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mammary gland development

M Vailati-Riboni, R E Bucktrout, S Zhan, A Geiger, J C McCann, R M Akers, J J Loor
BACKGROUND: To reduce costs of rearing replacement heifers, researchers have focused on decreasing age at breeding and first calving. To increase returns upon initiation of lactation the focus has been on increasing mammary development prior to onset of first lactation. Enhanced plane of nutrition pre-weaning may benefit the entire replacement heifer operation by promoting mammary gland development and greater future production. METHODS: Twelve Holstein heifer calves (< 1 week old) were reared on 1 of 2 dietary treatments (n = 6/group) for 8 weeks: a control group fed a restricted milk replacer at 0...
December 11, 2018: BMC Genomics
Kylie L Mills, Angelica M Gomes, Courtney R Standlee, Michelle D Rojo, Peter Carmeliet, Zhen Lin, Heather L Machado
Mammary gland development is a complex and dynamic process that occurs mainly postnatally. Ductal elongation and branching morphogenesis are regulated by a plethora of factors, including cytokines, hormones, growth factors and the extracellular matrix. Gas6 is a secreted gamma-carboxylated protein that binds to a family of receptors tyrosine kinase receptors known as the TAMR family (Tyro3, Axl, Mer). Gas6 function in developmental processes has been shown in nervous, reproductive and immune systems. In this study, we found that Gas6 is highly expressed in virgin adult mammary glands but declines during pregnancy and lactation...
2018: PloS One
Madara Ratnadiwakara, Melissa Rooke, Stephen J Ohms, Hugh J French, Rohan B H Williams, Rachel W Li, Donghai Zhang, Robyn M Lucas, Anneke C Blackburn
Breast cancer is a complex disease, and approximately 30% of cases are considered to be hereditary or familial, with a large fraction of this being polygenic. However, it is difficult to demonstrate the functional importance of genes of small effect in population studies, and these genes are not always easily targeted for prevention. The SuprMam (suppressor of mammary tumour) breast cancer susceptibility alleles were previously identified as contributors to spontaneous mammary tumour development in Trp53+/- mice...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Collin Homer-Bouthiette, Yang Zhao, Lauren B Shunkwiler, Benjamine Van Peel, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Rachael C Baird, Anna I Rissman, Stephen T Guest, Stephen P Ethier, Manorama C John, Patricia A Powers, Jill D Haag, Michael N Gould, Bart M G Smits
BACKGROUND: The gene desert on human chromosomal band 8q24 harbors multiple genetic variants associated with common cancers, including breast cancer. The locus, including the gene desert and its flanking genes, MYC, PVT1 and FAM84B, is also frequently amplified in human breast cancer. We generated a megadeletion (MD) mouse model lacking 430-Kb of sequence orthologous to the breast cancer-associated region in the gene desert. The goals were to examine the effect of the deletion on mammary cancer development and on transcript level regulation of the candidate genes within the locus...
December 10, 2018: BMC Cancer
Nai Yang Fu, Bhupinder Pal, Yunshun Chen, Felicity C Jackling, Michael Milevskiy, François Vaillant, Bianca D Capaldo, Fusheng Guo, Kevin H Liu, Anne C Rios, Nicholas Lim, Andrew J Kueh, David M Virshup, Marco J Herold, Haley O Tucker, Gordon K Smyth, Geoffrey J Lindeman, Jane E Visvader
Long-lived quiescent mammary stem cells (MaSCs) are presumed to coordinate the dramatic expansion of ductal epithelium that occurs through the different phases of postnatal development, but little is known about the molecular regulators that underpin their activation. We show that ablation of the transcription factor Foxp1 in the mammary gland profoundly impairs ductal morphogenesis, resulting in a rudimentary tree throughout life. Foxp1-deficient glands were highly enriched for quiescent Tspan8hi MaSCs, which failed to become activated even in competitive transplantation assays, thus highlighting a cell-intrinsic defect...
December 3, 2018: Developmental Cell
Shahid Hussain, Sonal Saxena, Sameer Shrivastava, Ashok Kumar Mohanty, Sudarshan Kumar, Rajkumar James Singh, Abhinav Kumar, Sajad Ahmad Wani, Ravi Kumar Gandham, Naveen Kumar, Anil Kumar Sharma, Ashok Kumar Tiwari, Raj Kumar Singh
Spontaneously occurring canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are the most common neoplasms of unspayed female dogs leading to thrice higher mortality rates than human breast cancer. These are also attractive models for human breast cancer studies owing to clinical and molecular similarities. Thus, they are important candidates for biomarker studies and understanding cancer pathobiology. The study was designed to explore underlying molecular networks and pathways in CMTs for deciphering new prognostic factors and therapeutic targets...
2018: PloS One
Deli Hong, Andrew J Fritz, Jonathan A Gordon, Coralee E Tye, Joseph R Boyd, Kirsten M Tracy, Seth E Frietze, Frances E Carr, Jeffrey A Nickerson, Andre J Van Wijnen, Anthony N Imbalzano, Sayyed K Zaidi, Jane B Lian, Janet L Stein, Gary S Stein
The RUNX1 transcription factor has recently been shown to be obligatory for normal development. RUNX1 controls the expression of genes essential for proper development in many cell lineages and tissues including blood, bone, cartilage, hair follicles, and mammary glands. Compromised RUNX1 regulation is associated with many cancers. In this review, we highlight evidence for RUNX1 control in both invertebrate and mammalian development and recent novel findings of perturbed RUNX1 control in breast cancer that has implications for other solid tumors...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Emma D Wrenn, Kevin J Cheung
Stem cells can enter a reversible cell-cycle arrest state termed quiescence. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Fu et al. report that the transcription factor FoxP1 is necessary for postnatal mammary gland development and relieves Tspan8-dependent quiescence in basal mammary stem cells.
December 3, 2018: Developmental Cell
Kilan Ashad-Bishop, Koteswararao Garikapati, Linsey E Lindley, Merce Jorda, Karoline J Briegel
WNT/β-catenin signaling plays pivotal roles in mammary development and tumorigenesis; and aberrant activation of this pathway is frequently observed in human breast cancer, correlating with poor outcome. However, the mechanisms underlying WNT-driven mammary tumorigenesis remain incompletely understood. Here, we used mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-Wnt1 transgenic mice, which develop aggressive mammary adenocarcinomas, to examine whether Limb-Bud-and-Heart (LBH) - a WNT/β-catenin target transcription co-factor overexpressed in human triple-negative breast cancers with WNT pathway hyperactivation, contributes to WNT-induced tumorigenesis...
November 30, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
J L Song, Y Hua, Z L Ma, L Wu, Z Zhang, L Zhang, N Li, S B Cong, L Hou
The RRS1 regulator of ribosome synthesis has recently been reported a new target gene linked to cancer development. This study therefore investigates RRS1effectsb on BT549 cell proliferation and apoptosis in breast cancer. Western blot (WB) and real - time quantitative PCR (qPCR) were used to detect the relative expression of RRS1 in breast cancer cells BT-549 and the normal HMEC mammary gland epithelial cells. BT-549 cells were cultured and infected with retroviruses and RRS1 expression was detected by qPCR and WB...
August 9, 2018: Neoplasma
Kathryn M Emmer, William H Walker, Ning Zhang, A Courtney DeVries
Understanding why breast cancer survivors are at an increased risk for cognitive and affective disorders is essential for developing targeted treatment plans and improving quality of life. Microglia priming results in chronic neuroinflammation and can contribute to neuronal degeneration and dysfunction, thereby offering a potential mechanism for altered brain function that persists after tumor removal. This study examined whether mammary tumors alter microglia and augment the inflammatory profile and behavior of mice...
November 26, 2018: Brain Research
Kaiwen Chen, Jinxing Hou, Yuxuan Song, Xiaochuan Zhang, Yuhan Liu, Gonghai Zhang, Kai Wen, Haidong Ma, Guang Li, Binyun Cao, Xiaopeng An
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs can regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level through translational repression or target degradation. Our previous investigations examined the differential expression levels of chi-miR-3031 in caprine mammary gland tissues in colostrum and common milk stages. RESULTS: The present study detected the role of chi-miR-3031 in the lactation mechanisms of GMECs. High-throughput sequencing was used to analyze transcriptomic landscapes of GMECs transfected with chi-miR-3031 mimics (MC) and a mimic negative control (NC)...
November 27, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Ilenia Segatto, Mara De Marco Zompit, Francesca Citron, Sara D'Andrea, Gian Luca Rampioni Vinciguerra, Tiziana Perin, Stefania Berton, Giorgia Mungo, Monica Schiappacassi, Cristina Marchini, Augusto Amici, Andrea Vecchione, Gustavo Baldassarre, Barbara Belletti
Post-natal development of the mammary gland relies on the maintenance of oriented cell division and apico-basal polarity, both of which are often deregulated in cancer. The microtubule (MT) network contributes to control these processes, however very little is known about the impact of altered MT dynamics in the development of a complex organ and on the role played by MT-interacting proteins such as stathmin. In this study, we report that female stathmin knock-out (STM KO) mice are unable to nurse their litters due to frank impairment of mammary gland development...
November 26, 2018: Cancer Research
Ian H Mather, Andrius Masedunskas, Yun Chen, Roberto Weigert
Milk fat comprises membrane-coated droplets of neutral lipid, which constitute the predominant source of lipids for survival of the suckling neonate. From the perspective of the dairy industry, they are the basis for the manufacture of butter and essential ingredients in the production of cheese, yogurt, and specialty dairy produce. To provide mechanistic insight into the assembly and secretion of lipid droplets during lactation, we developed novel intravital imaging techniques using transgenic mice, which express fluorescently tagged marker proteins...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Ratan K Choudhary, Shanti Choudhary, C S Mukhopadhyay, Devendra Pathak, Ramneek Verma
Although water buffaloes are the main milk-producing animals in Indian subcontinent, only limited attempts have been made to identify canonical pathways and gene regulatory networks operating within the mammary glands of these animals. Such information is important for identifying unique transcriptome signatures in the mammary glands of diseased animals. In this report, we analyzed the transcription profile of 3 prepubertal buffalo mammary glands and identified common genes (mean FPKM > 0.2 in all samples) operating in the glands...
November 23, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Hanna Lee, Emily Padhi, Yu Hasegawa, Jules Larke, Mariana Parenti, Aidong Wang, Olle Hernell, Bo Lönnerdal, Carolyn Slupsky
Human milk is uniquely optimized for the needs of the developing infant. Its composition is complex and dynamic, driven primarily by maternal genetics, and to a lesser extent by diet and environment. One important component that is gaining attention is the milk fat globule (MFG). The MFG is composed of a triglyceride-rich core surrounded by a tri-layer membrane, also known as the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) that originates from mammary gland epithelia. The MFGM is enriched with glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, cholesterol, and proteins, some of which are glycosylated, and are known to exert numerous biological roles...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Idris Umar Hambali, Faez Firdaus Jesse Bin Abdullah, K R Bhutto, M L Mohd Azmi, A H Wahid, Z Zakaria, M N Odhah, M Arsalan, N A Muhammad, M N Jefri
Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland due to microbial infiltration causing a reduced mammary function. This study aims at developing a vaccine using Malaysian local isolate of Staphylococcus aureus and evaluating serum amyloid A, Interleukin-10, IgM and IgG responses periodically. Four bacterin concentrations (106 , 107 , 108 and 109  cfu/ml of the local isolate of S. aureus) were adjuvanted with aluminium potassium sulphate. Thirty cows grouped into 4 treatment groups (G-) were vaccinated (2 ml) intramuscularly, with a fifth G-A as control...
November 17, 2018: Tropical Animal Health and Production
Manoj Kumar Jena, Shalini Jaswal, Sudarshan Kumar, Ashok Kumar Mohanty
The mammary gland (MG) is a unique organ responsible for milk synthesis, secretion, and involution to prepare the gland for subsequent lactation. The mammary epithelial cells (MECs), which are the milk synthesizing units of the MG, proliferate, differentiate, undergo apoptosis and regenerate following a cyclic pathway of lactation - involution - lactation, fine-tuning these molecular events through hormones, growth factors and other regulatory molecules. The developmental stages of the MG are embryonic, prepubertal, pubertal, pregnancy, lactation and involution, with major developmental processes occurring after puberty...
November 15, 2018: Developmental Biology
Ayelen L Gomez, Gabriela A Altamirano, Jorgelina Leturia, Verónica L Bosquiazzo, Mónica Muñoz-de-Toro, Laura Kass
Postnatal treatment with glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) induces endocrine-disrupting effects on the male rat mammary gland. In this study, the effects of developmental exposure to GBH on mammary gland growth and development, and the possible molecular mechanisms involved, were evaluated in pre- and post-pubertal male rats. To this end, pregnant rats were orally exposed through the food to 0, 3.5 or 350 mg GBH/kg bw/day from gestational day 9 until weaning. Mammary gland development and estradiol (E2) and testosterone (T) serum levels of male offspring were evaluated on postnatal day (PND)21 and PND60...
November 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Sheng Li, Shihai Huang, Shuye Qiao, Jianrong Jiang, Deshun Shi, Xiangping Li
Signal transducer and activator 5 (STAT5) plays important roles in regulating mammary glandular cell proliferation and milk-protein gene expression. However, the functions of STAT5a and STAT5b genes in lactation of buffalo remain uninvestigated. In this study, full-length STAT5a (2502 bp) and STAT5b (2515 bp) coding sequences were isolated for the first time. The highest STAT5a gene expression was found in buffalo mammary glands and the highest STAT5b gene expression was found in buffalo brains and mammary glands...
November 15, 2018: Animal Biotechnology
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