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Microbiome Hormones

Mariana F Fernández, Iris Reina-Pérez, Juan Manuel Astorga, Andrea Rodríguez-Carrillo, Julio Plaza-Díaz, Luis Fontana
The microorganisms that live symbiotically in human beings are increasingly recognized as important players in health and disease. The largest collection of these microorganisms is found in the gastrointestinal tract. Microbial composition reflects both genetic and lifestyle variables of the host. This microbiota is in a dynamic balance with the host, exerting local and distant effects. Microbial perturbation (dysbiosis) could contribute to the risk of developing health problems. Various bacterial genes capable of producing estrogen-metabolizing enzymes have been identified...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sajad Moshkelgosha, Giulia Masetti, Utta Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Hedda Luise Verhasselt, Mareike Horstmann, Salvador Diaz-Cano, Alistair Noble, Barbel Edelman, Danila Covelli, Sue Plummer, Julian R Marchesi, Marian Ludgate, Filippo Biscarini, Anja Eckstein, J Paul Banga
Experimental models of hyperthyroid Graves' disease (GD) and Graves' orbitopathy (GO) are efficiently developed by genetic immunisation by electroporation with human thyrotropin hormone receptor (hTSHR) A-subunit plasmid in female BALB/c (H-2d) mice. We investigated susceptibility in C57BL/6 J (H-2b) animals to allow studies on disease mechanisms in transgenic and immune response gene knock-out mice. Higher numbers of female C57BL/6 J were positive for pathogenic thyroid stimulating antibodies, but induced hyperthyroidism remained at a low frequency compared to BALB/c animals...
August 14, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Gabrielle L Davidson, Amy C Cooke, Crystal N Johnson, John L Quinn
Research into proximate and ultimate mechanisms of individual cognitive variation in animal populations is a rapidly growing field that incorporates physiological, behavioural and evolutionary investigations. Recent studies in humans and laboratory animals have shown that the enteric microbial community plays a central role in brain function and development. The 'gut-brain axis' represents a multi-directional signalling system that encompasses neurological, immunological and hormonal pathways. In particular it is tightly linked with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), a system that regulates stress hormone release and influences brain development and function...
September 26, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Elizabeth Petrosus, Ediane B Silva, Don Lay, Susan D Eicher
Stress and anxiety have been associated with changes in the microbiota of the gut and ultimately diminished resistance to pathogens. The objective of this study was to observe intestinal microbiota and susceptibility to Salmonella associated with stress hormones, cortisol and norepinephrine, in piglets. At weaning, 90 piglets (15 for a Salmonella challenge) were trained to take the carrier (apple juice) orally. At 2 wk after weaning, pens of piglets were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments: control (CNT), norepinephrine (NE), or cortisol (CORT)...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Clair R Martin, Vadim Osadchiy, Amir Kalani, Emeran A Mayer
Preclinical and clinical studies have shown bidirectional interactions within the brain-gut-microbiome axis. Gut microbes communicate to the central nervous system through at least 3 parallel and interacting channels involving nervous, endocrine, and immune signaling mechanisms. The brain can affect the community structure and function of the gut microbiota through the autonomic nervous system, by modulating regional gut motility, intestinal transit and secretion, and gut permeability, and potentially through the luminal secretion of hormones that directly modulate microbial gene expression...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Charikleia Stefanaki, Flora Bacopoulou, Athanasios Michos
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that a significant proportion of adolescents exhibit abdominal obesity in early-middle adolescence, and impaired glucose metabolism. Dysregulation of glucose metabolism is aggravated by the existing osteosarcopenia not only in obese but also in overweight youth. Biochemical inflammation, derived from glucose metabolism dysregulation, in combination with increased stress levels lead to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, also known as ROS, which seem to afflict the integrity of the gastrointestinal wall, gut mucosa, and commensal, intestinal gut microflora...
September 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Joana G Lopes, Victor Sourjik
The microorganisms in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract can influence the metabolism, immunity, and behavior of animal hosts. Increasing evidence suggests that communication between the host and the microbiome also occurs in the opposite direction, with hormones and other host-secreted compounds being sensed by microorganisms. Here, we addressed one key aspect of the host-microbe communication by studying chemotaxis of a model commensal bacterium, Escherichia coli, to several compounds present abundantly in the GI tract, namely catecholamines, thyroid hormones, and polyamines...
July 11, 2018: ISME Journal
Maria R C de Godoy
The prominent incidence of overweight and obese pet animals not only results in higher morbidity and mortality, but also poses a threat for the quality of life, longevity, and well-being of dogs and cats. To date, strategies to prevent BW gain or to induce weight loss have had modest success in the pet population. In part, due to the complexity and the multifactorial nature of this disease, which involves pet-human interaction, environmental and dietary factors, and an intertwined metabolic process that still is not fully understood...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Neil Murphy, Mazda Jenab, Marc J Gunter
Excess adiposity is a risk factor for several cancers of the gastrointestinal system, specifically oesophageal adenocarcinoma and colorectal, small intestine, pancreatic, liver, gallbladder and stomach cancers. With the increasing prevalence of obesity in nearly all regions of the world, this relationship could represent a growing source of cancers of the digestive system. Experimental and molecular epidemiological studies indicate important roles for alterations in insulin signalling, adipose tissue-derived inflammation and sex hormone pathways in mediating the association between adiposity and gastrointestinal cancer...
July 3, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Marlies Elderman, Floor Hugenholtz, Clara Belzer, Mark Boekschoten, Bart de Haan, Paul de Vos, Marijke Faas
Hormones and placental factors are thought to underlie the maternal immunological changes during pregnancy. However, as several intestinal microbiota are linked to immune modulations, we hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota are altered during pregnancy in favor of species associated with pregnancy associated immune modulations. We studied the fecal microbiota composition (MITchip) and intestinal and peripheral immune cells (microarray and flow cytometry) in pregnant and non-pregnant C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice...
July 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
María Callejo, Gema Mondejar-Parreño, Bianca Barreira, José L Izquierdo-Garcia, Daniel Morales-Cano, Sergio Esquivel-Ruiz, Laura Moreno, Ángel Cogolludo, Juan Duarte, Francisco Perez-Vizcaino
We have analysed whether pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) alters the rat faecal microbiota. Wistar rats were injected with the VEGF receptor antagonist SU5416 (20 mg/kg s.c.) and followed for 2 weeks kept in hypoxia (10% O2 , PAH) or injected with vehicle and kept in normoxia (controls). Faecal samples were obtained and microbiome composition was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. No effect of PAH on the global microbiome was found (α- or β-diversity). However, PAH-exposed rats showed gut dysbiosis as indicated by a taxonomy-based analysis...
June 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Patricia L Brubaker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2018: Endocrinology
A Janet Tomiyama
Many pathways connect stress and obesity, two highly prevalent problems facing society today. First, stress interferes with cognitive processes such as executive function and self-regulation. Second, stress can affect behavior by inducing overeating and consumption of foods that are high in calories, fat, or sugar; by decreasing physical activity; and by shortening sleep. Third, stress triggers physiological changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, reward processing in the brain, and possibly the gut microbiome...
June 21, 2018: Annual Review of Psychology
Melanie R Nicol, Joseph A Corbino, Mackenzie L Cottrell
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is a powerful tool that, as part of a comprehensive prevention package, has potential to significantly impact the HIV epidemic. PrEP effectiveness is believed to be dependent on the exposure and efficacy of antiretrovirals at the site of HIV transmission. Clinical trial results as well as modeling and simulation indicate the threshold of adherence required for PrEP efficacy of emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate may differ between sites of HIV transmission with less forgiveness for missed doses in women exposed through genital tissue compared to people exposed through colorectal tissue...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Tzu-Wen L Cross, Kazuyuki Kasahara, Federico E Rey
BACKGROUND: Sex is one of the most powerful modifiers of disease development. Clear sexual dimorphism exists in cardiometabolic health susceptibility, likely due to differences in sex steroid hormones. Changes in the gut microbiome have been linked with the development of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis; however, the impact of microbes in sex-biased cardiometabolic disorders remains unclear. The gut microbiome is critical for maintaining a normal estrous cycle, testosterone levels, and reproductive function...
September 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Carla R Taddei, Ramon V Cortez, Rosiane Mattar, Maria Regina Torloni, Silvia Daher
This review summarizes recent findings on the changes that occur during pregnancy in the composition of the vaginal and gut microbiome and their association with metabolic, hormonal, and immunological factors. Despite many studies on the topic, the vaginal and gut microbial profiles and their influence on the course of pregnancy are still unclear. We present data suggesting that, contrary to traditional understanding, the placenta is not sterile but has a microbial community. We review and discuss new findings on changes in the richness and diversity of the microbiota of pregnant women with term or preterm births, obesity, and gestational diabetes mellitus...
June 6, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Lisa Rizzetto, Francesca Fava, Kieran M Tuohy, Carlo Selmi
Unresolved low grade systemic inflammation represents the underlying pathological mechanism driving immune and metabolic pathways involved in autoimmune diseases (AID). Mechanistic studies in animal models of AID and observational studies in patients have found alterations in gut microbiota communities and their metabolites, suggesting a microbial contribution to the onset or progression of AID. The gut microbiota and its metabolites have been shown to influence immune functions and immune homeostasis both within the gut and systematically...
August 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Kristina I Rother, Ellen M Conway, Allison C Sylvetsky
Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNSs) elicit a multitude of endocrine effects in vitro, in animal models, and in humans. The best-characterized consequences of NNS exposure are metabolic changes, which may be mediated by activation of sweet taste receptors in oral and extraoral tissues (e.g., intestine, pancreatic β cells, and brain), and alterations of the gut microbiome. These mechanisms are likely synergistic and may differ across species and chemically distinct NNSs. However, the extent to which these hormonal effects are clinically relevant in the context of human consumption is unclear...
July 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Loqmane Seridi, Gregory C Leo, G Lynis Dohm, Walter J Pories, James Lenhard
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective way to lose weight and reverse type 2 diabetes. We profiled the metabolome of 18 obese patients (nine euglycemic and nine diabetics) that underwent RYGB surgery and seven lean subjects. Plasma samples from the obese patients were collected before the surgery and one week and three months after the surgery. We analyzed the metabolome in association to five hormones (Adiponectin, Insulin, Ghrelin, Leptin, and Resistin), four peptide hormones (GIP, Glucagon, GLP1, and PYY), and two cytokines (IL-6 and TNF)...
2018: PloS One
Hannah S Rackers, Stephanie Thomas, Kelsey Williamson, Rachael Posey, Mary C Kimmel
Perinatal Mood and Anxiety Disorders (PMAD) are common and can cause significant morbidity and mortality for mother and child. A healthy perinatal period requires significant adaptations; however, systems can become imbalanced resulting in depressive and anxiety symptoms. The interface between the microbiome, the immune system, and the stress system may be a model for understanding mechanisms underlying PMAD. Emerging literature from general populations regarding immune, hormone, and HPA axis changes in relation to the microbiome combined with literature on immune, gonadotropin, and stress systems in the perinatal period provides a background...
May 17, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
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