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browning or beige

Mark Christian
Brown adipocytes are the key cell type in brown adipose tissue (BAT) that express the genes required for heat production through the process of thermogenesis. Brown adipocyte cell culture models are important for researching the molecular pathways that control cell autonomous processes. In vitro tools for the study of brown adipocytes include BAT explant cultures and BAT primary cultures that are first proliferated and then differentiated. A number of stable brown preadipocyte cell lines have been generated by the expression transforming factors such as SV40 T antigen...
October 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Linhong Teng, Xiao Fan, David R Nelson, Wentao Han, Xiaowen Zhang, Dong Xu, Hugues Renault, Gabriel V Markov, Naihao Ye
Comparative genomic analysis of cytochromes P450 revealed high diversification and dynamic changes in stramenopiles, associated with transcriptional responsiveness to various environmental stimuli. Comparative genomic and molecular evolution approaches were used to characterize cytochromes P450 (P450) diversity in stramenopiles. Phylogenetic analysis pointed to a high diversity of P450 in stramenopiles and identified three major clans. The CYP51 and CYP97 clans were present in brown algae, diatoms and Nannochloropsis gaditana, whereas the CYP5014 clan mainly includes oomycetes...
October 19, 2018: Planta
Christina M Davy, Michael E Donaldson, Sonu Subudhi, Noreen Rapin, Lisa Warnecke, James M Turner, Trent K Bollinger, Christopher J Kyle, Nicole A S-Y Dorville, Emma L Kunkel, Kaleigh J O Norquay, Yvonne A Dzal, Craig K R Willis, Vikram Misra
Spillover of viruses from bats to other animals may be associated with increased contact between them, as well as increased shedding of viruses by bats. Here, we tested the prediction that little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus) co-infected with the M. lucifugus coronavirus (Myl-CoV) and with Pseudogymnoascus destructans (Pd), the fungus that causes bat white-nose syndrome (WNS), exhibit different disease severity, viral shedding and molecular responses than bats infected with only Myl-CoV or only P. destructans...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ngee Kiat Chua, Andrew J Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
John D Reveille, Xiaodong Zhou, MinJae Lee, Michael H Weisman, Lin Yi, Lianne S Gensler, Hejian Zou, Michael M Ward, Mariko L Ishimori, Thomas J Learch, Dongyi He, Mohammad H Rahbar, Jiucun Wang, Matthew A Brown
OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of HLA class I and class II alleles with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in three cohorts of patients of European, Asian and African ancestry. METHODS: HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DPB1 alleles were genotyped in 1948 unrelated white and 67 African-American patients with AS from the Prospective Study of Outcomes in Ankylosing Spondylitis cohort, the North American Spondylitis Consortium and Australo-Anglo-American Spondyloarthritis Consortium, 990 white and 245 African-American Controls and HLA-B alleles in 442 Han Chinese patients with AS and 346 controls from Shanghai and Gansu, China...
October 19, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Volatiana Rakotoarivelo, Gregory Lacraz, Marian Mayhue, Christine Brown, Diane Rottembourg, Julie Fradette, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Alfredo Menendez, Marie-France Langlois, Sheela Ramanathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 2018: EBioMedicine
Monica W Rose, Susan Newman, Courtney Brown
PURPOSE: The purpose of this integrative review was to synthesize and critique the literature related to protocols, checklists, and tools designed to facilitate information transfers, that is, handovers, from the operating room to postanesthesia care unit clinicians and to provide guidance for selecting an appropriate instrument. DESIGN: Integrative review of the literature. METHODS: Guided by the framework of Whittemore and Knafl, an integrative literature search was conducted and included literature sources dated January 2000 to January 2015...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Perianesthesia Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses
Ann Quinlan-Colwell, Kathleen Broglio, Diana Rae, Debra J Drew, Carolyn C Brown, Kimberly Fetty
BACKGROUND: A task force of members of the American Society for Pain Management Nursing (ASPMN) authored a position paper "Prescribing and Administering Opioid Doses Based Solely on Pain Intensity." Some of the authors of this ASPMN position paper presented a concurrent session at the September 2016 ASPMN National Conference discussing the content of the position paper. As a follow-up, the authors designed a research study to identify the impact of the position statement in facilitating change in institutional practice of dosing analgesics based solely on pain intensity...
October 16, 2018: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
Kyle J Foreman, Neal Marquez, Andrew Dolgert, Kai Fukutaki, Nancy Fullman, Madeline McGaughey, Martin A Pletcher, Amanda E Smith, Kendrick Tang, Chun-Wei Yuan, Jonathan C Brown, Joseph Friedman, Jiawei He, Kyle R Heuton, Mollie Holmberg, Disha J Patel, Patrick Reidy, Austin Carter, Kelly Cercy, Abigail Chapin, Dirk Douwes-Schultz, Tahvi Frank, Falko Goettsch, Patrick Y Liu, Vishnu Nandakumar, Marissa B Reitsma, Vince Reuter, Nafis Sadat, Reed J D Sorensen, Vinay Srinivasan, Rachel L Updike, Hunter York, Alan D Lopez, Rafael Lozano, Stephen S Lim, Ali H Mokdad, Stein Emil Vollset, Christopher J L Murray
BACKGROUND: Understanding potential trajectories in health and drivers of health is crucial to guiding long-term investments and policy implementation. Past work on forecasting has provided an incomplete landscape of future health scenarios, highlighting a need for a more robust modelling platform from which policy options and potential health trajectories can be assessed. This study provides a novel approach to modelling life expectancy, all-cause mortality and cause of death forecasts -and alternative future scenarios-for 250 causes of death from 2016 to 2040 in 195 countries and territories...
October 16, 2018: Lancet
Wenjun Hu, Zeyuan Ru, Wen Xiao, Zhiyong Xiong, Cheng Wang, Changfei Yuan, Xiaoping Zhang, Hongmei Yang
Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a disorder characterized by unintended weight loss due to skeletal muscle wasting and adipose tissue loss. Although muscle atrophy in this condition has been well studied, the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue loss, which include browning, have not been investigated in detail. In this respect, though recent studies have shown that exosomes from cancer cells can promote lipolysis, the link between exosomes from cancer cells and CAC has not been clearly established. In this study, we investigate if exosomes from Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells can induce lipolysis in vitro (in 3T3-L1 adipocytes) and in vivo (in LLC tumor-bearing mice)...
October 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yan-Mei Wang, Hong-Xia Liu, Ning-Yuan Fang
Browning of white adipose tissue is a novel mechanism to counteract obesity in view of its thermogenic activity. Activation of G-protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) can promote the browning of white fat. 9-PAHSA, an endogenous mammalian lipid, which is acting as the ligand of GPR120 to enhance glucose uptake and exert anti-inflammatory effect. In the study, we would like to investigate the biological effects of 9-PAHSA on adipocyte browning. Here, we show that 9-PAHSA induces browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes via enhanced expression of brown fat specific genes...
October 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Takeshi Yoneshiro, Ryuji Kaede, Kazuki Nagaya, Manami Saito, Julia Aoyama, Mohamed Elfeky, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Kazuhiro Kimura, Akira Terao
Dietary supplementation with melinjo (Gnetum gnemon L.) seed extract (MSE) has been proposed as an anti-obesity strategy. However, it remains unclear how MSE modulates energy balance. We tested the hypothesis that dietary MSE reduces energy intake and/or increases physical activity and metabolic thermogenesis in brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT) in mice. Twenty-four C57BL/6 J mice were provided with normal diet, high-fat diet (HFD), or HFD with 1% MSE added, for 17 weeks. Food intake, spontaneous locomotor activity, hepatic triglyceride (TG) content, and blood parameters were examined...
October 2018: Nutrition Research
Claudia Martinez, Rishi Rikhi, Tahir Haque, Amara Fazal, Michael Kolber, Barry E Hurwitz, Neil Schneiderman, Todd T Brown
Transgender individuals represent a medically underserved and under researched population. There is a growing number of studies illustrating the importance of hormone therapy treatments in transgender men and women to assist ameliorating gender dysphoria and promoting well-being. However, the cardiovascular effects of these hormones are controversial. Large longitudinal epidemiological studies of cardiovascular event outcomes in these populations do not exist. In addition, studies of cardiovascular complications of transgender hormone therapy are limited in number and complicated by poor control of medication regimen, presence of gender confirming surgery, use of prescribed medications for prevailing conditions, and alcohol, smoking or illicit substance use, and comorbidities, such as HIV infection...
September 20, 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
Jacob A Evans, Thomas J E Clark, Kai Wang, Erin M Shriver
OBJECTIVE: To introduce "iris show," the amount of visible iris tissue between the superior pupil border and the upper eyelid margin, to evaluate the effect of iris show on perceived upper eyelid height, and to discuss potential nonsurgical treatment options for mild blepharoptosis. METHODS: Participants completed a survey containing 4 subject photographs. These photographs depicted images of varying iris colouration (blue, green, light brown, and dark brown) with identical upper eyelid marginal reflex distance (MRD1) values, but asymmetric pupil size/amount of visible iris show...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Ian D Maidment, Sarah Damery, Niyah Campbell, Nichola Seare, Chris Fox, Steve Iliffe, Andrea Hilton, Graeme Brown, Nigel Barnes, Jane Wilcock, Emma Randle, Sarah Gillespie, Garry Barton, Rachel Shaw
BACKGROUND: "Behaviour that Challenges" is common in people living with dementia, resident in care homes and historically has been treated with anti-psychotics. However, such usage is associated with 1800 potentially avoidable deaths annually in the UK. This study investigated the feasibility of a full clinical trial of a specialist dementia care pharmacist medication review combined with a health psychology intervention for care staff to limit the use of psychotropics. This paper focuses on feasibility; including recruitment and retention, implementation of medication change recommendations and the experiences and expectations of care staff...
October 19, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Catalina Filote, Irina Volf, Sílvia C R Santos, Cidália M S Botelho
In the context of developing the circular economy that enables a more sustainable use of the available resources and minimum waste generation, marine macroalgae have attracted the attention of researchers and industry due to its potential as a renewable resource. The current work aims to contribute to the design of a complete biorefinery processing, using Fucus spiralis seaweed (brown division) as starting material, and to determine the potential of the derived waste as biosorbent of heavy metals in aqueous solution...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Stewart Farling, Tate Rogers, Jackie S Knee, Elizabeth A Tilley, Joe Brown, Marc A Deshusses
Pit latrines are the most common sanitation option in the developing world. They are simple to build but require periodic emptying which results in widespread dispersion of fecal pathogens in the environment. While much is known about the health risks of fecal-oral exposure, little is known about those resulting from the aerosolization of pathogens from fecal material. Bioaerosols were sampled around seven pit latrines before, after, and during emptying in Blantyre, Malawi. Bioaerosols were collected directly onto nutrient and selective medium agar plates using an impact sampler...
January 15, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Philip Brown, Adam Daigneault, Joshua Dawson
Governments such as New Zealand's seek to raise the value of agricultural exports while concurrently protecting the natural environment. Therefore, farmers are encouraged to increase production while reducing environmental impacts. In this paper, we analyse the relationship between age and farmer values, farming objectives, past management decisions, and future intentions, all of which may impact the environment. Using multivariate regression that controls for gender, education, industry, and region, we find that older farmers are more risk averse, less willing to experiment, less likely to be influenced by social expectations, and more focused on financial performance...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
J Sedlakova-Kadukova, A Kopcakova, L Gresakova, A Godany, P Pristas
Zinc biosorption and bioaccumulation by a novel extremely Zn tolerant Streptomyces K11 strain isolated from highly alkaline environment were examined. Temperature, similarly as biosorbent preparation, has negligible effect on the biosorption capacity but very strong effect on the process kinetics. Initial adsorption rate increased almost 10 times with the temperature increase from 10 to 50 °C and it was 30 times higher when non-dried biomass was used. The biosorption study revealed that the process was mainly chemically controlled, however at lower temperature intra-particle diffusion played significant role in the zinc biosorption...
October 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Matthew Shane Loop, Melissa K Van Dyke, Ligong Chen, Monika M Safford, Meredith L Kilgore, Todd M Brown, Raegan W Durant, Emily B Levitan
BACKGROUND: The evidence-based beta blockers carvedilol, bisoprolol, and metoprolol succinate reduce mortality and hospitalizations among patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Use of these medications is not well-described in the general population of patients with HFrEF, especially among patients with potential contraindications. OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to describe the patterns of prescription fills for carvedilol, bisoprolol, and metoprolol succinate among Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for HFrEF, as well as estimate the associations between specific contraindications for beta blocker therapy and these patterns...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
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