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Microbiome Hormones

Ravichandra Vemuri, Kristyn E Sylvia, Sabra L Klein, Samuel C Forster, Magdalena Plebanski, Raj Eri, Katie L Flanagan
Sex differences in immunity are well described in the literature and thought to be mainly driven by sex hormones and sex-linked immune response genes. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the largest immune organs in the body and contains multiple immune cells in the GIT-associated lymphoid tissue, Peyer's patches and elsewhere, which together have profound effects on local and systemic inflammation. The GIT is colonised with microbial communities composed of bacteria, fungi and viruses, collectively known as the GIT microbiota...
October 8, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Erik Slade, Laura Williams, Jeffrey Gagnon
Ghrelin is a stomach-derived hormone that regulates several metabolic functions including growth hormone release, appetite, adiposity, and gastric motility. Nutrients, the autonomic nervous system, and other metabolic hormones have all been implicated in the regulation of ghrelin secretion. Despite this, ongoing efforts to develop modulators of ghrelin secretion in human diseases are still underway. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a gaseous signaling molecule that is produced both endogenously in many tissues and by the gut microbiome...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Anne Rechtien, Marcus Altfeld
Sex-specific differences affecting various aspects of HIV-1 infection have been reported, including differences in susceptibility to infection, course of HIV-1 disease, and establishment of viral reservoirs. Once infected, initial plasma levels of HIV-1 viremia in women are lower compared to men while the rates of progression to AIDS are similar. Factors contributing to these sex differences are poorly understood, and range from anatomical differences and differential expression of sex hormones to differences in immune responses, the microbiome and socio-economic discrepancies, all of which may impact HIV-1 acquisition and disease progression...
October 1, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Blandine Laferrère, François Pattou
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass results in large and sustained weight loss and resolution of type 2 diabetes in 60% of cases at 1-2 years. In addition to calorie restriction and weight loss, various gastro-intestinal mediated mechanisms, independent of weight loss, also contribute to glucose control. The anatomical re-arrangement of the small intestine after gastric bypass results in accelerated nutrient transit, enhances the release of post-prandial gut hormones incretins and of insulin, alters the metabolism and the entero-hepatic cycle of bile acids, modifies intestinal glucose uptake and metabolism, and alters the composition and function of the microbiome...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Marta Olivares, Valentina Schüppel, Ahmed M Hassan, Martin Beaumont, Audrey M Neyrinck, Laure B Bindels, Alfonso Benítez-Páez, Yolanda Sanz, Dirk Haller, Peter Holzer, Nathalie M Delzenne
The Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) activity influences metabolic, behavioral and intestinal disorders through the cleavage of key hormones and peptides. Some studies describe the existence of human DPP-4 homologs in commensal bacteria, for instance in Prevotella or Lactobacillus . However, the role of the gut microbiota as a source of DPP-4-like activity has never been investigated. Through the comparison of the DPP-4 activity in the cecal content of germ-free mice (GFM) and gnotobiotic mice colonized with the gut microbiota of a healthy subject, we bring the proof of concept that a significant DPP-4-like activity occurs in the microbiota...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jian Zhang, Yanqin Lu, Yanzhou Wang, Xiuzhi Ren, Jinxiang Han
Intestinal microbial flora, known as the second gene pool of the human body, play an important role in immune function, nutrient uptake, and various activities of host cells, as well as in human disease. Intestinal microorganisms are involved in a variety of mechanisms that affect bone health. Gut microbes are closely related to genetic variation, and gene regulation plays an important part in the development of bone-related diseases such as osteoporosis. Intestinal microorganisms can disrupt the balance between bone formation and resorption by indirectly stimulating or inhibiting osteoblasts and osteoclasts...
August 2018: Intractable & Rare Diseases Research
M C Molenaar, M Singer, S Ouburg
Sexually transmitted infections (STI) can have major consequences for the reproductive health of women. Mycoplasma genitalium is a STI that is not as well studied but causes pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) among other complications. Another well-known STI is Chlamydia trachomatis, notorious for its capability to cause infertility. Both C. trachomatis and M. genitalium share some of the same clinical aspects. Parts of the pathogenesis of C. trachomatis and M. genitalium infections are unclear but potential factors are the microbiome and other STIs...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Sidika E Karakas, Prasanth Surampudi
Androgens can have variable effects on men and women. Women may be evaluated for androgen excess for several reasons. Typically, young premenopausal women present with clinical symptoms of hirsutism, alopecia, irregular menses, and/or infertility. The most common cause of these symptoms is polycystic ovary syndrome. After menopause, even though ovaries stop producing estrogen, they continue to produce androgen, and women can have new onset of hirsutism and alopecia. Laboratory evaluation involves measurement of the major ovarian and adrenal androgens...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
G Cantalapiedra-Hijar, M Abo-Ismail, G E Carstens, L L Guan, R Hegarty, D A Kenny, M McGee, G Plastow, A Relling, I Ortigues-Marty
Animal's feed efficiency in growing cattle (i.e. the animal ability to reach a market or adult BW with the least amount of feed intake), is a key factor in the beef cattle industry. Feeding systems have made huge progress to understand dietary factors influencing the average animal feed efficiency. However, there exists a considerable amount of animal-to-animal variation around the average feed efficiency observed in beef cattle reared in similar conditions, which is still far from being understood. This review aims to identify biological determinants and molecular pathways involved in the between-animal variation in feed efficiency with particular reference to growing beef cattle phenotyped for residual feed intake (RFI)...
August 24, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Jeffrey A Rappaport, Scott A Waldman
Guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C) is a transmembrane receptor expressed on the luminal aspect of the intestinal epithelium. Its ligands include bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins responsible for traveler's diarrhea, the endogenous peptide hormones uroguanylin and guanylin, and the synthetic agents, linaclotide, plecanatide, and dolcanatide. Ligand-activated GUCY2C catalyzes the synthesis of intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP), initiating signaling cascades underlying homeostasis of the intestinal epithelium. Mouse models of GUCY2C ablation, and recently, human populations harboring GUCY2C mutations, have revealed the diverse contributions of this signaling axis to epithelial health, including regulating fluid secretion, microbiome composition, intestinal barrier integrity, epithelial renewal, cell cycle progression, responses to DNA damage, epithelial-mesenchymal cross-talk, cell migration, and cellular metabolic status...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Nanna Schürer
Acne is based on a complex, multifactorial pathophysiology beginning with a microcomedo. Comedogenesis involves follicular hyperproliferation and disturbed keratinization, hyperseborrhea and hyperplasia of sebaceous glands as well as disturbances in skin microbiome. Acne is treated with antibiotics, retinoids, keratolytics, hormonal and anti-inflammatory agents. Efficacy and side effects of given medications are well known. The uppermost layer of the stratum corneum is acidic. The low pH provides protection by slowing down the growth of some bacteria...
2018: Current Problems in Dermatology
Aarti Sawant-Basak, A David Rodrigues, Matthew Lech, Regis Doyonnas, Marion Kasaian, Bhagwat Prasad, Nikolaos Tsamandouras
Intestinal disposition of small molecules involves interplay of drug-metabolizing enzymes, transporters, and host-microbiome, which has spurred the development of in vitro intestinal models derived from primary tissue sources. Such models have been bio-engineered from intestinal crypts, mucosal extracts, iPSC-derived organoids, and human intestinal tissue. The present mini-review discusses the utility and limitations of these human derived models in support of small molecule drug metabolism and disposition...
August 20, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Mariana F Fernández, Iris Reina-Pérez, Juan Manuel Astorga, Andrea Rodríguez-Carrillo, Julio Plaza-Díaz, Luis Fontana
The microorganisms that live symbiotically in human beings are increasingly recognized as important players in health and disease. The largest collection of these microorganisms is found in the gastrointestinal tract. Microbial composition reflects both genetic and lifestyle variables of the host. This microbiota is in a dynamic balance with the host, exerting local and distant effects. Microbial perturbation (dysbiosis) could contribute to the risk of developing health problems. Various bacterial genes capable of producing estrogen-metabolizing enzymes have been identified...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sajad Moshkelgosha, Giulia Masetti, Utta Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Hedda Luise Verhasselt, Mareike Horstmann, Salvador Diaz-Cano, Alistair Noble, Barbel Edelman, Danila Covelli, Sue Plummer, Julian R Marchesi, Marian Ludgate, Filippo Biscarini, Anja Eckstein, J Paul Banga
Experimental models of hyperthyroid Graves' disease (GD) and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) are efficiently developed by genetic immunisation by electroporation with human thyrotropin hormone receptor (hTSHR) A-subunit plasmid in female BALB/c (H-2d) mice. We investigated susceptibility in C57BL/6 J (H-2b) animals to allow studies on disease mechanisms in transgenic and immune response gene knock-out mice. Higher numbers of female C57BL/6 J were positive for pathogenic thyroid stimulating antibodies, but induced hyperthyroidism remained at a low frequency compared to BALB/c animals...
August 14, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Gabrielle L Davidson, Amy C Cooke, Crystal N Johnson, John L Quinn
Research into proximate and ultimate mechanisms of individual cognitive variation in animal populations is a rapidly growing field that incorporates physiological, behavioural and evolutionary investigations. Recent studies in humans and laboratory animals have shown that the enteric microbial community plays a central role in brain function and development. The 'gut-brain axis' represents a multi-directional signalling system that encompasses neurological, immunological and hormonal pathways. In particular it is tightly linked with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), a system that regulates stress hormone release and influences brain development and function...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Elizabeth Petrosus, Ediane B Silva, Don Lay, Susan D Eicher
Stress and anxiety have been associated with changes in the microbiota of the gut and ultimately diminished resistance to pathogens. The objective of this study was to observe intestinal microbiota and susceptibility to Salmonella associated with stress hormones, cortisol and norepinephrine, in piglets. At weaning, 90 piglets (15 for a Salmonella challenge) were trained to take the carrier (apple juice) orally. At 2 wk after weaning, pens of piglets were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments: control (CNT), norepinephrine (NE), or cortisol (CORT)...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Clair R Martin, Vadim Osadchiy, Amir Kalani, Emeran A Mayer
Preclinical and clinical studies have shown bidirectional interactions within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Gut microbes communicate to the central nervous system through at least 3 parallel and interacting channels involving nervous, endocrine, and immune signaling mechanisms. The brain can affect the community structure and function of the gut microbiota through the autonomic nervous system, by modulating regional gut motility, intestinal transit and secretion, and gut permeability, and potentially through the luminal secretion of hormones that directly modulate microbial gene expression...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Charikleia Stefanaki, Flora Bacopoulou, Athanasios Michos
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that a significant proportion of adolescents exhibit abdominal obesity in early-middle adolescence, and impaired glucose metabolism. Dysregulation of glucose metabolism is aggravated by the existing osteosarcopenia not only in obese but also in overweight youth. Biochemical inflammation, derived from glucose metabolism dysregulation, in combination with increased stress levels lead to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, also known as ROS, which seem to afflict the integrity of the gastrointestinal wall, gut mucosa, and commensal, intestinal gut microflora...
September 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Joana G Lopes, Victor Sourjik
The microorganisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can influence the metabolism, immunity, and behavior of animal hosts. Increasing evidence suggests that communication between the host and the microbiome also occurs in the opposite direction, with hormones and other host-secreted compounds being sensed by microorganisms. Here, we addressed one key aspect of the host-microbe communication by studying chemotaxis of a model commensal bacterium, Escherichia coli, to several compounds present abundantly in the GI tract, namely catecholamines, thyroid hormones, and polyamines...
July 11, 2018: ISME Journal
Maria R C de Godoy
The prominent incidence of overweight and obese pet animals not only results in higher morbidity and mortality, but also poses a threat for the quality of life, longevity, and well-being of dogs and cats. To date, strategies to prevent BW gain or to induce weight loss have had modest success in the pet population. In part, due to the complexity and the multifactorial nature of this disease, which involves pet-human interaction, environmental and dietary factors, and an intertwined metabolic process that still is not fully understood...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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