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Anne-Sofie Ravn Ballegaard, Charlotte Bernhard Madsen, Katrine Lindholm Bøgh
BACKGROUND: Allergic sensitisation to foods may occur in infancy without prior oral exposure to the offending food, leading to the assumption that food allergy sensitisation may occur through the skin. Concerns have been raised regarding the safety of use of personal care products containing hydrolysed wheat proteins, since these products have been shown to induce allergy through the skin, and even cause an abrogation of an already established oral tolerance. OBJECTIVE: To establish an animal model for food allergy skin sensitisation and compare the sensitising capacity of an unmodified and an acid-hydrolysed gluten product via slightly damaged skin in naïve versus tolerant rats...
December 5, 2018: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
Anton S Petrov, Elizabeth C Wood, Chad R Bernier, Ashlyn M Norris, Alan Brown, A Amunts
Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) are essential components of all mitochondria that synthesize proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome. Unlike other ribosomes, mitoribosomes are highly variable across species. The basis for this diversity is not known. Here, we examine the composition and evolutionary history of mitoribosomes across the phylogenetic tree by combining three-dimensional structural information with a comparative analysis of the secondary structures of mitochondrial rRNAs (mt-rRNAs) and available proteomic data...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Magali Rios-Leyvraz, Pascal Bovet, René Tabin, Bernard Genin, Michel Russo, Michel F Rossier, Murielle Bochud, Arnaud Chiolero
Background: The gold standard to assess salt intake is 24-h urine collections. Use of a urine spot sample can be a simpler alternative, especially when the goal is to assess sodium intake at the population level. Several equations to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from urine spot samples have been tested in adults, but not in children. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the ability of several equations and urine spot samples to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion in children...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Eric Z Herring, John H Shin, Sean J Nagel, Ajit A Krishnaney
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic ventral thoracic spinal cord herniation is a rare condition that usually presents with progressive myelopathy or Brown-Séquard syndrome. More than 100 cases have been reported with significant variance in surgical treatment strategies and likewise, significant variance in patient outcomes. Although laminectomy has often been used, to date, there is no consensus regarding the optimal surgical approach or strategy for ventral dural repair. OBJECTIVE: To report and illustrate a novel approach to repair the ventral dural defect with more than 2 yr of clinical follow-up...
December 4, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Max Moura de Oliveira, Isis Eloah Machado, Rogério Ruscito Prado, Sheila Rizzato Stopa, Claudio Dutra Crespo, Ada Ávila Assunção
Health self-assessment (HSA) is a widely studied indicator among adults and the elderly, but not often explored in adolescents. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of poor self-rated health in Brazilian schoolchildren and associated factors. Data from the 2015 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) were analyzed; prevalences and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated for poor self-rated health and associated factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed...
November 29, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
Jakub Suchánek, Klara Zoe Browne, Sherine Adel Nasry, Tereza Suchánková Kleplová, Nela Pilbauerová, Jan Schmidt, Tomáš Soukup
Recently, human natal dental pulp stem cells (hNDP-SCs) have been characterized in vitro and it has been shown that they satisfy criteria defining human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), as proposed by the International Society for Cellular Therapy. However, these results were reached in the presence of xenogeneic expansion medium, which has the potential to alter the cells' functional capacity. To determine the validity of the previously reported hNDP-SCs characteristics for human cell therapy, we have cultured hNDP-SCs in allogeneic expansion medium...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Alana Santos Monte, Liana Mara Rocha Teles, Mônica Oliveira Batista Oriá, Francisco Herlânio Costa Carvalho, Helen Brown, Ana Kelve de Castro Damasceno
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of different criteria of maternal near miss in women admitted to an obstetric intensive care unit and their sensitivity and specificity in identifying cases that have evolved to morbidity. METHOD: A cross-sectional analytical epidemiological study was conducted with women admitted to the intensive care unit of the Maternity School Assis Chateaubriand in Ceará, Brazil. The Chi-square test and odds ratio were used...
November 29, 2018: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
Hanspeter Stalder, Claudia Bachofen, Matthias Schweizer, Reto Zanoni, Dominik Sauerländer, Ernst Peterhans
The first records of smallpox and rabies date back thousands of years and foot-and-mouth disease in cattle was described in the 16th century. These diseases stood out by their distinct signs, dramatic way of transmission from rabid dogs to humans, and sudden appearance in cattle herds. By contrast, infectious diseases that show variable signs and affect few individuals were identified only much later. Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD), endemic in cattle worldwide, was first described in 1946, together with the eponymous RNA virus as its cause...
2018: PloS One
Alexandra Serebryakova, Tania Aires, Frédérique Viard, Ester A Serrão, Aschwin H Engelen
Seaweed-associated microbiota experience spatial and temporal shifts in response to changing environmental conditions and seaweed physiology. These shifts may result in structural, functional and behavioral changes in the host with potential consequences for its fitness. They, thus, may help the host to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The current knowledge of seasonal variation of seaweed-associated microbiota is however still limited. In this study, we explored temporal and spatial variation of microbial communities associated with the invasive brown seaweed S...
2018: PloS One
Michele Alves-Bezerra, Yingxia Li, Mariana Acuña, Anna A Ivanova, Kathleen E Corey, Eric A Ortlund, David E Cohen
In non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), triglycerides accumulate within the liver because the rates of fatty acid accrual by uptake from plasma and de novo synthesis exceed elimination by mitochondrial oxidation and secretion as VLDL-triglycerides. Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (Them2) is an acyl-CoA thioesterase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fatty acyl-CoAs into free fatty acids plus CoASH. Them2 is highly expressed in the liver, as well as other oxidative tissues. Mice globally lacking Them2 are resistant to diet-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis, and exhibit improved glucose homeostasis...
December 5, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Linan Zhang, Jinku Li, Hao Wu, Yingxia Li
Saccharina japonica undergoes an alternating life cycle during which the diploid sporophyte generation alternates with the monoploid gametophyte generation. Saccharina japonica uses the UV sex determination system to determine the sex of its haploid gametophytes. However, the sex-determining genes and the sex-determining mechanisms of kelp gametophytes have not been thoroughly elucidated to date. In this study, a kelp HMG-box-containing gene (SjHMG), which is located within the sex determination region (SDR) of S...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Srinivas Balachander, Prabhath Gujjadi Kodancha, Shyam Sundar Arumugham, Jaisoorya T Sekharan, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Y C Janardhan Reddy
BACKGROUND: Despite its favorable pharmacological profile and efficacy in major depression and anxiety disorders, evidence for the use of venlafaxine in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is limited. We sought to examine the real-world effectiveness of venlafaxine from a large database of an OCD clinic in India. METHODS: A total of 1704 consecutive patients who registered at the OCD clinic between June 2014 and December 2016 were evaluated with structured interviews and scales...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
David Magee, Sabina Bachtold, Matthew Brown, Paul Farquhar-Smith
Increasing numbers of those living with and beyond cancer presents a clinical challenge for pain specialists. A large proportion of these patients experience pain secondary to their disease or its treatment, impeding rehabilitation and significantly impacting upon their quality of life. The successful management of this pain presents a considerable challenge. This review aims to outline current concepts and treatment options, while considering nuances within pain assessment and the use of large-scale data to help guide further advances...
December 5, 2018: Pain Management
Peng He, Guang-Lei Chen, Shuo Li, Jun Wang, Yun-Feng Ma, Yu-Feng Pan, Ming He
BACKGROUND: The white-backed planthopper (WBPH) Sogatella furcifera, the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and the small brown planthopper (SBPH) Laodelphax striatellus are three notorious rice pests that cause annual losses in rice yield through sap-sucking and virus transmission. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are crucial olfactory genes involved in host-seeking behavior. RESULTS: We discovered the presence of 12, 12, and 16 OBPs in WBPH, BPH, and SBPH, respectively, including two novel OBPs in BPH and seven novel OBPs in SBPH...
December 4, 2018: Pest Management Science
Jeffery A McGarvey, Thao Tran, Ruyang Han, Robert Hnasko, Patrick Brown
AIMS: To describe the effects of foliar fertilizer application on the bacterial populations of almond tree leaves. METHODS AND RESULTS: We applied a commercially available foliar fertilizer or a water control onto the leaves of almond trees and collected leaves after 1, 7, 14 and 56 days and examined their bacterial populations by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. After 1 day, we observed significant differences in 3 of the 4 predominant bacterial phyla, and 5 of the 13 predominant bacterial families...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Diane K Brown, Sue Fosnight, Maureen Whitford, Susan Hazelett, Colleen Mcquown, Jenifer C Drost, Denise J Kropp, Cynthia A Hovland, Joan E Niederriter, Rikki Patton, Abigail Morgan, Eileen Fleming, Richard P Steiner, Edward Demond Scott, Fabiana Ortiz-Figueroa
Background: One in three people over the age of 65 fall every year, with 1/3 sustaining at least moderate injury. Falls risk reduction requires an interprofessional health team approach. The literature is lacking in effective models to teach students how to work collaboratively in interprofessional teams for geriatric falls prevention. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, administration and outcome measures of an education programme to teach principles of interprofessional care for older adults in the context of falls prevention...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
Katherine Adlington, Juliette Brown, Laura Ralph, Alan Clarke, Tim Bhoyroo, Michael Henderson, Farai Boora, Marco Aurelio, Waleed Fawzi
Background: Length of stay and bed occupancy are important indicators of quality of care. Admissions are longer on older adult psychiatric wards as a result of physical comorbidity and complex care needs. The recommended bed occupancy is 85%; levels of 95% or higher are associated with violent incidents on inpatient wards. Methods: We aimed to reduce length of stay and bed occupancy on Leadenhall ward, a functional older adult psychiatric ward serving a population of just under 40 000 older adults in two of the most deprived areas of the UK...
2018: BMJ Open Quality
Olaolu T Olufemi, Danjuma B Dantala, Paul A Shinggu, Umesi A Dike, Gbeminiyi R Otolorin, Jivini A Nwuku, Eyiojo B T Baba-Onoja, Tenmuso D Jatau, Francis I Amama
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Wukari, Taraba state, Nigeria, to determine the prevalence of Brucella antibodies and the risk factors associated with brucellosis in indigenous breeds of goats. A total of 386 goats were sampled from three political wards: Puje, Avyi, and Hospital: harvested sera samples were subjected to Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT). GraphPad Prism version 7.03 for Windows (GraphPad Software, La Jolla California, USA) was used to analyse the association between seroprevalence of brucellosis and age, sex, breed, location, and management system by using Chi square and Fisher's exact test as appropriate...
2018: Journal of Pathogens
Sarah E Jackson, Lion Shahab, Robert West, Jamie Brown
OBJECTIVES: Roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes have become popular in the UK and reduce the cost of smoking, potentially mitigating the impact of tax increases on quitting. We examined whether RYO cigarette use was associated with reduced motivation to quit smoking, incidence of quit attempts and quit success. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: England. PARTICIPANTS: 38 590 adults who reported currently smoking or having stopped within the past 12 months...
December 4, 2018: BMJ Open
Amy Switzer, Daniel R Brown, Sivaramesh Wigneshweraraj
Bacterial adaptive responses to biotic and abiotic stresses often involve large-scale reprogramming of the transcriptome. Since nitrogen is an essential component of the bacterial cell, the transcriptional basis of the adaptive response to nitrogen starvation has been well studied. The adaptive response to N starvation in Escherichia coli is primarily a 'scavenging response', which results in the transcription of genes required for the transport and catabolism of nitrogenous compounds. However, recent genome-scale studies have begun to uncover and expand some of the intricate regulatory complexities that underpin the adaptive transcriptional response to nitrogen starvation in E...
December 4, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
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