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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454178/caffeine-use-disorder-an-item-response-theory-analysis-of-proposed-dsm-5-criteria
#1
Csilla Ágoston, Róbert Urbán, Mara J Richman, Zsolt Demetrovics
INTRODUCTION: Caffeine is a common psychoactive substance with a documented addictive potential. Caffeine withdrawal has been included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), but caffeine use disorder (CUD) is considered to be a condition for further study. The aim of the current study is (1) to test the psychometric properties of the Caffeine Use Disorder Questionnaire (CUDQ) by using a confirmatory factor analysis and an item response theory (IRT) approach, (2) to compare IRT models with varying numbers of parameters and models with or without caffeine consumption criteria, and (3) to examine if the total daily caffeine consumption and the use of different caffeinated products can predict the magnitude of CUD symptomatology...
February 9, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454163/exacerbations-in-adults-with-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-external-validation-of-prediction-models
#2
Rik Jb Loymans, Thomas Pa Debray, Persijn J Honkoop, Evelien H Termeer, Jiska B Snoeck-Stroband, Tjard Rj Schermer, Willem Jj Assendelft, Merel Timp, Kian Fan Chung, Ana R Sousa, Jaap K Sont, Peter J Sterk, Helen K Reddel, Gerben Ter Riet
BACKGROUND: Several prediction models assessing future risk of exacerbations in adult patients with asthma have been published. Applicability of these models is uncertain because their predictive performance has often not been assessed beyond the population in which they were derived. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify and critically appraise prediction models for asthma exacerbations and validate them in two clinically distinct populations. METHODS: PubMed and EMBASE were searched to April 2017 for reports describing adult asthma populations in which multivariable models were constructed to predict exacerbations during any time frame...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454104/functional-brain-connectivity-is-predictable-from-anatomic-network-s-laplacian-eigen-structure
#3
Farras Abdelnour, Michael Dayan, Orrin Devinsky, Thomas Thesen, Ashish Raj
How structural connectivity (SC) gives rise to functional connectivity (FC) is not fully understood. Here we mathematically derive a simple relationship between SC measured from diffusion tensor imaging, and FC from resting state fMRI. We establish that SC and FC are related via (structural) Laplacian spectra, whereby FC and SC share eigenvectors and their eigenvalues are exponentially related. This gives, for the first time, a simple and analytical relationship between the graph spectra of structural and functional networks...
February 14, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454097/improving-sustained-drug-delivery-from-ophthalmic-lens-materials-through-the-control-of-temperature-and-time-of-loading
#4
Ana Topete, Andreia S Oliveira, A Fernandes, T G Nunes, A P Serro, B Saramago
Although the possibility of using drug-loaded ophthalmic lens to promote sustained drug release has been thoroughly pursued, there are still problems to be solved associated to the different alternatives. In this work, we went back to the traditional method of drug loading by soaking in the drug solution and tried to optimize the release profiles by changing the temperature and the time of loading. Two materials commercially available under the names of CI26Y and Definitive 50 were chosen. CI26Y is used for intraocular lenses (IOLs) and Definitive 50 for soft contact lenses (SCLs)...
February 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454059/towards-a-regulatory-use-of-alternative-developmental-neurotoxicity-testing-dnt
#5
Andrea Terron, Susanne Hougaard Bennekou
There is a need for a more effective Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) screening which is scientifically driven by the fact that the developing nervous system might be more sensitive to exposures to some hazardous chemical. Additional concern comes from the recent societal concerns that toxic chemicals can contribute to the prevalence of neurodevelopment disabilities. Consequently, hazard identification and actions to reduce exposure to these chemicals is a priority in chemical risk assessment. To reach this goal a cost-efficient testing strategy based on a reliable in-vitro testing battery should be developed...
February 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453930/ensemble-survival-tree-models-to-reveal-pairwise-interactions-of-variables-with-time-to-events-outcomes-in-low-dimensional-setting
#6
Jean-Eudes Dazard, Hemant Ishwaran, Rajeev Mehlotra, Aaron Weinberg, Peter Zimmerman
Unraveling interactions among variables such as genetic, clinical, demographic and environmental factors is essential to understand the development of common and complex diseases. To increase the power to detect such variables interactions associated with clinical time-to-events outcomes, we borrowed established concepts from random survival forest (RSF) models. We introduce a novel RSF-based pairwise interaction estimator and derive a randomization method with bootstrap confidence intervals for inferring interaction significance...
February 17, 2018: Statistical Applications in Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453910/advanced-spectrophotometric-chemometric-methods-for-resolving-the-binary-mixture-of-doxylamine-succinate-and-pyridoxine-hydrochloride
#7
Plamen Katsarov, Georgi Gergov, Aylin Alin, Bissera Pilicheva, Yahya Al-Degs, Vasil Simeonov, Margarita Kassarova
The prediction power of partial least squares (PLS) and multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) methods have been studied for simultaneous quantitative analysis of the binary drug combination - doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride. Analysis of first-order UV overlapped spectra was performed using different PLS models - classical PLS1 and PLS2 as well as partial robust M-regression (PRM). These linear models were compared to MCR-ALS with equality and correlation constraints (MCR-ALS-CC)...
March 1, 2018: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453890/the-co-developmental-dynamic-of-sport-and-school-burnout-among-student-athletes-the-role-of-achievement-goals
#8
Matilda Sorkkila, Kaisa Aunola, Katariina Salmela-Aro, Asko Tolvanen, Tatiana V Ryba
Student-athletes who strive for success in high level sports while pursuing upper secondary education may be prone to sport and school burnout. The present study examined the co-developmental dynamic of sport and school burnout in Finnish adolescent student-athletes (N time 1 = 391; N time 2 = 373) across the first year of upper secondary school by using cross-lagged structural equation modeling (SEM). Furthermore, we used sport and school-related achievement goals as predictors of sport and school burnout, namely, sport and school-related exhaustion, cynicism, and feelings of inadequacy...
February 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453821/trends-and-predictors-of-cesarean-birth-in-singapore-2005-2014-a-population-based-cohort-study
#9
Claudia Chi, Deanette Pang, Izzuddin M Aris, Wei Ting Teo, Sarah Weiling Li, Arijit Biswas, Eu Leong Yong, Yap Seng Chong, Kelvin Tan, Michael S Kramer
BACKGROUND: Rates of cesarean birth have continued to rise in many high-income countries. We examined the temporal trends and predictors of cesarean birth in Singapore. METHODS: Linked hospitalization and Birth Registry data were used to examine all live births to Singaporean citizens and permanent residents between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2014 (n = 342 932 births). We calculated cesarean rates and age-adjusted average annual percent change (AAPC) in those rates and used sequential multivariable regression modeling to assess the contribution of changes in predictors to the change in cesarean rates over time...
February 17, 2018: Birth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453818/the-association-between-thyroid-function-and-incidence-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-euthyroid-subjects-tianjin-chronic-low-grade-systemic-inflammation-and-health-cohort-study
#10
Yeqing Gu, Yanyan Wang, Qing Zhang, Li Liu, Ge Meng, Zhanxin Yao, Hongmei Wu, Yang Xia, Xue Bao, Hongbin Shi, Honglei Wang, Shaomei Sun, Xing Wang, Ming Zhou, Qiyu Jia, Kun Song, Kaijun Niu
OBJECTIVE: Thyroid hormones (THs) are primarily responsible for the regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolism. However, few prospective studies have assessed the association between THs and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a general population. We therefore designed a cohort study to examine whether serum THs levels within the reference range are predictive factors for developing MetS in adults. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A prospective study (n=6,119) was performed in Tianjin, China...
February 17, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453803/competition-for-nutrients-and-light-testing-advances-in-resource-competition-with-a-natural-phytoplankton-community
#11
Amanda Burson, Maayke Stomp, Emma Greenwell, Julia Grosse, Jef Huisman
A key challenge in ecology is to understand how nutrients and light affect the biodiversity and community structure of phytoplankton and plant communities. According to resource competition models, ratios of limiting nutrients are major determinants of the species composition. At high nutrient levels, however, species interactions may shift to competition for light, which might make nutrient ratios less relevant. The "nutrient-load hypothesis" merges these two perspectives, by extending the classic model of competition for two nutrients to include competition for light...
February 17, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453747/clinical-applications-of-patient-specific-models-the-case-for-a-simple-approach
#12
Jeffrey W Holmes, Joost Lumens
Over the past several decades, increasingly sophisticated models of the heart have provided important insights into cardiac physiology and are increasingly used to predict the impact of diseases and therapies on the heart. In an era of personalized medicine, many envision patient-specific computational models as a powerful tool for personalizing therapy. Yet the complexity of current models poses important challenges, including identifying model parameters and completing calculations quickly enough for routine clinical use...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453689/sustained-sensorimotor-control-as-intermittent-decisions-about-prediction-errors-computational-framework-and-application-to-ground-vehicle-steering
#13
Gustav Markkula, Erwin Boer, Richard Romano, Natasha Merat
A conceptual and computational framework is proposed for modelling of human sensorimotor control and is exemplified for the sensorimotor task of steering a car. The framework emphasises control intermittency and extends on existing models by suggesting that the nervous system implements intermittent control using a combination of (1) motor primitives, (2) prediction of sensory outcomes of motor actions, and (3) evidence accumulation of prediction errors. It is shown that approximate but useful sensory predictions in the intermittent control context can be constructed without detailed forward models, as a superposition of simple prediction primitives, resembling neurobiologically observed corollary discharges...
February 16, 2018: Biological Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453680/prognostic-implications-of-62-cu-diacetyl-bis-n-4-methylthiosemicarbazone-pet-ct-in-patients-with-glioma
#14
Akira Toriihara, Makoto Ohtake, Kensuke Tateishi, Ayako Hino-Shishikura, Tomohiro Yoneyama, Yoshio Kitazume, Tomio Inoue, Nobutaka Kawahara, Ukihide Tateishi
OBJECTIVE: The potential of positron emission tomography/computed tomography using 62 Cu-diacetyl-bis (N 4 -methylthiosemicarbazone) ( 62 Cu-ATSM PET/CT), which was originally developed as a hypoxic tracer, to predict therapeutic resistance and prognosis has been reported in various cancers. Our purpose was to investigate prognostic value of 62 Cu-ATSM PET/CT in patients with glioma, compared to PET/CT using 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG). METHOD: 56 patients with glioma of World Health Organization grade 2-4 were enrolled...
February 16, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453492/application-of-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-modeling-to-the-prediction-of-drug-drug-and-drug-disease-interactions-for-rivaroxaban
#15
Ruijuan Xu, Weihong Ge, Qing Jiang
PURPOSE: Rivaroxaban is a direct oral anticoagulant with a large inter-individual variability. The present study is to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict several scenarios in clinical practice. METHODS: A whole-body PBPK model for rivaroxaban, which is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4/5, 2J2 pathways and excreted via kidneys, was developed to predict the pharmacokinetics at different doses in healthy subjects and patients with hepatic or renal dysfunction...
February 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453389/toxicity-classification-of-oxide-nanomaterials-effects-of-data-gap-filling-and-pchem-score-based-screening-approaches
#16
My Kieu Ha, Tung Xuan Trinh, Jang Sik Choi, Desy Maulina, Hyung Gi Byun, Tae Hyun Yoon
Development of nanotoxicity prediction models is becoming increasingly important in the risk assessment of engineered nanomaterials. However, it has significant obstacles caused by the wide heterogeneities of published literature in terms of data completeness and quality. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of 216 published articles on oxide nanoparticles using 14 attributes of physicochemical, toxicological and quantum-mechanical properties. Particularly, to improve completeness and quality of the extracted dataset, we adapted two preprocessing approaches: data gap-filling and physicochemical property based scoring...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453342/prediction-of-coronary-disease-incidence-by-biomarkers-of-inflammation-oxidation-and-metabolism
#17
Isaac Subirana, Montserrat Fitó, Oscar Diaz, Joan Vila, Albert Francés, Eva Delpon, Juan Sanchis, Roberto Elosua, Daniel Muñoz-Aguayo, Irene R Dégano, Jaume Marrugat
The effect of circulating biomarkers in predicting coronary artery disease (CAD) is not fully elucidated. This study aimed to determine the relationship with CAD and the predictive capacity of nine biomarkers of inflammation (TNF-α, IL-10, IL-6, MCP-1, CRP), oxidation (GHS-Px), and metabolism (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin). This was a case-cohort study, within the REGICOR population-cohorts (North-Eastern Spain), of 105 CAD cases and 638 individuals randomly selected from a cohort of 5,404 participants aged 35-74 years (mean follow-up = 6...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453313/multigene-profiling-of-ctcs-in-mcrpc-identifies-a-clinically-relevant-prognostic-signature
#18
Udit Singhal, Yugang Wang, James Henderson, Yashar S Niknafs, Yuanyuan Qiao, Amy Gursky, Alexander Zaslavsky, Jae-Seung Chung, David C Smith, R Jeffrey Karnes, S Laura Chang, Felix Y Feng, Ganesh S Palapattu, Russell S Taichman, Arul M Chinnaiyan, Scott A Tomlins, Todd M Morgan
The trend towards precision-based therapeutic approaches dictated by molecular alterations offers substantial promise for men with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, current approaches for molecular characterization are primarily tissue based, necessitating serial biopsies to understand changes over time and are limited by the challenges inherent to extracting genomic material from predominantly bone metastases. Therefore, a circulating tumor cell (CTC)-based assay was developed to determine gene expression across a panel of clinically relevant and potentially actionable prostate cancer related genes...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453207/hippocampal-ripple-oscillations-and-inhibition-first-network-models-frequency-dynamics-and-response-to-gaba-modulators
#19
José R Donoso, Dietmar Schmitz, Nikolaus Maier, Richard Kempter
Hippocampal ripples are involved in memory consolidation, but the mechanisms underlying their generation remain unclear. Models relying on interneuron networks in the CA1 region disagree on the predominant source of excitation to interneurons: either 'direct', via the Schaffer collaterals that provide feedforward input from CA3 to CA1, or 'indirect', via the local pyramidal cells in CA1, which are embedded in a recurrent excitatory-inhibitory network. Here, we used physiologically constrained computational models of basket-cell networks to investigate how they respond to different conditions of transient, noisy excitation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453199/simultaneous-assessment-of-clearance-metabolism-induction-and-drug-drug-interaction-potential-using-a-long-term-in-vitro-liver-model-for-a-novel-hepatitis-b-virus-inhibitor
#20
Nicole A Kratochwil, Miriam Triyatni, Martina B Mueller, Florian Klammers, Brian Leonard, Dan Turley, Josephine Schmaler, Aynur Ekiciler, Birgit Molitor, Isabelle Walter, Pierre-Alexis Gonsard, Charles A Tournillac, Alexandre Durrwell, Michaela Marschmann, Russell Jones, Mohammed Ullah, Franziska Boess, Giorgio Ottaviani, Yuyan Yin, Neil J Parrott, Stephen Fowler
Long-term in vitro liver models are now widely explored for human hepatic metabolic clearance prediction, enzyme phenotyping, cross species metabolism, comparison of low clearance drugs as well as induction studies. Here, we present studies using a long-term liver model which show how metabolism and active transport, drug-drug interactions and enzyme induction in healthy and diseased states, e.g. hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, may be assessed in a single test system to enable effective data integration for PBPK modeling...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
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