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Structural mri

Anissa Abi-Dargham, Guillermo Horga
The field of medicine is moving toward the use of biomarkers for the optimization of individualized care. This is a particular challenge for the field of psychiatry, in which diagnosis is based on a descriptive collection of behaviors without the availability of any objective test to stratify patients. Neuroimaging techniques such as molecular imaging with positron-emission tomography (PET) or structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide an opportunity to bring psychiatry from an era of subjective descriptive classification into objective and tangible brain-based measures...
October 26, 2016: Nature Medicine
Jilly Naaijen, Saskia de Ruiter, Marcel P Zwiers, Jeffrey C Glennon, Sarah Durston, David J Lythgoe, Steven C R Williams, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar
BACKGROUND: Compulsivity, the closely linked trait impulsivity and addictive behaviour are associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). All three disorders show impaired fronto-striatal functioning, which may be related to altered glutamatergic signalling. Genetic factors are also thought to play an important role in the aetiology of compulsivity-related disorders...
October 26, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
A Neubert, Z Yang, C Engstrom, Y Xia, M W Strudwick, S S Chandra, J Fripp, S Crozier
PURPOSE: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a key role in investigating early degenerative disorders and traumatic injuries of the glenohumeral cartilages. Subtle morphometric and biochemical changes of potential relevance to clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, and evaluation can be assessed from measurements derived from in vivo MR segmentation of the cartilages. However, segmentation of the glenohumeral cartilages, using approaches spanning manual to automated methods, is technically challenging, due to their thin, curved structure and overlapping intensities of surrounding tissues...
October 2016: Medical Physics
F Spencer Koerner, John R Anderson, Jon M Fincham, Robert E Kass
Many functional neuroimaging-based studies involve repetitions of a task that may require several phases, or states, of mental activity. An appealing idea is to use relevant brain regions to identify the states. We developed a novel change-point methodology that adapts to the repeated trial structure of such experiments by assuming the number of states stays fixed across similar trials while allowing the timing of change-points to change across trials. Model fitting is based on reversible-jump MCMC. Simulation studies verified its ability to identify change-points successfully...
October 26, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
A Del Sole, S Malaspina, Alberto Magenta Biasina
Neuroimaging, both with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET), has gained a pivotal role in the diagnosis of primary neurodegenerative diseases. These two techniques are used as biomarkers of both pathology and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to differentiate AD from other neurodegenerative diseases. MRI is able to identify structural changes including patterns of atrophy characterizing neurodegenerative diseases, and to distinguish these from other causes of cognitive impairment, e...
October 26, 2016: Functional Neurology
Michael Dayan, G Olivito, M Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, M Leggio
In recent years the cerebellum has been attributed amore important role in higher-level functions than previously believed. We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition...
October 26, 2016: Functional Neurology
Alexander G Huth, Tyler Lee, Shinji Nishimoto, Natalia Y Bilenko, An T Vu, Jack L Gallant
One crucial test for any quantitative model of the brain is to show that the model can be used to accurately decode information from evoked brain activity. Several recent neuroimaging studies have decoded the structure or semantic content of static visual images from human brain activity. Here we present a decoding algorithm that makes it possible to decode detailed information about the object and action categories present in natural movies from human brain activity signals measured by functional MRI. Decoding is accomplished using a hierarchical logistic regression (HLR) model that is based on labels that were manually assigned from the WordNet semantic taxonomy...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Gulben Senturk, Basar Bilgic, Ali Bilgin Arslan, Ali Bayram, Hasmet Hanagasi, Hakan Gurvit, Murat Emre
BACKGROUND: Anosognosia is a common feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The brain substrates of anosognosia are not fully understood, and less is known about the cognitive substrates of anosognosia in prodromal and early stages of AD. METHODS: Fourty-seven patients with amnestic-type mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) (n = 26) and early-stage AD (n = 21) were included, and Clinical Insight Rating Scale and Anosognosia Questionnaire for Dementia (AQ-D) were used to assess anosognosia...
October 26, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Enrica Cavedo, Bruno Dubois, Olivier Colliot, Simone Lista, Bernard Croisile, Guy Louis Tisserand, Jacques Touchon, Alain Bonafe, Pierre J Ousset, Olivier Rouaud, Fréderic Ricolfi, Alain Vighetto, Florence Pasquier, Samantha Galluzzi, Christine Delmaire, Mathieu Ceccaldi, Nadine Girard, Stéphane Lehericy, Françoise Duveau, Marie Chupin, Marie Sarazin, Didier Dormont, Harald Hampel
OBJECTIVE: Cortical thinning, previously identified during prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a "candidate" biomarker implemented in AD clinical therapy trials. We investigated the effect of donepezil treatment on cortical thickness in mild cognitively impaired subjects with the amnestic syndrome of the hippocampal type, a prodromal at-risk group for progression to AD dementia. METHODS: Data were from a longitudinal analysis of a community-based multicenter suspected prodromal AD cohort diagnosed by the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (81 donepezil vs 92 placebo) enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel group design using donepezil (10 mg/day)...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
H Li, C L Lv, C S Yang, D F Wei, K W Chen, S W Li, Z J Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SORL1 rs1699102 is associated with the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of this single nucleotide polymorphism on cognition and brain structure during normal aging are unclear. This study aimed to examine the effects of the rs1699102 polymorphism on age-related cognitive decline and cortical gray matter reduction in the Chinese Han population. METHODS: A total of 780 non-demented adults completed a battery of neuropsychological tests...
October 25, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Benjamin A Thomas, Vesna Cuplov, Alexandre Bousse, Adriana Mendes, Kris Thielemans, Brian F Hutton, Kjell Erlandsson
Positron emission tomography (PET) images are degraded by a phenomenon known as the partial volume effect (PVE). Approaches have been developed to reduce PVEs, typically through the utilisation of structural information provided by other imaging modalities such as MRI or CT. These methods, known as partial volume correction (PVC) techniques, reduce PVEs by compensating for the effects of the scanner resolution, thereby improving the quantitative accuracy. The PETPVC toolbox described in this paper comprises a suite of methods, both classic and more recent approaches, for the purposes of applying PVC to PET data...
November 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Ana Carolina Coelho Milani, Elis Viviane Hoffmann, Victor Fossaluza, Andrea Parolin Jackowski, Marcelo Feijo Mello
Several studies have recently demonstrated that the volumes of specific brain regions are reduced in children and adolescents with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) compared with those of healthy controls. Our study investigated the potential association between early traumatic experiences and altered brain regions and functions. We conducted a systematic review of the scientific literature regarding functional MRI and a meta-analysis of structural MRI studies that investigated cerebral region volumes in pediatric patients with PTSD...
October 25, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Taylor Kuhn, Daniel Schonfeld, Philip Sayegh, Alyssa Arentoft, Jacob D Jones, Charles H Hinkin, Susan Y Bookheimer, April D Thames
Standard volumetric neuroimaging studies have demonstrated preferential atrophy of subcortical structures among individuals with HIV. However, to our knowledge, no study has investigated subcortical shape alterations secondary to HIV and whether advancing age impacts that relationship. This study employed 3D morphometry to examine the independent and interactive effects of HIV and age on shape differences in nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, pallidum, putamen, and thalamus in 81 participants ranging in age from 24 to 76 including 59 HIV+ individuals and 22 HIV-seronegative controls...
October 25, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Simin Zhang, Yanmei Zheng, Shengyan Yin, Jingzhi Sun, Bao Li, Lixin Wu
In this study, a uniform complex dual micelle bearing gadolinium substituted polyoxometalate core, hydrophobic middle, and biocompatible organic shell, which exhibited a uniform size and definite molecular weight and chemical composition, was constructed for fluorescent and magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent, via a simple two-step preparation. A paramagnetic polyoxometalate cluster K13[Gd(β2-SiW11O39)2] was firstly encapsulated with a cationic dendron in 3-generation (D-3) bearing triethylene glycol monomethyl ether terminal groups through ionic substitution...
October 24, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Quinten van Geest, B Westerik, Y D van der Werf, J J G Geurts, H E Hulst
Sleep disturbances are common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but its impact on cognition and functional connectivity (FC) of the hippocampus and thalamus is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between sleep disturbances, cognitive functioning and resting-state (RS) FC of the hippocampus and thalamus in MS. 71 MS patients and 40 healthy controls underwent neuropsychological testing and filled out self-report questionnaires (anxiety, depression, fatigue, and subjective cognitive problems). Sleep disturbances were assed with the five-item version of the Athens Insomnia Scale...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Aude Le Corre, Kym Phuong Huynh, Rasmeet Singh Dhaliwal, Gregory Ian Bain
Background Single-photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography (SPECT/CT) is a hybrid diagnostic imaging modality that allows clinicians to integrate their diagnostic evaluations and deliver a definitive diagnosis in musculoskeletal disorders. Specifically, in identification of osseous pathology, the conventional bone scan delivers greater specificity compared with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, use of SPECT/CT enhances the sensitivity and specificity. Use of this modality denotes the possibility to specify the lesion more accurately and precisely while grading the activity according to osseous structural changes...
November 2016: Journal of Wrist Surgery
Ana Sánchez Azofra, Trilokesh D Kidambi, Rita J Jeremy, Peggy Conrad, Amie Blanco, Megan Myers, James Barkovich, Jonathan P Terdiman
BACKGROUND: Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an autosomal dominant hereditary colon cancer syndrome caused by mutations in adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) with both colonic and extra-colonic manifestations. Case reports have noted an association with FAP and intellectual disability and animal studies have shown that APC is implicated in neural development and function, but no studies have investigated neuropsychological, behavioral, or structural brain characteristics of patients with FAP...
2016: Hereditary Cancer in Clinical Practice
Anjali Garg, Nivas Balasubramaniyam, Rocco Lafaro, Robert Timmermans, Wilbert S Aronow, Howard A Cooper, Julio A Panza
We report a contained rupture of a right coronary sinus of Valsalva aneurysm, in which repair resulted in symptomatic improvement. Patients often present with symptoms secondary to rupture of the sinus of Valsalva aneurysm into one of the cardiac chambers, or secondary to the compression of adjacent structures. Whereas sinus of Valsalva aneurysms and their rupture are well reported in the literature, contained ruptures have been described only rarely. In those cases, symptoms often arose from compression of adjacent structures...
October 2016: Texas Heart Institute Journal
D J Greene, A C Williams Iii, J M Koller, B L Schlaggar, K J Black
Previous studies of brain structure in Tourette syndrome (TS) have produced mixed results, and most had modest sample sizes. In the present multicenter study, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare 103 children and adolescents with TS to a well-matched group of 103 children without tics. We applied voxel-based morphometry methods to test gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume differences between diagnostic groups, accounting for MRI scanner and sequence, age, sex and total GM+WM volume...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Tiina Pirttimäki, Raimo A Salo, Artem Shatillo, Mikko I Kettunen, Jaakko Paasonen, Alejandra Sierra, Kimmo Jokivarsi, Ville Leinonen, Pedro Andrade, Simon Quittek, Asla Pitkänen, Olli Gröhn
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous EEG-fMRI is a valuable tool in the clinic as it provides excellent temporal and spatial information about normal and diseased brain function. In pre-clinical research with small rodents, obtaining simultaneous EEG-fMRI in longitudinal studies faces a number of challenges, including issues related to magnetic susceptibility artifacts. NEW METHOD: Here, we demonstrate a method for permanent MRI RF-coil and EEG electrode implantation in rats that is suitable for long-term chronic follow-up studies in both stimulus and resting-state fMRI paradigms...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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