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Structural mri

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045561/structural-variability-across-the-primate-brain-a-cross-species-comparison
#1
Paula L Croxson, Stephanie J Forkel, Leonardo Cerliani, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten
A large amount of variability exists across human brains; revealed initially on a small scale by postmortem studies and, more recently, on a larger scale with the advent of neuroimaging. Here we compared structural variability between human and macaque monkey brains using grey and white matter magnetic resonance imaging measures. The monkey brain was overall structurally as variable as the human brain, but variability had a distinct distribution pattern, with some key areas showing high variability. We also report the first evidence of a relationship between anatomical variability and evolutionary expansion in the primate brain...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044677/sagittal-plane-walking-patterns-are-related-to-mri-changes-over-18-months-in-people-with-and-without-mild-moderate-hip-osteoarthritis
#2
Deepak Kumar, Cory Wyatt, Sonia Lee, Narihiro Okazaki, Ko Chiba, Thomas M Link, Richard B Souza, Sharmila Majumdar
The purpose was to evaluate the association of sagittal plane gait mechanics with MRI changes in the hip joint over 18-months. Subjects with and without radiographic hip OA (n = 57) underwent MRI at baseline and 18 months for grading of cartilage lesions, bone marrow lesions (BML), cysts, and labral tears. 3D gait analyses at baseline were used for sagittal plane hip kinematics and kinetics during the stance phase. Subjects were classified as progressors or non-progressors based on increase in any MRI OA parameter...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044653/morphological-changes-of-the-optic-lobe-from-late-embryonic-to-adult-stages-in-oval-squids-sepioteuthis-lessoniana
#3
Yung-Chieh Liu, Wen-Sung Chung, Chun-Chieh Yu, Su-Ting Hsu, Fung-Lan Chan, Tsung-Han Liu, Chia-Hao Su, Yeukuang Hwu, N Justin Marshall, Chuan-Chin Chiao
The optic lobe is the largest brain area within the central nervous system of cephalopods and it plays important roles in the processing of visual information, the regulation of body patterning, and locomotive behavior. The oval squid Sepioteuthis lessoniana has relatively large optic lobes that are responsible for visual communication via dynamic body patterning. It has been observed that the visual behaviors of oval squids change as the animals mature, yet little is known about how the structure of the optic lobes changes during development...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043428/magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-clinical-management-of-rectal-cancer-updated-recommendations-from-the-2016-european-society-of-gastrointestinal-and-abdominal-radiology-esgar-consensus-meeting
#4
Regina G H Beets-Tan, Doenja M J Lambregts, Monique Maas, Shandra Bipat, Brunella Barbaro, Luís Curvo-Semedo, Helen M Fenlon, Marc J Gollub, Sofia Gourtsoyianni, Steve Halligan, Christine Hoeffel, Seung Ho Kim, Andrea Laghi, Andrea Maier, Søren R Rafaelsen, Jaap Stoker, Stuart A Taylor, Michael R Torkzad, Lennart Blomqvist
OBJECTIVES: To update the 2012 ESGAR consensus guidelines on the acquisition, interpretation and reporting of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for clinical staging and restaging of rectal cancer. METHODS: Fourteen abdominal imaging experts from the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) participated in a consensus meeting, organised according to an adaptation of the RAND-UCLA Appropriateness Method. Two independent (non-voting) Chairs facilitated the meeting...
October 17, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043319/triple-function-nanocomposites-of-porous-silica-cofe2o4-mwcnts-as-a-carrier-for-ph-sensitive-anti-cancer-drug-controlled-delivery
#5
Huitao Fan, Xiaojing Xing, Yuhan Yang, Bo Li, Congcong Wang, Dongfang Qiu
Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles loaded on multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) magnetic hybrids have been demonstrated to be promising magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents and drug carriers. However, the hydrophobic, less biocompatible characteristics and low loading capacity for the drug hamper their wide biological applications. To solve the above problem, an alternative strategy is to coat the MWCNTs@CoFe2O4 nanoparticles with a mesoporous silica (mSiO2) shell. Herein, the reasonable fabrication process results in successful coating mSiO2 on the as-obtained MWCNTs@CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, forming well-defined core-shell-structured MWCNTs@CoFe2O4@mSiO2 nanocomposites...
October 18, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042645/effects-of-intranasal-insulin-application-on-the-hypothalamic-bold-response-to-glucose-ingestion
#6
Anna M van Opstal, Abimbola A Akintola, Marjan van der Elst, Rudi G Westendorp, Hanno Pijl, Diana van Heemst, Jeroen van der Grond
The hypothalamus is a crucial structure in the brain that responds to metabolic cues and regulates energy homeostasis. Patients with type 2 diabetes demonstrate a lack of hypothalamic neuronal response after glucose ingestion, which is suggested to be an underlying cause of the disease. In this study, we assessed whether intranasal insulin can be used to enhance neuronal hypothalamic responses to glucose ingestion. In a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled 4-double cross-over experiment, hypothalamic activation was measured in young non- diabetic subjects by determining blood-oxygen-level dependent MRI signals over 30 minutes before and after ingestion of 75 g glucose dissolved in 300 ml water, under intranasal insulin or placebo condition...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042621/postnatal-development-of-the-murine-notochord-remnants-quantified-by-high-resolution-contrast-enhanced-microct
#7
Sameer Bhalla, Kevin H Lin, Simon Y Tang
The notochord gives rise to spinal segments during development, and it becomes embedded within the nucleus pulposus of the intervertebral disc (IVD) during maturation. The disruption of the notochord band has been observed with IVD degeneration. Since the mechanical competence of the IVD relies on its structural constituents, defining the structure of the notochord during aging is critical for investigations relating to IVD function and homeostasis. The assessment and imaging of the notochord has classically relied on histological techniques, which introduces sectioning artifacts during preparation and spatial biases...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042004/quantitative-functional-mri-and-neurophysiological-markers-in-a-case-of-gerstmann-str%C3%A3-ussler-scheinker-syndrome
#8
Silvia Marino, Rosa Morabito, S De Salvo, L Bonanno, A Bramanti, P Pollicino, R Giorgianni, Placido Bramanti
Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) is an inherited autosomal dominant prion disease, caused by a codon 102 proline to leucine substitution (P102L) in the prion protein gene (PRNP). We describe the case of a 40-year-old male, affected by a slowly progressive gait disturbance, leg weakness and cognitive impairment. Genomic DNA revealed a point mutation of PRNP at codon 102, resulting in P102L, and the diagnosis of GSS was confirmed. Somatosensory evoked potentials showed alterations of principal parameters, particularly in the right upper and lower limbs...
July 2017: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040871/gray-matter-networks-and-clinical-progression-in-subjects-with-predementia-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Betty M Tijms, Mara Ten Kate, Alida A Gouw, Andreas Borta, Sander Verfaillie, Charlotte E Teunissen, Philip Scheltens, Frederik Barkhof, Wiesje M van der Flier
We studied whether gray matter network parameters are associated with rate of clinical progression in nondemented subjects who have abnormal amyloid markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), that is, predementia Alzheimer's disease. Nondemented subjects (62 with subjective cognitive decline; 160 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI); age = 68 ± 8 years; Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) = 28 ± 2.4) were selected from the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort when they had abnormal amyloid in CSF (<640 pg/mL)...
September 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039414/-the-limbic-system-in-youth-depression-brain-structural-and-functional-alterations-in-adolescent-in-patients-with-severe-depression
#10
Ronny Redlich, Nils Opel, Christian Bürger, Katharina Dohm, Dominik Grotegerd, Katharina Förster, Dario Zaremba, Susanne Meinert, Jonathan Repple, Verena Enneking, Elisabeth Leehr, Joshua Böhnlein, Lena Winters, Neele Froböse, Sophia Thrun, Julia Emtmann, Walter Heindel, Harald Kugel, Volker Arolt, Georg Romer, Christian Postert, Udo Dannlowski
Adolescent-onset Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is associated with an increased risk of recurrent depressive episodes, suicidal behaviors, and psychiatric morbidity throughout the lifespan. The objective of the present study was to investigate brain structural and functional changes in adolescent patients with MDD. Furthermore, we aimed to clarify the influence of early-life stress on brain function and structure. The study investigated adolescent patients with severe MDD (n=20, mean age=16.0, range=15-18 years) and a control sample of matched healthy adolescents (n=21, mean age= 16...
October 17, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039254/the-antidepressant-efficacy-of-subanesthetic-dose-ketamine-does-not-correlate-with-baseline-subcortical-volumes-in-a-replication-sample-with-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Mark J Niciu, Nicolas D Iadarola, Dipavo Banerjee, David A Luckenbaugh, Minkyung Park, Marc Lener, Lawrence Park, Dawn F Ionescu, Elizabeth D Ballard, Nancy E Brutsche, Nirmala Akula, Francis J McMahon, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira, Allison C Nugent, Carlos A Zarate
BACKGROUND: This study sought to reproduce, in a larger sample, previous findings of a correlation between smaller raw 3-Tesla (3T) hippocampal volumes and improved antidepressant efficacy of ketamine in individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD). A secondary analysis stratified subjects according to functional BDNF rs6265 (val66met) genotype. METHODS: Unmedicated subjects with treatment-resistant MDD ( n=55) underwent baseline structural 3T MRI. Data processing was conducted with FSL/FIRST and Freesurfer software...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039074/the-usefulness-of-stereo-electroencephalography-seeg-in-the-surgical-management-of-focal-epilepsy-associated-with-hidden-temporal-pole-encephalocele-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#12
João Paulo Sant Ana Santos de Souza, Jeff Mullin, Connor Wathen, Juan Bulacio, Patrick Chauvel, Lara Jehi, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez
The authors report a case of 18-year-old woman with partial complex seizures compatible with temporal epilepsy by semiology. Due to medical refractoriness, she was referred to pre-surgical evaluation. Initially, MRI showed no significant structural abnormality and superficial scalp EEG demonstrated epileptiform activity in the frontotemporal areas. Due to the lack of clear MRI abnormalities and the potential involvement of dominant mesial temporal structures by seizure semiology and non-invasive data, extra-operative invasive evaluation using stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) methodology was indicated...
October 16, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038851/three-cases-of-implantation-of-a-surescan-%C3%A2-system-and-mri-for-investigating-causes-of-pain
#13
Kazunobu Takahashi, Atsushi Sawada, Soshi Iwasaki, Naoya Yama, Hiroyuki Takashima, Maki Onodera, Masamitsu Hatakenaka, Michiaki Yamakage
We report three cases of implantation of the SureScan(®) system and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for investigating causes of pain. Although there were metal-induced artifacts on the MR images of 2 patients, the artifacts did not affect the images of structures that needed to be assessed to make the diagnosis. The SureScan(®) system enabled patients implanted with spinal cord stimulation devices to undergo MRI.
October 16, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038777/the-abcd-study-of-neurodevelopment-identifying-neurocircuit-targets-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-adolescent-substance-abuse
#14
James M Bjork, Lisa K Straub, Rosellen G Provost, Michael C Neale
Substance use disorders (SUD) can be considered developmental disorders in light of their frequent origins in substance initiation during adolescence. Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies of adolescent substance users or adolescents with SUD have indicated aberrations in brain structures or circuits implicated in motivation, self-control, and mood-regulation. However, attributing these differences to the neurotoxicological effects of chronic substance use has been problematic in that these circuits are also aberrant in at-risk children, such as those with prenatal substance exposure, externalizing disorders (such as conduct disorder), or prodromal internalizing disorders such as depression...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038025/assessment-of-the-cervical-spine-denticulate-ligament-using-mri-volumetric-sequence-comparison-between-1-5-tesla-and-3-0-tesla
#15
Rafael Seragioli, Marcelo Novelino Simao, Gustavo Novelino Simao, Carlos Fernando P S Herrero, Marcello H Nogueira-Barbosa
BACKGROUND: Denticulate ligaments (DLs) are pial extensions on each side of the spinal cord, comprising about 20 to 21 pairs of fibrous structures connecting the dura mater to the spinal cord. These ligaments are significant anatomical landmarks in the surgical approach to intradural structures. To our knowledge, there is no previous study on the detection of DLs using MRI. METHODS: After IRB approval, we retrospectively evaluated 116 consecutive MRI scans of the cervical spine, using the volumetric sequence 3D COSMIC, 65 and 51 studies with 1...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037920/tongue-movement-during-articulation-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging-findings-in-20-healthy-volunteers-and-a-patient-with-anterior-floor-of-the-mouth-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#16
Katinka Kansy, Jürgen Hoffmann, Martin Bendszus, Sabine Heiland, Johannes Krisam, Matthias Wohlfarth, Nicole Mistele, Anne Geschwinder, Johann Gradl
PURPOSE: Combined ablative and reconstructive oral maxillofacial surgery involves a multitude of anatomical and functional structures for speech and swallowing. Although there are a few methods to objectively examine swallowing function, this is not true for speech. We describe the development of an objective visualization and measurement tool for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate speech and its first application in a patient. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 20 healthy patients and one patient with squamous cell carcinoma localized in the anterior floor of the mouth were included in the study...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037603/mri-and-ct-lung-biomarkers-towards-an-in-vivo-understanding-of-lung-biomechanics
#17
REVIEW
Heather M Young, Rachel L Eddy, Grace Parraga
BACKGROUND: The biomechanical properties of the lung are necessarily dependent on its structure and function, both of which are complex and change over time and space. This makes in vivo evaluation of lung biomechanics and a deep understanding of lung biomarkers, very challenging. In patients and animal models of lung disease, in vivo evaluations of lung structure and function are typically made at the mouth and include spirometry, multiple-breath gas washout tests and the forced oscillation technique...
September 29, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037435/feline-epilepsy
#18
REVIEW
Heidi Barnes Heller
Seizures occur commonly in cats and can be classified as idiopathic epilepsy, structural epilepsy, or reactive seizures. Pursuit of a diagnosis may include a complete blood count, serum biochemistry, brain MRI, and cerebrospinal fluid analysis as indicated. Antiepileptic drugs should be considered if a cat is having frequent seizures, or any 1 seizure longer than 5 minutes. Phenobarbital is often the drug of choice; however, levetiracetam may be more useful for certain types of epilepsy in cats. Long-term prognosis depends on the underlying diagnosis and response to therapy...
October 13, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037308/topographic-mri-evaluation-of-the-sacroiliac-joints-in-patients-with-axial-spondyloarthritis
#19
Laís Uyeda Aivazoglou, Orlando Rondan Zotti, Marcelo de Medeiros Pinheiro, Moacir Ribeiro de Castro Junior, Andrea Puchnick, Artur da Rocha Corrêa Fernandes, Eloy de Ávila Fernandes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the imaging features of spondyloarthritis in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the sacroiliac (SI) joint and topography (in thirds) and affected margin, considering that this issue is rarely addressed in the literature. METHODS: A cross-sectional study evaluating MRI (1.5T) of SI in 16 patients with axial spondyloarthritis, for the presence of acute (subchondral bone edema, enthesitis, synovitis and capsulitis) and chronic (erosions, subchondral bone sclerosis, bony bridges, and fatty infiltration) changes, performed by two blinded radiologists...
September 2017: Revista Brasileira de Reumatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037162/feasibility-of-a-multi-modal-exercise-program-on-cognition-in-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
M L Callisaya, R M Daly, J E Sharman, D Bruce, T M E Davis, T Greenaway, M Nolan, R Beare, M G Schultz, T Phan, L C Blizzard, V K Srikanth
BACKGROUND: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is associated with increased risk of dementia. We aimed to determine the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining the efficacy of exercise on cognition and brain structure in people with T2D. METHODS: A 6-month pilot parallel RCT of a progressive aerobic- and resistance-training program versus a gentle movement control group in people with T2D aged 50-75 years (n = 50) at the University of Tasmania, Australia...
October 16, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
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