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spinal pathology

Juan Esteban Muñoz Montoya, Christian Torres, Esteban Ramírez Ferrer, Erik Edgardo Muñoz Rodríguez
Background: Spinal fractures are becoming more frequent and should be handled as a severe and endemic pathology that requires timely diagnosis and adequate treatment. The classification of the AOSpine is currently the classification used for this type of fractures, not only for its approach, but to predict surgical management. Methods: These patients had spinal fracture reduction procedures done through percutaneous way with expander endovertebral implants, and intraosseous fixation using SpineJack® intravertebral implants plus Cohesion® cement...
September 2018: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Juan Esteban Muñoz Montoya, Carlos Pérez Cataño, Angela María Tapicha Cuellar, Maria Paula Vargas Osorio, Jimar Rivero Cano, Juan Carlos Luque Suarez, Marco Luciano Charry Lopez
Background: In 1988, Modic and his colleagues described changes in the subchondral bone marrow of the vertebral plates in patients with degenerative disease or other pathologies, which were observed in the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of the spine and were subdivided into three patterns of signal changes, called Modic type I, Modic type II and Modic type III. The main differential diagnosis of the Modic I changes of the vertebral plates due to degenerative disease in spine NMR, is infection in its early stages...
September 2018: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Nikhil Adapa, Nikhil Jain, Allison Capek, Rajiv Chandawarkar, Safdar N Khan, Yazeed M Gussous, Elizabeth Yu
Background: Wound complications can occur in up to 20% of patients following multilevel posterior spinal fusion. Currently, the use of local flaps has been reported in high-risk patients with a history of spinal neoplasm, radiation therapy, exposed hardware, multiple spine surgeries, or wound infections. However, there are no reports of prophylactic muscle flap wound closure in patients undergoing multi-level spinal fusion for degenerative pathology. Given the extensive soft tissue dissection for exposure compounded by patient comorbidities, there is potential to minimize the risk of wound complications with prophylactic trapezius and/or paraspinal flap coverage...
September 2018: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Taylor D'Amore, Brendan Boyce, Addisu Mesfin
Background: Chordomas are rare malignant tumors of the spinal column often afflicting the upper cervical spine and sacrum. There are few large single center series on chordomas due to its rarity. The purpose of this study is to report a single center's experience with the operative and non-operative management of chordomas. Methods: We evaluated our institution's pathology database from 1994 to 2016 to identify patients diagnosed with chordomas. Inclusion criteria were chordomas of the mobile spine and sacrum...
September 2018: Journal of Spine Surgery (Hong Kong)
Wafaa S Ramadan, Ghada A Abdel-Hamid, Saleh Al-Karim, Noor Ahmed Mubarak Ben Zakar, M-Zaki Elassouli
The outcomes of compressed spinal cord injury (CSCI) necessitate radical treatment. The therapeutic potential of neuroectodermal stem cells (NESCs) in a rat model of CSCI in acute and subacute stages was assessed. White Wistar rat were divided into control, sham-operated, CSCI untreated model, CSCI grafted with NESCs at 1 day after CSCI, and at 7 days after CSCI. Primary NESC cultures were prepared from brains of embryonic day 10 (E10) mice embryos. NESCs were transplanted at the site of injury using a Hamilton syringe...
December 2018: Journal of Biosciences
William Rodemer, Michael E Selzer
Spinal cord injury leads to persistent behavioral deficits because mammalian central nervous system axons fail to regenerate. A neuron's response to axon injury results from a complex interplay of neuron-intrinsic and environmental factors. The contribution of axotomy to the death of neurons in spinal cord injury is controversial because very remote axotomy is unlikely to result in neuronal death, whereas death of neurons near an injury may reflect environmental factors such as ischemia and inflammation. In lampreys, axotomy due to spinal cord injury results in delayed apoptosis of spinal-projecting neurons in the brain, beyond the extent of these environmental factors...
March 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
S Ruetten, M Komp
BACKGROUND: The most frequent causes of degenerative constrictions of the spinal canal are disk herniations and spinal stenoses. The lumbar and cervical spine is the most affected. SURGICAL PROCEDURES: After conservative treatments have been exhausted, surgical intervention may be necessary. Today, microsurgical decompression is regarded as the standard procedure in the lumbar region, while in the cervical spine, microsurgical anterior decompression and fusion are standard...
December 7, 2018: Der Orthopäde
Iacopo Valente, Alessandro Pedicelli, Martina Piacentini, Marco Di Serafino, Gianfranco Vallone, Stefania Speca, Cesare Colosimo
Ultrasound represents the first-line survey for the assessment of spinal cord development abnormalities. In fact, within 6 months of life, the non-ossification of neuronal arcs provides an excellent acoustic window that allows a detailed depiction of the spinal canal, its content and of the surrounding soft tissues. Nevertheless, an accurate ultrasound examination requires a complete knowledge of the anatomy, the condition of normality, the frequent anatomical variants and the main pathologies involved. This review is intended to briefly summarize the US technique, the main clinical indication and the key notions that could help to properly perform this type of ultrasound examination...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound
Laura Emilia Toader, Gabriela Camelia Roşu, Bogdan Cătălin, Ionica Pirici, Ion Cristian Gîlceavă, Valeria Carmen Albu, Anca Maria Istrate-Ofiţeru, Dafin Fior Mureşanu, Daniel Pirici
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex chronic neurodegenerative disease that involves an abnormal autoimmune response directed against the brain, nerves and spinal cord; it is considered the most frequent cause of neurological disability, because MS-associated inflammatory lesions can affect a wide range of systems to a varying degree and may cause a plethora of neurological comorbidities and symptoms. The symptoms are quite variable from patient to patient and depend on the spatial distribution of the central nervous system (CNS) lesions, but usually involve sensory disturbances, cognitive deficits, unilateral vision loss, bladder dysfunction, ataxia, fatigue, double vision, weakness of the limbs and intestinal disorders...
2018: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
Wei Song, Guiyun Song, Can Zhao, Xiaoguang Li, Xiaojiao Pei, Wen Zhao, Yudan Gao, Jia-Sheng Rao, Hongmei Duan, Zhaoyang Yang
The purpose of this study was to assess the pathological variation in white matter tracts in the adult severe thoracic contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) rat models combined with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as the effect of spared white matter (WM) quantity on hindlimb motor function recovery. 7.0T MRI was conducted for all experimental animals before SCI and 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after SCI. The variation in the white matter tract in different regions of the spinal cord after SCI was examined by luxol fast blue (LFB) staining, NF200 immunochemistry, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters, including fraction anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusion, and radial diffusivity...
2018: BioMed Research International
Zubair Ahammad, Jason Milton, Kailash Narayan, Victor Awuor
Background: Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a seronegative spondyloarthropathy within the spectrum of rheumatologic diseases. The systemic inflammation that characterizes AS leads to bone resorption and reformation. Pathologic remodeling may include kyphosis, osteoporosis, and multi-segment auto-fusion. Cervical fractures account for 53-78% of spinal trauma seen with AS. Surgical planning is often challenging owing to spinal deformity, medical comorbidities, the cervicothoracic foci of injury, and gross instability of these fracture...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Alexander E Ropper, Kevin T Huang, Allen L Ho, Judith M Wong, Stephen V Nalbach, John H Chi
Objective: Patients with extradural spine tumors are at an increased risk for intraoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks and postoperative wound dehiscence due to radiotherapy and other comorbidities related to systemic cancer treatment. In this case series, we discuss our experience with the management of intraoperative durotomies and wound closure strategies for this complex surgical patient population. Methods: We reviewed our recent single-center experience with spine surgery for primarily extradural tumors, with attention to intraoperative durotomy occurrence and postoperative wound-related complications...
October 7, 2018: Neurospine
Yan Wu, Lianmei Zhong, Jia Geng
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) are inflammatory CNS syndromes mainly involving the optic nerve and/or spinal cord and characterized by the presence of serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G antibodies (AQP4-IgG). The pathology of NMOSD is complicated, while therapies for NMOSD are limited and only partially effective in most cases. This review article focuses on the main pathology of NMOSD involving AQP4-IgG and lymphocyte function. We also review the existing therapeutic methods and potential new treatments...
December 3, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Katarzyna Polak-Kraśna, Sandra Robak-Nawrocka, Sylwia Szotek, Marcin Czyż, Daniel Gheek, Celina Pezowicz
BACKGROUND: Damage to the spinal cord is one of the most debilitating pathologies with considerable health, economic and social impact. Improved prevention, treatment and rehabilitation after spinal cord injury (SCI) requires the complex biomechanics of the spinal cord with all its structural elements and the injury mechanism to be understood. This comprehensive understanding will also allow development of models and tools enabling better diagnosis, surgical treatment with increased safety and efficacy and possible development of regenerative therapies...
November 20, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Rajesh Kumar Meena, Ramesh S Doddamani, Ravi Sharma
BACKGROUND: Split cord malformation(SCM) is a rare congenital anomaly of the spinal cord. Rarely, SCM coexists with a variety of dysraphic pathologies that occurs at the same or different spinal level in an individual. Exceptionally rare, is the occurrence of SCM Type-1 and lipomeningomyelocele (LMMC) of each hemicord. CASE DISCUSSION: A 15-month-old female child, presented with gradually progressive, painless swelling in the lower back since birth. Spinal imaging showed presence of SCM Type-1 associated with LMMC of each hemicord...
December 6, 2018: World Neurosurgery
David G Deckey, Daniel B C Reid, Scott Mallozzi, Alan H Daniels
BACKGROUND: Cervical squamous cell carcinoma is the second most common cancer in women worldwide, and the third most common cause of female cancer mortality. It frequently metastasizes to the osseous spine and has been rarely reported to cause cutaneous metastases at gynecological surgical scars. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 63-year-old woman with known metastatic cervical squamous cell carcinoma presented with a pathologic fracture of the L2 vertebra, unrelenting back pain, bilateral lower extremity weakness, and inability to ambulate...
December 5, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Sumedh S Shah, Jose M Consuegra, Ty K Subhawong, Timur M Urakov, Glen R Manzano
Piriformis syndrome (PS) is a rare etiology of extra-spinal sciatica in which pathologies associated with or around the piriformis muscle (PM) irritate the adjacent sciatic nerve (SN), however, there is scarcity in the literature regarding its exact etiologies, thus, we performed a retrospective study to elucidate the epidemiology of PS and assess various causes of the syndrome. Our study included patients assessed at our institution who presented with sciatica of non-spinal origin between May 2014 and December 2015...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Yoshiharu Kawaguchi, Masato Nakano, Taketoshi Yasuda, Shoji Seki, Kayo Suzuki, Yasuhito Yahara, Hiroto Makino, Kenji Kobayashi, Masahiko Kanamori, Tomoatsu Kimura
PURPOSE: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the cervical spine (cervical OPLL) is associated with the lesions at the thoracic and/or lumbar spine. Multiple spinal lesions cause additional neurological deficit, affecting the outcomes of cervical laminoplasty. This study aimed to clarify the effect of multiple lesions on the outcomes of cervical laminoplasty and to compare the results with data from patients without them. METHODS: From April 1981 to October 2015, 201 patients underwent laminoplasty for cervical OPLL; however, 167 patients were followed for >2 years...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Scott A Vincent, Paul A Anderson
Instability of the spine is a complex clinical entity that exists on a wide spectrum encompassing many aspects of spinal pathology including traumatic, neoplastic, infectious, and degenerative processes. The importance of determining stability is paramount in the decision-making process regarding the need for operative or nonoperative care. Defining clinical instability can be a challenging and requires careful attention to the pathology involved, findings of necessary imaging, and a thorough clinical exam...
December 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Katie Suzanne Traylor, Stephen F Kralik, Rupa Radhakrishnan
Acute onset of neurological signs and symptoms referable to the spine including difficulty walking, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and paresthesias in the extremities may be manifestations of pediatric spine emergency. Trauma is the most common etiology for a pediatric spinal emergency. Because a history of trauma is often available, the role of imaging involves detection of spinal injuries. Other pathologies such as infection, inflammation, vascular, and neoplasms may lead to pediatric spinal emergencies that also require imaging for assistance in determining the etiology and appropriate management...
December 2018: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
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