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Ruth Martis, Caroline A Crowther, Emily Shepherd, Jane Alsweiler, Michelle R Downie, Julie Brown
BACKGROUND: Successful treatments for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have the potential to improve health outcomes for women with GDM and their babies. OBJECTIVES: To provide a comprehensive synthesis of evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews of the benefits and harms associated with interventions for treating GDM on women and their babies. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5 January 2018) for reviews of treatment/management for women with GDM...
August 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Yanlong Guo, Xin Li, Zefang Zhao, Zain Nawaz
Polyporus umbellatus is a fungus that has been used medically as a diuretic for thousands of years in China. To evaluate the impacts of climatic change on the distribution of P. umbellatus, we selected the annual mean air temperature, isothermality, minimum temperature of the coldest month, annual temperature range, annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality and used observations from the 2000s and simulated values from two future periods (2041 to 2060 and 2061 to 2080) to build an ensemble model (EM); then, we developed a comprehensive habitat suitability model by integrating soil and vegetation conditions into the EM to assess the distribution of suitable P...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Bridget E Shields, Misha Rosenbach, Zoe Brown-Joel, Anthony Berger, Bradley A Ford, Karolyn A Wanat
Angioinvasive fungal infections cause significant morbidity and mortality due to their propensity to invade blood vessel walls, resulting in catastrophic tissue ischemia, infarct, and necrosis. While occasionally seen in immunocompetent hosts, opportunistic fungi are emerging in immunosuppressed hosts, including patients with hematologic malignancy, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), organ transplant, and poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. The widespread use of antifungal prophylaxis has led to an "arms race" of emerging fungal resistance patterns...
August 10, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Anthony P Berger, Bradley A Ford, Zoe Brown-Joel, Bridget E Shields, Misha Rosenbach, Karolyn A Wanat
As discussed in Part I, angioinvasive fungal infections pose a significant risk to immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients alike,1 with potential for severe morbidity and high mortality. Part I of this CME focused on the epidemiology and clinical presentation of these infections; Part II will discuss diagnosis, management, and potential complications of these infections. The mainstay diagnostic tests (positive tissue culture with histologic confirmation) are often supplemented with serum biomarker assays and molecular testing (e...
August 10, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Joel T Fuller, Dominic Thewlis, Margarita D Tsiros, Nicholas A T Brown, Joseph Hamill, Jonathan D Buckley
This study investigated whether male runners improve running performance, running economy, ankle plantar flexor strength, and alter running biomechanics and lower limb bone mineral density when gradually transitioning to using minimalist shoes for 100% of weekly running. The study was a planned follow-up of runners (n = 50) who transitioned to minimalist or conventional shoes for 35% of weekly structured training in a previous 6-week randomised controlled trial. In that trial, running performance and economy improved more with minimalist shoes than conventional shoes...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Jennifer Rode, Karen Brown
BACKGROUND: Understanding what factors contribute to NCLEX-RN success is critical to nursing programs. Emotional intelligence is one factor that warrants investigation. PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to examine emotional intelligence, measured via the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test 2.0, to 2 standardized measures of nursing student performance: the Kaplan Nursing Assessment Test (NAT) and NCLEX-RN success. METHODS: A descriptive, cohort design with 2 data collections times points (n = 53) evaluated the contribution of emotional intelligence to NAT and to NCLEX-RN success, while controlling for age...
August 11, 2018: Nurse Educator
Elizabeth K Potter, Luke Hodgson, Ben Creagh-Brown, Lui G Forni
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. Disturbed microvascular blood flow is associated with excess mortality and is a potential future target for interventions. This review addresses the evidence for pharmacological manipulation of the microcirculation in sepsis assessed by techniques that evaluate the sublingual microvasculature. METHODS: Systematic review using a published protocol. Eligibility criteria were studies of septic patients published from Jan 2000 - February 2018...
August 10, 2018: Shock
Mya Sherman, Hannah Covert, Lisanne Brown, Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Tonya Hansel, Timothy Rehner, Ayanna Buckner, Maureen Lichtveld
Standard evaluation practice in public health remains limited to evaluative measures linked to individual projects, even if multiple interrelated projects are working toward a common impact. Enterprise evaluation seeks to fill this policy gap by focusing on cross-sector coordination and ongoing reflection in evaluation. We provide an overview of the enterprise evaluation framework and its 3 stages: collective creation, individual data collection, and collective analysis. We illustrate the application of enterprise evaluation to the Gulf Region Health Outreach Program, 4 integrated projects that aimed to strengthen health care in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida Panhandle after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Arnon D Lieber, Ulf H Beier, Haiyan Xiao, Benjamin J Wilkins, Jing Jiao, Xinmin S Li, Rebecca C Schugar, Christopher M Strauch, Zeneng Wang, J Mark Brown, Stanley L Hazen, Nicholas A Bokulich, Kelly V Ruggles, Tatiana Akimova, Wayne W Hancock, Martin J Blaser
Alterations in gut microbiota are known to affect intestinal inflammation and obesity. Antibiotic treatment can affect weight gain by elimination of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor-producing microbes, which are anti-inflammatory by augmenting regulatory T (Treg ) cells. We asked whether mice that lack HDAC6 and have potent suppressive Treg cells are protected from microbiota-induced accelerated weight gain. We crossed wild-type and HDAC6-deficient mice and subjected the offspring to perinatal penicillin, inducing weight gain via microbiota disturbance...
August 13, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Joanna G Escalon, Lorna P Browne, Tami J Bang, Carlos S Restrepo, Daniel Ocazionez, Daniel Vargas
Congenital pulmonary artery anomalies represent a diverse group of abnormalities, ranging from asymptomatic incidental findings to causes of sudden cardiac death. While some may be recognized in childhood, others may be found incidentally in adulthood. We review the clinical and imaging findings in patients with congenital anomalies of the pulmonary arteries, including valvular and perivavular anomalies as well as abnormal narrowing, course and communications of the pulmonary arteries. We also discuss the role of various imaging modalities in the evaluation of these patients...
August 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Rebekah Liffman, Thurid Johnstone, Brett Tennent-Brown, Graham Hepworth, Natalie Courtman
BACKGROUND: The reference intervals (RIs) for the renal biomarkers urea and creatinine, in Greyhounds, are higher than those for non-sighthound breeds. A recent study has demonstrated a higher concentration of another biomarker of renal function, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), in Greyhounds compared with other dog breeds, and thus a breed-specific RI for serum SDMA may be appropriate for Greyhounds. Greyhounds appear to be predisposed to renal disease, and the establishment of an appropriate RI for SDMA may improve the ability to identify early renal dysfunction in this breed...
August 13, 2018: Veterinary Clinical Pathology
Benjamin K Watkins, Victor Tkachev, Scott N Furlan, Daniel J Hunt, Kayla Betz, Alison Yu, Melanie Brown, Nicolas Poirier, Hengqi Betty Zheng, Agne Taraseviciute, Lucrezia Colonna, Caroline Mary, Gilles Blancho, Jean-Paul Soulillou, Angela Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Prachi Sharma, Anapatricia Garcia, Elizabeth Strobert, Kelly Hamby, Aneesah Garrett, Taylor Deane, Bruce R Blazar, Bernard Vanhove, Leslie S Kean
Controlling graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major unmet need in stem cell transplantation, and new, targeted therapies are being actively developed. CD28-CD80/86 costimulation blockade represents a promising strategy, but targeting CD80/CD86 with CTLA4-Ig may be associated with undesired blockade of coinhibitory pathways. In contrast, targeted blockade of CD28 exclusively inhibits T cell costimulation and may more potently prevent GVHD. Here, we investigated FR104, an antagonistic CD28-specific pegylated-Fab', in the nonhuman primate (NHP) GVHD model and completed a multiparameter interrogation comparing it with CTLA4-Ig, with and without sirolimus, including clinical, histopathologic, flow cytometric, and transcriptomic analyses...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
A Crimp, N Brown, A Shilton
Microalgae commonly found in waste stabilization ponds (WSPs) are able to accumulate elevated phosphorus levels within their cells in a process known as luxury uptake. However, there are few studies focused on luxury uptake in full scale WSPs. In order to comprehensively quantify the occurrence of this phenomenon, eight different WSP sites comprising seven primary facultative, six maturation and two high rate algal ponds (HRAPs) spread over several climatic regions were monitored over four seasons. Of the 15 ponds studied, 13 of these exhibited elevated levels of biomass phosphorus content at some point; however, the occurrence in HRAPs was limited...
August 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Shivani Verma, Puneet Utreja
BACKGROUND: Transdermal drug delivery is an attractive approach for both local and systemic therapeutics of various diseases. Transdermal drug delivery systems show various advantages like reduction of local irritation, prevention of first pass hepatic metabolism, and bioavailability enhancement of bioactive molecules over conventional drug delivery systems. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the present research work was to develop and characterize (in-vitro and ex-vivo) econazole nitrate loaded transethosomes and their comparison with marketed cream of econazole nitrate [Ecoderm, Brown and Burk Pharmaceutical (Pvt...
August 13, 2018: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
Matthew A Sellwood, Mohamed Ahmed, Marwin Hs Segler, Nathan Brown
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 13, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
G Kalayci, R C Ozturk, E Capkin, I Altinok
We tested for reproductive isolation between Salmo trutta abanticus, S.t. labrax, S.t. caspius and S.t. fario by conducting crosses to produce F1 and F2 offspring. We also estimated the extent of genetic divergence between all three entities by examining sequence variation across the coI, d-loop and cytb mitochondrial genes. All of the F1 cross-types were successfully produced. After 2 years of culturing, F2 generation were produced as well. Fertilization, hatching and survival rates and hatching performance of F1 and F2 generations were evaluated...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
Evangelia Zampeli, Haralampos M Moutsopoulos
A 46-year-old lady was referred to us for evaluation of possible psoriatic arthritis. Four weeks before she had developed psoriasiform lesions of the palms and soles as well as knee pain, while for the past two months she was also complaining of dysuria. Clinical examination revealed mild arthritis of the left knee and brown vesiculo-pustular waxy lesions of the palms (Figure 1A), soles and heels (Figure 1B), which fused together into crusty plaques on an erythematous base. This article is protected by copyright...
August 12, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Rachel Pope, Rodger H Brown, Chisomo Chalamanda, Larry H Hollier, Jeffrey P Wilkinson
Women in low-resource settings develop obstetric fistulas due to obstructed labor leading to incontinence and stigmatization. Most injuries are reparable; however, approximately 5% are not [1]. Due to multiple attempted repairs, scarring, small capacity bladders, and short or absent urethras, the only option is urinary diversion, which is fraught with complexities in low-resource settings [2]. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 12, 2018: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Cynthia R Johnson, Kimberly Brown, Susan L Hyman, Maria M Brooks, Courtney Aponte, Lynne Levato, Brianne Schmidt, Victoria Evans, Zhiguang Huo, Roxanna Bendixen, Heather Eng, Theresa Sax, Tristram Smith
Objective: Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have feeding and mealtime problems. To address these, we conducted a pilot randomized trial of a new 11-session, individually delivered parent training program that integrated behavioral strategies and nutritional guidance (PT-F). Methods: Forty-two young children (age: 2 to 7-11 years) with ASD and feeding problems were assigned to 11 sessions of PT-F intervention over 20 weeks or a waitlist control...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Jennifer Browne, Brian Coffey, Kay Cook, Sarah Meiklejohn, Claire Palermo
Policy analysis provides a way for understanding how and why governments enact certain policies, and their effects. Public health policy research is limited and lacks theoretical underpinnings. This article aims to describe and critique different approaches to policy analysis thus providing direction for undertaking policy analysis in the field of health promotion. Through the use of an illustrative example in nutrition it aims to illustrate the different approaches. Three broad orientations to policy analysis are outlined: (i) Traditional approaches aim to identify the 'best' solution, through undertaking objective analyses of possible solutions...
August 7, 2018: Health Promotion International
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