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Microbiome Hormones

Stephanie Fischinger, Carolyn M Boudreau, Audrey L Butler, Hendrik Streeck, Galit Alter
Vaccines are among the most impactful public health interventions, preventing millions of new infections and deaths annually worldwide. However, emerging data suggest that vaccines may not protect all populations equally. Specifically, studies analyzing variation in vaccine-induced immunity have pointed to the critical impact of genetics, the environment, nutrition, the microbiome, and sex in influencing vaccine responsiveness. The significant contribution of sex to modulating vaccine-induced immunity has gained attention over the last years...
December 13, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
S König, K May
In dairy cattle, resistance, tolerance and resilience refer to the adaptation ability to a broad range of environmental conditions, implying stable performances (e.g. production level, fertility status) independent from disease or infection pressure. All three mechanisms resistance, tolerance and resilience contribute to overall robustness, implying the evaluation of phenotyping and breeding strategies for improved robustness in dairy cattle populations. Classically, breeding approaches on improved robustness rely on simple production traits, in combination with detailed environmental descriptors and enhanced statistical modelling to infer possible genotype by environment interactions...
December 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Gonca Mumcu, Haner Direskeneli
Environmental and other triggering factors are suggested to cause the onset and the clinical relapses of Behçet's syndrome (BS), a multi-systemic inflammatory disorder. In this review, environmental factors are discussed according to their interactions with etiopathogenesis, immune response and disease activity. Stress is a common self-triggering factor for most BS patients. Stimuli such as some foods can activate oral ulcers, and may be linked to the histamine content of the food. Oral/skin trauma and menstruation associated with hormonal factors aggravate, whereas allergy/atopy seem to alleviate the symptoms of BS...
December 6, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Ahmed Ibrahim, Luisa Hugerth, Linnea Hases, Ashish Saxena, Maike Seifert, Quentin Thomas, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Lars Engstrand, Cecilia Williams
Chronic inflammation of the colon (colitis) is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Hormone-replacement therapy reduces CRC incidences, and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ/ESR2) has been implicated in this protection. Gut microbiota is altered in both colitis and CRC and may influence the severity of both. Here we test the hypothesis that intestinal ERβ impacts the gut microbiota. Mice with and without intestine-specific deletion of ERβ (ERβKOVil ) were generated using the Cre-LoxP system. Colitis and CRC were induced with a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane (AOM) followed by administration of three cycles of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
A Bedford, L Beckett, K Hardin, N W Dias, T Davis, V R G Mercadante, A D Ealy, R R White
Emerging data highlighting gut microbiome influences on health support evaluation of how microbial fermentation end-products influence postabsorptive systems. This study aimed to investigate the effect of increased propionate status on progesterone profiles and insulin sensitivity in dairy heifers. Eleven Holstein heifers, synchronized in estrus, were assigned to one of two continuous, 5-day IV treatments: sodium propionate (PRO; n = 5) or saline (CON; n = 6). These infusions culminated in a hyperglycemic clamp with daily blood samples for an additional 7 days...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alessio Gerussi, Laura Cristoferi, Marco Carbone, Rosanna Asselta, Pietro Invernizzi
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease with a striking female preponderance. The mechanisms behind this predominance are still to be elucidated, although multiple theories have been postulated and investigated. Among the proposed involved factors, sex hormones have been the first to be studied, but unfortunately data have been inconclusive or conflicting. Similarly, fetal microchimerism has received a huge attention in the past, but data in PBC have been unsatisfactory especially if compared to other autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus...
December 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Varykina G Thackray
Recent studies have shown that sex and sex steroids influence the composition of the gut microbiome. These studies also indicate that steroid regulation of the gut microbiome may play a role in pathological situations of hormonal excess, such as PCOS. Indeed, studies demonstrated that PCOS is associated with decreased alpha diversity and changes in specific Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, previously associated with metabolic dysregulation. These studies suggest that androgens may regulate the gut microbiome in females and that hyperandrogenism may be linked with a gut 'dysbiosis' in PCOS...
November 29, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
L Kolátorová, O Lapčík, L Stárka
The microflora of the digestive tract is composed of a unique set of bacteria, yeasts, viruses and other microorganisms, generally known as the microbiome. The microbiome exhibits considerable inter-individual variability, with up to two-thirds of the microflora differing between individuals. Because of this, the variable intestinal microflora is responsible for many differences in metabolic, hormonal and immunological processes in humans and animals. Significant differences have been observed in the metabolism of phytoestrogens, naturally occurring substances that possess estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity...
November 28, 2018: Physiological Research
Rodopi Emfietzoglou, Nikolaos Spyrou, Christos S Mantzoros, Maria Dalamaga
Bisphenol-A (BPA), a prototype endocrine disrupting molecule, has been associated with many disease entities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, polycystic ovarian disease, cardiovascular disease, reproductive and neurodevelopmental disorders. BPA has also been associated mainly with hormone sensitive cancers such as breast, prostate, endometrial, ovarian, testicular and thyroid cancers but also non-hormonal sensitive cancers such as cervical and lung cancers, osteosarcoma and meningioma. Recent research has investigated the sources of contamination which are responsible for higher BPA concentrations in the oral cavity and oropharyngeal space, representing the first site of BPA exposure after ingestion...
November 17, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
L J Zallar, S Beurmann, B J Tunstall, C M Fraser, G F Koob, L F Vendruscolo, L Leggio
Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that has been implicated in the neurobiology of alcohol drinking. We have recently developed a ghrelin receptor (GHSR) knockout (KO) rat model, which exhibits reduced food consumption and body weight. In addition, recent preliminary work suggests that the gut-microbiome, which appears to interact with the ghrelin system, may modulate alcohol drinking. Here, we investigated the effects of GHSR deletion on alcohol consumption utilizing GHSR KO and wild type (WT) rats in three separate alcohol consumption paradigms: 1...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Konstantinos I Avgerinos, Nikolaos Spyrou, Christos S Mantzoros, Maria Dalamaga
Continuously rising trends in obesity-related malignancies render this disease spectrum a public health priority. Worldwide, the burden of cancer attributable to obesity, expressed as population attributable fraction, is 11.9% in men and 13.1% in women. There is convincing evidence that excess body weight is associated with an increased risk for cancer of at least 13 anatomic sites, including endometrial, esophageal, renal and pancreatic adenocarcinomas; hepatocellular carcinoma; gastric cardia cancer; meningioma; multiple myeloma; colorectal, postmenopausal breast, ovarian, gallbladder and thyroid cancers...
November 13, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Dervla O'Malley
NEW FINDINGS: Pathophysiological changes linked to Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) include stress and immune activation, changes in gastrointestinal microbial and bile acids profiles and sensitisation of extrinsic and intrinsic gut neurons. This review explores the potential role for L-cells in these pathophysiological changes. L-cells, which secrete glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in response to nutrients, microbial factors, bile acids and short-chain fatty acids, may sense IBS-related changes in the luminal environment...
November 16, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Mary Rodríguez-Rabassa, Pablo López, Ronald E Rodríguez-Santiago, Antonio Cases, Marcos Felici, Raphael Sánchez, Yasuhiro Yamamura, Vanessa Rivera-Amill
Tobacco use has been implicated as an immunomodulator in the oral cavity and contributes to the development of oral cancer. In the present study, we investigated the effects of cigarette smoking on bacterial diversity and host responses compared to healthy nonsmoking controls. Saliva samples were collected from eighteen smokers and sixteen nonsmoking individuals by passive drool. The 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the salivary microbiome by using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Cytokine and chemokine expression analyses were performed to evaluate the host response...
November 7, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Annarosa Floreani, Paula Restrepo-Jiménez, Maria Francesca Secchi, Sara De Martin, Patrick S C Leung, Edward Krawitt, Christopher L Bowlus, M Eric Gershwin, Juan-Manuel Anaya
Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic inflammatory liver disease characterized by hypergammaglobulinemia, the presence of autoantibodies, and inflammation within the liver, including lymphocytic infiltrates and interface hepatitis. Autoimmune hepatitis shows a female predominance and can present at any age and in any ethnicity. The disease is thought to be a consequence of a break of immune tolerance leading to an autoimmune process that induces liver injury. The self-attack is triggered by T-helper cell-mediated liver autoantigen recognition and B-cell production of autoantibodies, and is sustained by impaired regulatory T cells number and function...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Trishla Sinha, Arnau Vich Vila, Sanzhima Garmaeva, Soesma A Jankipersadsing, Floris Imhann, Valerie Collij, Marc Jan Bonder, Xiaofang Jiang, Thomas Gurry, Eric J Alm, Mauro D'Amato, Rinse K Weersma, Sicco Scherjon, Cisca Wijmenga, Jingyuan Fu, Alexander Kurilshikov, Alexandra Zhernakova
Several gastrointestinal diseases show a sex imbalance, although the underlying (patho)physiological mechanisms behind this are not well understood. The gut microbiome may be involved in this process, forming a complex interaction with host immune system, sex hormones, medication and other environmental factors. Here we performed sex-specific analyses of fecal microbiota composition in 1135 individuals from a population-based cohort. The overall gut microbiome composition of females and males was significantly different (p = 0...
October 29, 2018: Gut Microbes
Xiaogang Li, Alexandre Jousset, Wietse de Boer, Víctor J Carrión, Taolin Zhang, Xingxiang Wang, Eiko E Kuramae
Microorganisms associated with roots are thought to be part of the so-called extended plant phenotypes with roles in the acquisition of nutrients, production of growth hormones, and defense against diseases. Since the crops selectively enrich most rhizosphere microbes out of the bulk soil, we hypothesized that changes in the composition of bulk soil communities caused by agricultural management affect the extended plant phenotype. In the current study, we performed shotgun metagenome sequencing of the rhizosphere microbiome of the peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and metatranscriptome analysis of the roots of peanut plants grown in the soil with different management histories, peanut monocropping and crop rotation...
October 27, 2018: ISME Journal
Briana K Whitaker, Heather L Reynolds, Keith Clay
Experimental tests of community assembly mechanisms for host-associated microbiomes in nature are lacking. Asymptomatic foliar fungal endophytes are a major component of the plant microbiome and are increasingly recognized for their impacts on plant performance, including pathogen defense, hormonal manipulation, and drought tolerance. However, it remains unclear whether fungal endophytes preferentially colonize certain host ecotypes or genotypes, reflecting some degree of biotic adaptation in the symbioses, or whether colonization is simply a function of spore type and abundance within the local environment...
October 26, 2018: Ecology
E Michael Lewiecki, John P Bilezikian, Lora Giangregorio, Susan L Greenspan, Sundeep Khosla, Paul Kostenuik, Kelly Krohn, Michael R McClung, Paul D Miller, Roberto Pacifici
The Santa Fe Bone Symposium is an annual meeting devoted to clinical applications of recent advances in skeletal research. The 19th Santa Fe Bone Symposium convened August 3-4, 2018, in Santa Fe, New Mexico, USA. Attendees included physicians of many specialties, fellows in training, advanced practice providers, clinical researchers, and bone density technologists. The format consisted of lectures, case presentations by endocrinology fellows, and panel discussions, with all involving extensive interactive discussions...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
Stefan M Gold, Anne Willing, Frank Leypoldt, Friedemann Paul, Manuel A Friese
Stronger adaptive immune responses in females can be observed in different mammals, resulting in better control of infections compared to males. However, this presumably evolutionary difference likely also drives higher incidence of autoimmune diseases observed in humans. Here, we summarize sex differences in the most common autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and discuss recent advances in the understanding of possible underlying immunological and CNS intrinsic mechanisms. In multiple sclerosis (MS), the most common inflammatory disease of the CNS, but also in rarer conditions, such as neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) or neuronal autoantibody-mediated autoimmune encephalitis (AE), sex is one of the top risk factors, with women being more often affected than men...
October 25, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Preethi Balan, Yap Seng Chong, Shivshankar Umashankar, Sanjay Swarup, Wong Mun Loke, Violeta Lopez, Hong Gu He, Chaminda Jayampath Seneviratne
It is well known that pregnancy is under the constant influence of hormonal, metabolic and immunological factors and this may impact the oral microbiota toward pregnancy gingivitis. However, it is still not clear how the oral microbial dysbiosis can modulate oral diseases as oral microbiome during pregnancy is very poorly characterized. In addition, the recent revelation that placental microbiome is akin to oral microbiome further potentiates the importance of oral dysbiosis in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Hence, leveraging on the 16S rRNA gene sequencing technology, we present a snapshot of the variations in the oral microbial composition with the progression of pregnancy and in the postpartum period and its association with pregnancy gingivitis...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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