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mammary gland development

Gabriela L Santos Guasch, J Scott Beeler, Clayton B Marshall, Timothy M Shaver, Quanhu Sheng, Kimberly N Johnson, Kelli L Boyd, Bryan J Venters, Rebecca S Cook, Jennifer A Pietenpol
We report that p73 is expressed in ovarian granulosa cells and that loss of p73 leads to attenuated follicle development, ovulation, and corpus luteum formation, resulting in decreased levels of circulating progesterone and defects in mammary gland branching. Ectopic progesterone in p73-deficient mice completely rescued the mammary branching and partially rescued the ovarian follicle development defects. Performing RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) on transcripts from murine wild-type and p73-deficient antral follicles, we discovered differentially expressed genes that regulate biological adhesion programs...
September 25, 2018: iScience
Adrienne A Cheng, Laura L Hernandez, Wenli Li
Maternal consumption of a high fat diet (HFD) during pregnancy has established adverse effects on the developing neonate. In this study, we aimedto investigate the effect of a HFD on the murine mammary gland during mid-lactation. Female C57BL/6J mice were placed on either a low-fat diet (LFD/10% fat) or HFD (60% fat) from three weeks of age through peak lactation (lactation day 11/L11). After four weeks of consuming either the LFD or HFD, female mice were bred. There were no significant differences in milk yield between treatment groups, which was measured from L1-L9...
October 19, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Kontomanolis N Emmanuel, Fasoulakis Zacharias, Papamanolis Valentinos, Koliantzaki Sofia, Dimopoulos Georgios, Kambas J Nikolaos
OBJECTIVE To review the recent data considering the expression profile and the role of microRNAs in breast tumorigenesis, and their impact on -the vital for breast cancer progression- angiogenesis. METHODS PubMed was searched for studies focused on data that associate microRNA with breast cancer, using the terms ''breast", "mammary gland", "neoplasia'', "angiogenesis" and ''microRNA'' between 1997-2018. RESULTS Aberrant expression of several circulating and tissue miRNAs is observed in human breast neoplasms with the deregulation of several miRNAs having a major participation in breast cancer progression...
October 17, 2018: MicroRNA
Shadia A Elsayed, Entsar A Saad, Sahar I Mostafa
BACKGROUND: Due to the bad side effects of clinically approved anticancer drugs there is a great need to explore and develop new metal-based anticancer drug molecules of high efficiency with less or no side effects. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize new metal complexes of 2-hydrazinobenzothiazole (hbt) and to investigate their potential anticancer characteristics. METHOD: New five complexes; [VO(hbt)2SO4].4H2O (1), [Ru(hbt)2Cl3(H2O)] (2), [M(hbt)2Cl2] [M(II) = Pd (3), Pt (4)] and [Ag(hbt)2]...
October 17, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Sarra Ahmed, Benjamin R Pryce, Khalid N Al-Zahrani, Luc A Sabourin
We have previously shown that the Ste20-like kinase SLK interacts directly with the LIM domain-binding protein 1, Ldb1. Ldb1 knock down in murine fibroblasts activates SLK and enhances cell migration. To investigate the effect of Ldb1 deletion in ErbB2/HER2-driven tumorigenesis, Ldb1 conditional mice were crossed into MMTV-NIC mice, expressing the Neu oncogene and Cre recombinase from a bi-cistronic transgene. Our results show that Ldb1 is expressed in the mammary epithelium and that deletion of Ldb1 does not impair mammary gland development...
November 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
Amy L Skibiel, Bethany Dado-Senn, Thiago F Fabris, Geoffrey E Dahl, Jimena Laporta
Earth's rising temperature has substantial repercussions for food-producing animals by increasing morbidity and mortality, diminishing reproductive potential, and reducing productivity. In the dairy industry this equates to massive losses in milk yield, which occur when cows are exposed to heat stress during lactation or during the non-lactating period between lactations (i.e. dry period). Furthermore, milk yield is significantly lower in first-lactation heifers that experienced fetal heat stress. The mechanisms underlying intrauterine effects of heat stress on the offspring's future lactation have yet to be fully elucidated...
2018: PloS One
Hussein Elgohary, Ahmed M Nawar, Ahmed Zidan, Ahmed A Shoulah, Mohamed T Younes, Ahmed M Hamed
BACKGROUND: Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is a chronic, inflammatory disease affecting the apocrine glands of the axillary, groin, and mammary regions with significant physical and psychosocial sequelae. Surgical excision of the affected tissue is the criterion standard treatment. Advanced cases of axillary HS are associated with high rates of recurrence and require extensive surgical resection with challenging reconstruction associated with risk of postoperative complications. The most effective method for reconstruction of the axilla after excision of HS is yet to be identified...
October 15, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Michael J G Milevskiy, Gurveen K Sandhu, Anna Wronski, Darren Korbie, Brooke L Brewster, Annette Shewan, Stacey L Edwards, Juliet D French, Melissa A Brown
Depletion of BRCA1 protein in mouse mammary glands results in defects in lactational development and increased susceptibility to mammary cancer. Extensive work has focussed on the role of BRCA1 in the normal breast and in the development of breast cancer, the cell of origin for BRCA1 tumours and the protein-coding genes altered in BRCA1 deficient cells. However, the role of non-coding RNAs in BRCA1-deficient cells is poorly understood. To evaluate miRNA expression in BRCA1 deficient mammary cells, RNA sequencing was performed on the mammary glands of Brca1 knockout mice...
September 11, 2018: Oncotarget
Miyuki Kitahara, Yasuo Hozumi, Akie Watanabe, Tatsuo Iijima
Bowen's disease is a type of intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma that commonly develops in areas of the skin exposed to sunlight, such as the scalp, trunk, and limbs. Although development of Bowen's disease in other sites, such as the nipple, is extremely rare, we herein report our experience with one such case. A 76-year-old female presented to our hospital with complaints of right nipple pruritus. We diagnosed Bowen's disease via nipple skin biopsy, and the patient underwent right nipple resection. The deep tissue margin was positive for malignancy; therefore, the patient subsequently underwent right partial mastectomy...
September 2018: Case Reports in Oncology
Cristiane R A Duarte, Chantal Farmer, Marie-France Palin
The impact of body condition in late gestating gilts on gene expression of selected adipokines and their receptors in backfat and mammary fat tissues was studied. The presence of associations between mammary gland composition variables and the mRNA abundance of selected genes and serum concentrations of adiponectin and leptin was also investigated. A total of 45 gilts were selected at mating based on their backfat depth and were allocated to three groups: (1) low backfat (LBF; 12-15 mm; n = 14), (2) medium backfat (MBF; 17-19 mm; n = 15), and (3) high backfat (HBF; 22-26 mm; n = 16)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Stephanie A Metzger, Laura L Hernandez, Garret Suen, Pamela L Ruegg
The milk microbiota is an intriguing area of research because milk with no bacterial growth in culture was long thought to be sterile. Recent DNA sequencing techniques have been developed that do not require bacteria to be culturable, and DNA from new bacteria have been reported in milk from dairy cow mammary glands with or without mastitis. Methodologies and results vary among research groups, and not enough is known about the milk microbiota for the results to be used for diagnosis or prognosis of mastitis...
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Aastha Pokharel, SriDurgaDevi Kolla, Klara Matouskova, Laura N Vandenberg
The CD-1 mouse mammary gland is sexually dimorphic, with males lacking nipples. Recent studies have revealed that the underlying epithelium in the male mammary gland is sensitive to estrogenic environmental chemicals. In ongoing investigations, we observed asymmetric morphology in the left and right male mouse mammary glands. Here, we quantified these asymmetries in the embryonic, prepubertal, pubertal and adult male mammary gland. We found that the right gland was typically larger with more branching points compared to the left gland...
October 10, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Neethan Amit Lobo, Maider Zabala, Dalong Qian, Michael F Clarke
BACKGROUND: Recent studies in murine mammary tissue have identified functionally distinct cell populations that may be isolated by surface phenotype or lineage tracing. Previous groups have shown that CD24med CD49fhigh cells enriched for long-lived mammary epithelial cells can be serially transplanted. METHODS: Flow cytometry-based enrichment of distinct phenotypic populations was assessed for their gene expression profiles and functional proliferative attributes in vitro and in vivo...
October 10, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
Eva Hadadi, Lucas Eduardo Botelho de Souza, Annelise Bennaceur-Griscelli, Hervé Acloque
The circadian clock controls most of the physiological processes in the body throughout days and nights' alternation. Its dysregulation has a negative impact on many aspects of human health, such as obesity, lipid disorders, diabetes, skin regeneration, hematopoiesis and cancer. To date, poor is known on the molecular mechanisms that links mammary gland homeostasis to the circadian clock but recent reports highlight the importance of loss of circadian genes for mammary gland development and during tumour progression in breast cancer...
October 8, 2018: Chronobiology International
Elena Martynova, Maxime Bouchard, Linda Musil, Ales Cvekl
BACKGROUND: The tissue-specific transcriptional programs during normal development require tight control by distal cis-regulatory elements, such as enhancers, with specific DNA sequences recognized by transcription factors, coactivators and chromatin remodeling enzymes. Gata3 is a sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor that regulates formation of multiple tissues and organs, including inner ear, lens, mammary gland, T-cells, urogenital system, and thyroid gland. In the eye, Gata3 has a highly restricted expression domain in the posterior part of the lens vesicle; however, the underlying regulatory mechanisms are unknown...
October 8, 2018: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Kyung Hyun Yoo, Lothar Hennighausen, Ha Youn Shin
Recent advances in genome-wide sequencing technologies have provided researchers with unprecedented opportunities to discover the genomic structures of gene regulatory units in living organisms. In particular, the integration of ChIP-seq, RNA-seq, and DNase-seq techniques has facilitated the mapping of a new class of regulatory elements. These elements, called super-enhancers, can regulate cell-type-specific gene sets and even fine-tune gene expression regulation in response to external stimuli, and have become a hot topic in genome biology...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
C Ventura, C D Zappia, M Lasagna, W Pavicic, S Richard, A D Bolzan, F Monczor, M Núñez, C Cocca
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorus pesticide used for agricultural pest control all over the world. We have previously demonstrated that environmental concentrations of this pesticide alter mammary gland histological structure and hormonal balance in rats chronically exposed. In this work, we analyzed the effects of CPF on mammary tumors development. Our results demonstrated that CPF increases tumor incidence and reduces latency of NMU-induced mammary tumors. Although no changes were observed in tumor growth rate, we found a reduced steroid hormone receptor expression in the tumors of animals exposed to the pesticide...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Peng Wang, Wenhui Chu, Xi Zhang, Bing Li, Junzhou Wu, Lihua Qi, Yu Yu, Hongquan Zhang
Integrin-interacting protein Kindlin-2, as a focal adhesion protein, promotes growth and progression of breast cancer. However, the precise mechanism that underlie the role of Kindlin-2 in breast cancer is elusive. Here, we report that the expression of Kindlin-2 positively correlated with DNA methyltransferase 1(DNMT1) in breast cancer patients. Further, we found that DNMT1 was upregulated in mammary gland tissues of mammary specific Kindlin-2 transgenic mice. More importantly, high expression of DNMT1 was observed in mammary tumors formed by Kindlin-2 transgenic mice...
October 2, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Hui Zhang, Tricia Fredericks, Gaofeng Xiong, Yifei Qi, Piotr G Rychahou, Jia-Da Li, Taina Pihlajaniemi, Wei Xu, Ren Xu
BACKGROUND: Increased collagen expression and deposition are associated with cancer progression and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. However, function and regulation of membrane-associated collagen in breast cancer have not been determined. Collagen XIII is a type II transmembrane protein within the collagen superfamily. Experiments in tissue culture and knockout mouse models show that collagen XIII is involved in cell adhesion and differentiation of certain cell types. In the present study, we determined roles of collagen XIII in breast cancer progression and metastasis...
October 1, 2018: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
A L Skibiel, F Peñagaricano, R Amorín, B M Ahmed, G E Dahl, J Laporta
Exposure to intrauterine heat stress during late gestation affects offspring performance into adulthood. However, underlying mechanistic links between thermal insult in fetal life and postnatal outcomes are not completely understood. We examined morphology, DNA methylation, and gene expression of liver and mammary gland for bull calves and heifers that were gestated under maternal conditions of heat stress or cooling (i.e. in utero heat stressed vs. in utero cooled calves). Mammary tissue was harvested from dairy heifers during their first lactation and liver from bull calves at birth...
October 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
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