogenic response, and cerebral metabolism. Impaired cerebral autoregulation is associated with early brain injury, cerebral vasospasm/delayed cerebral ischemia, and SAH prognosis. However, few drugs have been reported to improve cerebral autoregulation after SAH. Melatonin is a powerful antioxidant that is effective (easily crosses the blood brain barrier) and safe (tolerated in large doses without toxicity)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173122/a-facile-approach-for-synthesis-of-nano-ceo-2-particles-loaded-co-polymer-matrix-and-their-colossal-role-for-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-in-cerebral-ischemia
#16
Yongtao Gao, Xiaobing Chen, Honglin Liu
A prospective resource of pharmacological treatment of ischemic brains stroke is rapid interference using potential neuroprotective materials. Cerium oxide nanoparticles have been shown to defend against blood brain barrier damage in cerebral ischemic brain stroke. While cerium oxide nanoparticles is highly permeable across the blood-brain barrier and also these nanoparticles are effective antioxidants, due to its ability to either donate or obtain electrons with alternative +3 and +4 valence states. This oxidation state of cerium oxide has shown efficiency in neutralizing generated free radicals in biological systems has been explored action for cerebral ischemic brain stroke...
October 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30165043/potential-role-of-myo-inositol-to-improve-ischemic-stroke-outcome-in-diabetic-mouse
#17
Heidi Villalba, Kaushik Shah, Thamer H Albekairi, Ali E Sifat, Bhuvaneshwar Vaidya, Thomas J Abbruscato
Brain edema is one of the critical factors causing hightened disability and mortality in stroke patients, which is exaggerated further in diabetic patients. Organic osmolytes could play a critical role in the maintenance of cytotoxic edema. The present study was aimed to assess the role of myo-inositol, an organic osmolyte, on stroke outcome in diabetic and non-diabetic animals. In situ brain perfusion and acute brain slice methods were used to assess transport of myo-inositol across the blood-brain barrier and uptake by brain cells using non-diabetic (C57BL/6) and diabetic (streptozotocin-induced) mice, respectively...
August 27, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151417/impact-of-dental-pulp-stem-cells-overexpressing-hepatocyte-growth-factor-after-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats
#18
Kota Sowa, Chikako Nito, Masataka Nakajima, Satoshi Suda, Yasuhiro Nishiyama, Yuki Sakamoto, Yuko Nitahara-Kasahara, Aki Nakamura-Takahashi, Masayuki Ueda, Kazumi Kimura, Takashi Okada
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has neuroprotective effects against ischemia-induced injuries. Dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) transplantation attenuates tissue injury in the brain of rats with post-transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. We sought to determine whether DPSCs that overexpress HGF can enhance their therapeutic effects on brain damage post-ischemia/reperfusion injury. Treatment with DPSCs overexpressing HGF reduced infarct volumes compared to unmodified DPSC treatment at 3 and 7 days post-transient middle cerebral artery occlusion...
September 21, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30151382/therapeutic-effects-of-systemic-administration-of-the-novel-rankl-modified-peptide-mhp1-for-ischemic-stroke-in-mice
#19
Munehisa Shimamura, Hironori Nakagami, Hideo Shimizu, Kouji Wakayama, Tomohiro Kawano, Yuka Ikeda, Hiroki Hayashi, Shota Yoshida, Hideki Mochizuki, Ryuichi Morishita
Microglial healing peptide 1, "MHP1", is a newly developed synthetic peptide composed of the DE and a part of the EF loop of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-кB (NF κ B) ligand (RANKL). Our previous report demonstrated that MHP1 significantly inhibits Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2- and 4-induced inflammation in microglia/macrophages through RANK signaling without osteoclast activation. However, its inhibitory effects on ischemic stroke when administered intravenously have not been clarified...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30139371/cell-permeable-hmgb1-binding-heptamer-peptide-ameliorates-neurovascular-complications-associated-with-thrombolytic-therapy-in-rats-with-transient-ischemic-stroke
#20
Miaodan Li, Shumin Chen, Xue Shi, Chenfei Lyu, Yongfang Zhang, Miaoqin Tan, Chen Wang, Nailiang Zang, Xiaoxi Liu, Yafang Hu, Jiangang Shen, Liang Zhou, Yong Gu
BACKGROUND: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and inflammatory responses are the major causes of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced hemorrhagic transformation (HT), while high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) exacerbates inflammatory damage to BBB during the process of brain ischemia/reperfusion. This study aimed to investigate the change of HMGB1 after thrombolytic therapy and whether blocking HMGB1 could ameliorate the neurovasculature complications secondary to tPA treatment in stroke rats...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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