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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30371952/heliox-for-croup-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Irene Moraa, Nancy Sturman, Treasure M McGuire, Mieke L van Driel
BACKGROUND: Croup is an acute viral respiratory infection with upper airway mucosal inflammation that may cause respiratory distress. Most cases are mild. Moderate to severe croup may require treatment with corticosteroids (from which benefits are often delayed) and nebulised epinephrine (adrenaline) (which may be short-lived and can cause dose-related adverse effects including tachycardia, arrhythmias, and hypertension). Rarely, croup results in respiratory failure necessitating emergency intubation and ventilation...
October 29, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30256321/not-all-stridor-is-croup
#2
Alison Gardner, Alison Ruch
BACKGROUND: Emergency providers often attribute stridor to croup in pediatric patients. However, even in children who are having other symptoms of a viral etiology, several other causes need to be considered. CASE: A 6-month-old term male without significant past medical history presented to the emergency department with stridor with likely underlying laryngospasm. He was initially ascribed the diagnosis of croup and was discharged home after receiving steroids and racemic epinephrine...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079902/air-pollution-is-associated-with-incidence-of-viral-croup-among-children-living-in-krak%C3%A3-w-area-poland
#3
Katarzyna Anna Dyląg, Bartłomiej Wroński, Katarzyna Przybyszewska, Paulina Dumnicka
BACKGROUND: Air pollution is a severe problem in Poland, with Kraków area being among the regions with the worse air quality. Viral croup or pseudocroup is a common childhood disease that may manifest with severe upper respiratory tract obstruction. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between incidence and severity of viral croup symptoms among children living in Kraków area, Poland, and air pollution. METHODS: The retrospective cross-sectional study included Kraków area residents <18 years of age admitted to the Emergency Department of St...
2018: Folia Medica Cracoviensia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858524/use-of-a-national-database-to-assess-pediatric-emergency-care-across-united-states-emergency-departments
#4
Kenneth A Michelson, Todd W Lyons, Joel D Hudgins, Jason A Levy, Michael C Monuteaux, Jonathan A Finkelstein, Richard G Bachur
OBJECTIVES: Differences in emergency care for children exist between general and pediatric emergency departments (EDs). Some pediatric quality measures are available but are not routinely employed nationwide. We sought to create a short list of applied measures that would provide a starting point for EDs to measure pediatric emergency care quality and to compare care between general and pediatric EDs for these measures. METHODS: Previously reported lists comprising 465 pediatric emergency care quality measures were reconciled...
June 2, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763253/croup-diagnosis-and-management
#5
Dustin K Smith, Andrew J McDermott, John F Sullivan
Croup is a common respiratory illness affecting 3% of children six months to three years of age. It accounts for 7% of hospitalizations annually for fever and/or acute respiratory illness in children younger than five years. Croup is a manifestation of upper airway obstruction resulting from swelling of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi, leading to inspiratory stridor and a barking cough. Many patients experience low-grade fevers, but fever is not necessary for diagnosis. Less commonly, stridor can be associated with acute epiglottitis, bacterial tracheitis, and foreign body airway obstruction...
May 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683419/haemagglutinin-neuraminidase-from-hpiv3-mediates-human-nk-regulation-of-t-cell-proliferation-via-nkp44-and-nkp46
#6
Samantha McQuaid, Sinead Loughran, Patrick Power, Paula Maguire, Dermot Walls, Maria Grazia Cusi, Claes Orvell, Patricia Johnson
HPIV3 is a respiratory virus causing airway diseases, including pneumonia, croup, and bronchiolitis, during infancy and childhood. Currently there is no effective vaccine or anti-viral therapy for this virus. Studies have suggested that poor T cell proliferation following HPIV3 infection is responsible for impaired immunological memory associated with this virus. We have previously demonstrated that NK cells mediate regulation of T cell proliferation during HPIV3 infection. Here we add to these studies by demonstrating that the regulation of T cell proliferation during HPIV3 infection is mediated via NK receptors NKp44 and NKp46 and involves the surface glycoprotein haemagglutinin-neuraminidase but not the fusion protein of the virus...
June 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532807/acute-management-of-croup-in-the-emergency-department
#7
Oliva Ortiz-Alvarez
Croup is one of the most common causes of upper airway obstruction in young children. It is characterized by sudden onset of barky cough, hoarse voice, inspiratory stridor and respiratory distress caused by upper airway inflammation secondary to a viral infection. Published guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of croup advise using steroids as the mainstay treatment for all children who present to emergency department (ED) with croup symptoms. Dexamethasone, given orally as a single dose at 0.6 mg/kg, is highly efficacious in treating croup symptoms...
June 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217058/management-of-infantile-hemangiomas-of-the-airway
#8
REVIEW
David H Darrow
Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) of the airway are far less common than their cutaneous counterparts, and their symptoms mimic those of viral croup. As a result, by the time these lesions are diagnosed, they are often advanced and causing airway compromise. Fortunately, the evolution of propranolol as an effective and safe pharmacotherapy has simplified management of IH and reduced the likelihood of complications previously seen with steroid therapy and surgery. Nevertheless, the otolaryngologist must be prepared with an alternate plan to manage lesions refractory to pharmacotherapy...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187536/inflammasome-antagonism-by-human-parainfluenza-virus-type-3-c-protein
#9
Niraj K Shil, Swechha M Pokharel, Amiya K Banerjee, Michael Hoffman, Santanu Bose
Human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Paramyxoviridae family. HPIV3 is a lung-tropic virus causing airway diseases, including pneumonia, croup, and bronchiolitis, during infancy and childhood. The activation of the inflammasome by pathogens results in the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) during infection. Thus, the inflammasome-mediated proinflammatory response plays a critical role in regulating the immune response and virus clearance...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594619/managing-acute-respiratory-tract-infections-in-children
#10
C Schuster Bruce, Clare Hoare, Atanu Mukherjee, Siba Prosad Paul
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs), including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), bronchiolitis, viral-induced wheeze and croup, account for more primary care consultations than any other illness group and are the most likely reason for a parent or carer to contact a health professional. The majority of RTIs in fully immunised children are usually self-limiting. However, in a small percentage of children RTIs may become life threatening and it is crucial that all front-line health professionals are able to recognise and identify these children who are at risk of deterioration...
June 8, 2017: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424887/a-metagenomics-study-for-the-identification-of-respiratory-viruses-in-mixed-clinical-specimens-an-application-of-the-iterative-mapping-approach
#11
Yu-Nong Gong, Shu-Li Yang, Guang-Wu Chen, Yu-Wen Chen, Yhu-Chering Huang, Hsiao-Chen Ning, Kuo-Chien Tsao
Metagenomic approaches to detect viral genomes and variants in clinical samples have various challenges, including low viral titers and bacterial and human genome contamination. To address these limitations, we examined a next-generation sequencing (NGS) and iterative mapping approach for virus detection in clinical samples. We analyzed 40 clinical specimens from hospitalized children diagnosed with acute bronchiolitis, croup, or respiratory tract infections in which virus identification by viral culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was unsuccessful...
July 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292873/variation-in-inpatient-croup-management-and-outcomes
#12
Amy Tyler, Lisa McLeod, Brenda Beaty, Elizabeth Juarez-Colunga, Meghan Birkholz, Daniel Hyman, Allison Kempe, James Todd, Amanda F Dempsey
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Croup is a clinical diagnosis, and the available evidence suggests that, except in rare cases, ancillary testing, such as radiologic imaging, is not helpful. Given the paucity of inpatient-specific evidence for croup care, we hypothesized that there would be marked variability in the use of not routinely indicated resources (NRIRs). Our primary study objective was to describe the variation and predictors of variation in the use of NRIRs. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study that used the Pediatric Health Information System database of generally healthy inpatients with croup aged 6 months to 15 years who were admitted between January 1, 2012 and September 30, 2014...
April 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283855/the-role-of-human-parainfluenza-virus-infections-in-the-immunopathology-of-the-respiratory-tract
#13
REVIEW
Malgorzata Pawełczyk, Marek Leszek Kowalski
Viral infections are leading causes of both upper and lower airway acute illness in all age groups of healthy persons, and have also been implicated in the acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disorders like asthma and COPD. Human rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus and coronavirus have been considered as the most important respiratory pathogens and relatively little attention has been paid to the role of parainfluenza viruses (hPIVs). Human parainfluenza viruses are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the paramyxovirus family that may evoke lower respiratory infections in infants, children and immunocompromised individuals...
March 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163937/a-narrowing-diagnosis-a-rare-cause-of-adult-croup-and-literature-review
#14
Jayshil J Patel, Emily Kitchin, Kurt Pfeifer
Croup or laryngotracheitis is rare in adults. We present a case of an otherwise healthy young woman that presented in the winter with 3 days of increasing dyspnea, cough, and fever. She was hemodynamically stable but was found to have a barking cough, paradoxical abdominal breathing, and stridor. Chest radiograph revealed subglottic narrowing. Respiratory viral nucleic acid amplification testing was positive for respiratory syncytial virus. The patient was treated with nebulized epinephrine, dexamethasone, and a helium-oxygen mixture...
2017: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27487535/-cytokine-profile-in-young-children-with-acute-stenotic-laryngotracheitis
#15
Ольга І Гладченко, Павло В Токарєв, Олександр Б Надрага
INTRODUCTION: One of the most severe complications of acute respiratory infections in young children is acute stenotic laryngotracheitis (croup). The relationship between cytokine blood levels and symptoms of croup, croup severity, disease sequel, despite numerous studies is still unclear. AIM: Cytokine profile in young children with acute stenotic laryngotracheitis investigation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 112 children aged 12 min. - 36 mon. with acute stenotic laryngotracheitis which were treated at the Lviv Regional Infectious Diseases Hospital were kept under observation...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27058341/-very-rare-and-life-threatening-complications-of-bocavirus-bronchiolitis-pneumomediastinum-and-bilateral-pneumothorax
#16
Osman Yeşilbaş, Hasan Serdar Kıhtır, Mey Talip Petmezci, Seda Balkaya, Nevin Hatipoğlu, Sevim Meşe, Esra Şevketoğlu
Human bocavirus (HBoV), that was first identified in 2005 and classified in Parvoviridae family, is a small, non-enveloped, single-stranded DNA virus, responsible for upper and lower respiratory tract infections, especially in young children. Although HBoV generally causes self-limited influenza-like illness, it may also lead to pneumonia, bronchiolitis, croup and asthma attacks. In this report, a case of acute bronchiolitis complicated with pneumomediastinum and bilateral pneumothorax caused by HBoV has been presented...
January 2016: Mikrobiyoloji Bülteni
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27029657/intensive-care-management-of-children-intubated-for-croup-a-retrospective-analysis
#17
B Gelbart, S Parsons, A Sarpal, P Ninova, W Butt
Croup remains the commonest reason for acute upper airway obstruction in children, yet there are scarce contemporary data of airway management in those requiring intubation. We performed a retrospective analysis of the intensive care management of children intubated for croup in two quaternary Paediatric Intensive Care Units: Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne, Australia and Alberta Children's Hospital Calgary, Canada. Patients intubated for less than three days were compared with those intubated for greater than three days...
March 2016: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26980833/features-of-circulating-parainfluenza-virus-required-for-growth-in-human-airway
#18
Laura M Palermo, Manik Uppal, Lucy Skrabanek, Paul Zumbo, Soren Germer, Nora C Toussaint, Bert K Rima, Devra Huey, Stefan Niewiesk, Matteo Porotto, Anne Moscona
UNLABELLED: Respiratory paramyxoviruses, including the highly prevalent human parainfluenza viruses, cause the majority of childhood croup, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia, yet there are currently no vaccines or effective treatments. Paramyxovirus research has relied on the study of laboratory-adapted strains of virus in immortalized cultured cell lines. We show that findings made in such systems about the receptor interaction and viral fusion requirements for entry and fitness-mediated by the receptor binding protein and the fusion protein-can be drastically different from the requirements for infection in vivo...
March 15, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26948040/structure-of-main-protease-from-human-coronavirus-nl63-insights-for-wide-spectrum-anti-coronavirus-drug-design
#19
Fenghua Wang, Cheng Chen, Wenjie Tan, Kailin Yang, Haitao Yang
First identified in The Netherlands in 2004, human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) was found to cause worldwide infections. Patients infected by HCoV-NL63 are typically young children with upper and lower respiratory tract infection, presenting with symptoms including croup, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Unfortunately, there are currently no effective antiviral therapy to contain HCoV-NL63 infection. CoV genomes encode an integral viral component, main protease (M(pro)), which is essential for viral replication through proteolytic processing of RNA replicase machinery...
March 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26675672/human-parainfluenza-virus-type-2-v-protein-inhibits-and-antagonizes-tetherin
#20
K Ohta, H Goto, N Yumine, M Nishio
Tetherin (BST-2/CD317/HM1.24) is an antiviral membrane protein that prevents the release of enveloped viruses from the cell surface. We found that the growth of human parainfluenza virus type 2 (hPIV-2), but not that of V protein-deficient recombinant hPIV-2, was inhibited by tetherin. V protein immunoprecipitates with tetherin, and this interaction requires its C-terminal Trp residues. The glycosyl phosphatidylinositol attachment signal of tetherin, but not its cytoplasmic tail, was necessary for its binding with V...
March 2016: Journal of General Virology
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