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mammary gland development

Charlène Rico, Derek Boerboom, Marilène Paquet
Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are common neoplasms in dogs that feature many of the clinical, genetic and molecular characteristics of human breast cancer. Despite their high metastatic potential, few adjuvant chemotherapeutic treatment options exist for malignant CMTs, and the development of novel, targeted pharmacological approaches will require a better understanding of their pathogenesis. As recent evidence suggests that dysregulated Hippo signalling is involved in the development and progression of breast cancer, we sought to determine if this pathway could also play a role in CMT...
August 16, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Florentina Pascale, Laurent Bédouet, Afchine Fazel, Julien Namur, Saida Homayra Ghegediban, Isabelle Schwartz Cornil, Michel Wassef, Laurence Moine, Alexandre Laurent
PURPOSE: To assess the lymphatic transport of microparticles of 100 nm, 1 μm and 10 μm subcutaneously injected into the breast area of healthy and tumor-bearing rabbits, and to analyze their location in lymph node (LN) in relation to malignant cells. METHODS: Female rabbits (n = 9) bearing a VX2 tumor in one thoracic mammary gland were subcutaneously injected at D15 with polystyrene fluorescent particles around the nipple, on the tumor and on the healthy sides...
August 15, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Zhikun Ma, Amanda B Parris, Erin W Howard, Yujie Shi, Shihe Yang, Yunbo Jiang, Lingfei Kong, Xiaohe Yang
Caloric intake influences the onset of many diseases, including cancer. In particular, caloric restriction (CR) has been reported to suppress mammary tumorigenesis in various models. However, the underlying cancer preventive mechanisms have not been fully explored. To this end, we aimed to characterize the anticancer mechanisms of CR using MMTV-ErbB2 transgenic mice, a well-established spontaneous ErbB2-overexpressing mammary tumor model, by focusing on cellular and molecular changes in premalignant tissues...
August 9, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Alain Brice Tueche, Stephane Zingue, Edwige Nana Tchoupang, Telesphore Nanbo Gueyo, Abel Joël Gbaweng Yaya, Amstrong Nang Njuh, Dieudonnée Mireille Ntsa, Dieudonné Njamen
There is a long standing interest in the identification of medicinal plants and derived natural products for developing cancer therapeutics. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antiproliferative effects of Abyssinone V-4' methyl ether (AVME) on breast tissue of mice. The cytotoxicity of AVME was evaluated using MTT assay in four cancer cell lines (DU145, PC3, HepG2, and MCF-7). Further, a protective effect of AVME was evaluated on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene- (DMBA-) induced breast tumor in Swiss mice...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Y Patel, M Soni, A Awagulerwitsch, M J Kern, S Liu, N Shah, U P Singh, H Chen
Although it has been demonstrated that transformed progenitor cell population can contribute to tumor initiation, factors contributing to this malignant transformation are poorly known. Using in vitro and xenograft-based models, previous studies demonstrated that miR-489 acts as a tumor suppressor miRNA by targeting various oncogenic pathways. It has been demonstrated that miR-489 directly targets HER2 and inhibits the HER2 signaling pathway; however, its role in mammary gland development and HER2-induced tumor initiation hasn't been studied...
August 13, 2018: Oncogene
Deirdre K Tucker, Schantel Hayes Bouknight, Sukhdev S Brar, Grace E Kissling, Suzanne E Fenton
BACKGROUND: Continued efforts to phase out bisphenol A (BPA) from consumer products have been met with the challenges of finding safer alternatives. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine whether early-life exposure to BPA and its related analogues, bisphenol AF (BPAF) and bisphenol S (BPS), could affect female pubertal mammary gland development and long-term mammary health in mice. METHODS: Timed pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to vehicle, BPA (0...
August 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Rong Liu, Peiguo Shi, Zhongmei Zhou, Hailin Zhang, Wei Li, Hong Zhang, Ceshi Chen
Krüpple-like factor 5 (KLF5) is required for the development of the embryo and multiple organs, such as the lung and intestine. KLF5 plays a pro-proliferative and oncogenic role in several carcinomas, including breast cancer. However, its role in normal mammary gland development and oncogenesis has not been elucidated in vivo. In this study, we used mammary gland-specific Klf5 conditional knockout mice derived by mating Klf5-LoxP and MMTV-Cre mice. The genetic ablation of Klf5 suppresses mammary gland ductal elongation and lobuloalveolar formation...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Gerard A Tarulli, Geraldine Laven-Law, Mona Shehata, Kirsty A Walters, Iza M Denis, Md Mostafizur Rahman, David J Handelsman, Nicola R Dean, Wayne D Tilley, Theresa E Hickey
Androgens influence mammary gland development but the specific role of the androgen receptor (AR) in mammary function is largely unknown. We identified cell subsets that express AR in vivo and determined the effect of AR activation and transgenic AR inhibition on sub-populations of the normal mouse mammary epithelium by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Immunolocalisation of AR with markers of lineage identity was also performed in human breast tissues. AR activation in vivo significantly decreased the proportion of basal cells, and caused an accumulation of cells that expressed a basal cell marker but exhibited morphological features of luminal identity...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Thai H Tran, Fransiscus E Utama, Takahiro Sato, Amy R Peck, John F Langenheim, Sameer S Udhane, Yunguang Sun, Chengbao Liu, Melanie A Girondo, Albert J Kovatich, Jeffrey A Hooke, Craig D Shriver, Hai Hu, Juan Palazzo, Marluce Bibbo, Paul L Auer, Michael J Flister, Terry M Hyslop, Edith P Mitchell, Inna Chervoneva, Hallgeir Rui
PURPOSE: Parathyroid Hormone-related Protein (PTHrP) is required for normal mammary gland development and biology. A PTHLH gene polymorphism is associated with breast cancer risk, and PTHrP promotes growth of osteolytic breast cancer bone metastases. Accordingly, current dogma holds that PTHrP is up-regulated in malignant primary breast tumors, but solid evidence for this assumption is missing. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used quantitative immunohistochemistry to measure PTHrP in normal and malignant breast epithelia, and correlated PTHrP levels in primary breast cancer with clinical outcome...
August 10, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Julio Plaza-Díaz, Luis Fontana, Angel Gil
Maternal milk contains compounds that may affect newborn immunity. Among these are a group of oligosaccharides that are synthesized in the mammary gland from lactose; these oligosaccharides have been termed human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). The amount of HMOs present in human milk is greater than the amount of protein. In fact, HMOs are the third-most abundant solid component in maternal milk after lactose and lipids, and are thus considered to be key components. The importance of HMOs may be explained by their inhibitory effects on the adhesion of microorganisms to the intestinal mucosa, the growth of pathogens through the production of bacteriocins and organic acids, and the expression of genes that are involved in inflammation...
August 8, 2018: Nutrients
Shira Bernard, Megan Myers, Wei Bin Fang, Brandon Zinda, Curtis Smart, Diana Lambert, An Zou, Fang Fan, Nikki Cheng
With improved screening methods, the numbers of abnormal breast lesions diagnosed in women have been increasing over time. However, it remains unclear whether these breast lesions will develop into invasive cancers. To more effectively predict the outcome of breast lesions and determine a more appropriate course of treatment, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms that regulate progression of non-invasive lesions to invasive breast cancers. A hallmark of invasive breast cancers is the accumulation of fibroblasts...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Dan Li, Yan Ji, Chunlan Zhao, Yapeng Yao, Anlan Yang, Honghong Jin, Yang Chen, Mingjun San, Jing Zhang, Mingjiao Zhang, Luqing Zhang, Xuechao Feng, Yaowu Zheng
Oxytocin receptor (OXTR) is a G-protein coupled receptor and known for regulation of maternal and social behaviors. Null mutation (Oxtr-/-) leads to defects in lactation due to impaired milk ejection and maternal nurturing. Overexpression of OXTR has never been studied. To define the functions of OXTR overexpression, a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses mouse Oxtr under β-actin promoter was developed (++Oxtr). ++Oxtr mice displayed advanced development and maturation of mammary gland, including ductal distention, enhanced secretory differentiation and early milk production at non-pregnancy and early pregnancy...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Rajshekhar R Giraddi, Chi-Yeh Chung, Richard E Heinz, Ozlen Balcioglu, Mark Novotny, Christy L Trejo, Christopher Dravis, Berhane M Hagos, Elnaz Mirzaei Mehrabad, Luo Wei Rodewald, Jae Y Hwang, Cheng Fan, Roger Lasken, Katherine E Varley, Charles M Perou, Geoffrey M Wahl, Benjamin T Spike
The mammary gland consists of cells with gene expression patterns reflecting their cellular origins, function, and spatiotemporal context. However, knowledge of developmental kinetics and mechanisms of lineage specification is lacking. We address this significant knowledge gap by generating a single-cell transcriptome atlas encompassing embryonic, postnatal, and adult mouse mammary development. From these data, we map the chronology of transcriptionally and epigenetically distinct cell states and distinguish fetal mammary stem cells (fMaSCs) from their precursors and progeny...
August 7, 2018: Cell Reports
Trinadha Rao Sornapudi, Rakhee Nayak, Prashanth Kumar Guthikonda, Anil Kumar Pasupulati, Srinivas Kethavath, Vanita Uppada, Sukalpa Mondal, Sailu Yellaboina, Sreenivasulu Kurukuti
The development of mammary gland as a lactogenic tissue is a highly coordinated multistep process. The epithelial cells of lactiferous tubules undergo profound changes during the developmental window of puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. Several hormones including estrogen, progesterone, glucocorticoids and prolactin act in concert, and orchestrate the development of mammary gland. Understanding the gene regulatory networks that coordinate proliferation and differentiation of HC11 Mammary Epithelial stem-like Cells (MEC) under the influence of lactogenic hormones is critical for elucidating the mechanism of lactogenesis in detail...
August 6, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ewa M Michalak, Michael J G Milevskiy, Rachel M Joyce, Johanna F Dekkers, Paul R Jamieson, Bhupinder Pal, Caleb A Dawson, Yifang Hu, Stuart H Orkin, Warren S Alexander, Geoffrey J Lindeman, Gordon K Smyth, Jane E Visvader
Distinct transcriptional states are maintained through organization of chromatin, resulting from the sum of numerous repressive and active histone modifications, into tightly packaged heterochromatin versus more accessible euchromatin. Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is the main mammalian complex responsible for histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and is integral to chromatin organization. Using in vitro and in vivo studies, we show that deletion of Suz12, a core component of all PRC2 complexes, results in loss of H3K27me3 and H3K27me2 dimethylation (H3K27me2), completely blocks normal mammary gland development, and profoundly curtails progenitor activity in 3D organoid cultures...
August 6, 2018: PLoS Biology
Mohamed Saleem, Helen Martin, Penelope Coates
Prolactin is a 23 kDa single chain protein of 199 amino acids synthesised and released principally by lactotrophs in the anterior pituitary gland. The secretion is mainly under inhibitory control by hypothalamic dopamine and regulated in a negative feedback manner, with prolactin itself providing the afferent signal: short-loop feedback. The main function of prolactin is during pregnancy and lactation in the development of mammary glands, milk synthesis and maintenance of milk secretion. Serum prolactin levels rise rapidly during pregnancy with increase in the size and number of lactotrophs...
February 2018: Clinical Biochemist. Reviews
Natasha Emmanuel, Kristopher A Lofgren, Esther A Peterson, David R Meier, Eric H Jung, Paraic A Kenny
BACKGROUND/AIM: GATA3, a transcription factor expressed in luminal breast epithelial cells, is required for mammary gland development. Heterozygous GATA3 mutations occur in up to 15% of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast tumors and have been proposed to be null alleles resulting in haploinsufficiency; however, the mutation spectrum of GATA3 in breast cancer is in sharp contrast to that found in HDR syndrome, a true GATA3 haploinsufficiency disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transgenic mice, 3D cultures and xenografts were used to examine the effect of mutant GATA3 expression on mammary cell proliferation...
August 2018: Anticancer Research
Fan Jiangfeng, Luo Yuzhu, Yu Sijiu, Cui Yan, Xu Gengquan, Wang Libin, Pan Yangyang, He Honghong
Yak milk is superior to common cow milk in nutrients including protein, fat and calories. However, the milk yield of the yak is very much lower compared with other dairy bovines. To understand the molecular mechanisms of lactogenesis, lactation and mammary gland development, mammary tissue samples were taken from five yaks during a dry period (DP, n = 3) and lactation period (LP, n = 2). Two types of cDNA sequence libraries that reflected the different physiological states of the mammary gland were constructed using RNA sequencing technology...
2018: PloS One
Charlotte D LaPlante, Ruby Bansal, Karen A Dunphy, D Joseph Jerry, Laura N Vandenberg
Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals are generally thought to have permanent "organizational" effects when exposures occur during development but not adulthood. Yet, an increasing number of studies have shown that pregnant females are disrupted by endocrine-disrupting chemical exposures, with some effects that are permanent. Here, we examined the long-term effects of exposure to oxybenzone, an estrogenic chemical found in sunscreen and personal care products, on the morphology of the mammary gland in mice exposed during pregnancy and lactation...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Zahra Zendehbad, Pantea Izadi, Abdolreza Daraei, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Nahid Nafissi, Nasim Younosi, Ghasemali Khorasani, Javad Tavakkoly Bazzaz
Background: Young age at First Full Term Pregnancy (FFTP) is an important factor in breast cancer risk reduction. It is postulated that this protective effect is the result of stable molecular signatures imprinted by physiological process of pregnancy, but the molecular mechanism of this protective role is unclear. The aim of the current study was to identify the effect of early FFTP on methylation status of FOXA1 gene body. FOXA1 is an essential transcription factor for mammary gland development and estrogen responsiveness of breast tissue...
July 28, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
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