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Bone marrow

Christina Yacoob, Miles Darnell Lange, Kristen Cohen, Kanan Lathia, Junli Feng, Jolene Glenn, Sara Carbonetti, Brian Oliver, Vladimir Vigdorovich, David Noah Sather, Leonidas Stamatatos
Broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bNAbs) isolated from infected subjects display protective potential in animal models. Their elicitation by immunization is thus highly desirable. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) is the sole viral target of bnAbs, but is also targeted by binding, non-neutralizing antibodies. Env-based immunogens tested so far in various animal species and humans have elicited binding and autologous neutralizing antibodies but not bNAbs (with a few notable exceptions). The underlying reasons for this are not well understood despite intensive efforts to characterize the binding specificities of the elicited antibodies; mostly by employing serologic methodologies and monoclonal antibody isolation and characterization...
June 22, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Yongchun Liang, Haifang Wang, Meie Niu, Xiaming Zhu, Jianzheng Cai, Xiubei Wang
BACKGROUND: The correlation between social support and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has been well documented, but whether social support changes or whether social support consistently plays a significant role in the various phases of the treatment process remains unknown among hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to assess the changing trends of HRQOL and social support and evaluate the relationship between HRQOL and social support before and after transplantation...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Nursing
Kun Wang, Shuai Li, Yong Gao, Xiaobo Feng, Wei Liu, Rongjin Luo, Yu Song, JiTu, Yingle Liu, Cao Yang
OBJECTIVE: Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) is an essential component of the signaling complex that mediates osteoclastogenesis. As an adaptor protein of E3 ligase function, TRAF6 regulates NF-κB signaling via TAK1 and I-κB kinase (IKK) activation. Here, we investigated novel mechanisms by which TRAF6 signaling is regulated under receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. DESIGN: A yeast two-hybrid screen system identified cellular factors that interact with TRAF6...
June 19, 2018: Bone
Friederike Bothe, Benedict Lotz, Elisabeth Seebach, Jennifer Fischer, Eliane Hesse, Solvig Diederichs, Wiltrud Richter
Bioactive functional scaffolds are essential for support of cell-based strategies to improve bone regeneration. Adipose-tissue-derived-stromal cells (ASC) are more accessible multipotent cells with faster proliferation than bone-marrow-derived-stromal-cells (BMSC) having potential to replace BMSC for therapeutic stimulation of bone-defect healing. Their osteogenic potential is, however lower compared to BMSC, a deficit that may be overcome in growth factor-rich orthotopic bone defects with enhanced bone-conductive scaffolds...
June 19, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Katsuhide Fujita, Seiji Take, Ryotaro Tani, Junko Maru, Sawae Obara, Shigehisa Endoh
Graphene and related materials (GRMs) have unique optical and thermal characteristics and are expected to be adopted for industrial applications. However, there are concerns with respect to their safety to human health. To conduct cytotoxicity and mutagenicity assessments, exfoliated graphene (EGr) dispersed in Tween-20® was diluted in cell culture medium. Rat alveolar macrophage viability significantly decreased after 24 h exposure to 1 and 10 μg/mL EGr. No significant levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species were detected in the 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate assay after 24 h of exposure to EGr...
June 19, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Yang Song, Hong-Yan Zhao, Zhong-Shi Lyu, Xie-Na Cao, Min-Min Shi, Qi- Wen, Fei-Fei Tang, Yu Wang, Lan-Ping Xu, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Xiao-Jun Huang, Yuan Kong
Poor graft function (PGF) is a life-threatening complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) and is characterized by defective hematopoiesis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to support hematopoiesis, but little is known about the role of MSCs in the pathogenesis of PGF. In the current prospective case-control study, we evaluated whether the number and function of bone marrow (BM) MSCs in PGF patients differed from those in good graft function (GGF) patients. We found that BM MSCs from PGF patients expanded more slowly and appeared flattened and larger, exhibiting more apoptosis and senescence than MSCs from GGF patients...
June 19, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Lijun Bai, Giles Best, Wei Xia, Lyndsay Peters, Kelly Wong, Christopher Ward, Matthew Greenwood
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in haematopoiesis and regulate the self-renewal, migration and myeloid differentiation of haemopoeitic stem cells (HSCs). This study was conducted to determine whether ROS levels in donor HSCs correlate with neutrophil and platelet engraftment in patients following bone marrow transplantation. Cryopreserved HSCs samples from 51 patients who underwent autologous transplantation were studied. Levels of intracellular ROS were assessed by flow cytometry using 2',7' dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2 DCFDA) in the CD45+ /CD34+ HSC population...
June 19, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Bryan M Saltzman, Jonathan C Riboh
CONTEXT: Articular cartilage injuries and early osteoarthritis are among the most common conditions seen by sports medicine physicians. Nonetheless, treatment options for articular degeneration are limited once the osteoarthritic cascade has started. Intense research is focused on the use of biologics, cartilage regeneration, and transplantation to help maintain and improve cartilage health. An underappreciated component of joint health is the subchondral bone. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive, nonsystematic review of the published literature was completed via a PubMed/MEDLINE search of the keywords "subchondral" AND "bone" from database inception through December 1, 2016...
June 1, 2018: Sports Health
Paulina Podszywalow-Bartnicka, Silvia Maifrede, Bac Viet Le, Margaret Nieborowska-Skorska, Katarzyna Piwocka, Tomasz Skorski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Yingcai Zhao, Changhu Xue, Tiantian Zhang, YuMing Wang
Sea cucumbers, belonging to the phylum Echinodermata, have been valued for centuries as a nutritious and functional food with various bioactivities. Sea cucumbers can produce highly active substances, notably saponins, the main secondary metabolites, which are the basis of their chemical defense. The saponins are mostly triterpene glycosides with triterpenes or steroid in aglycone, which possess multiple biological properties including anti-tumor, hypolipidemic activity, improvement of nonalcoholic fatty liver, inhibition of fat accumulation, anti-hyperuricemia, promotion of bone marrow hematopoiesis, anti-hypertension, etc...
June 22, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Wenliang Geng, Susan Kearney, Stephen Nelson
Aplastic anemia (AA) is characterized by multilineage cytopenias and bone marrow hypocellularity. Severe AA can be treated with immunosuppressive therapy (IST) and/or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The thrombopoietin agonist eltrombopag has been shown to induce hematopoietic recovery and transfusion independence in adults with refractory and relapsed AA. Recently, upfront eltrombopag therapy in patients with AA in combination with IST has shown efficacy. Data for its use without concurrent IST in pediatric patients with AA remain sparse...
June 22, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Hui Zhao, Flora S Kalish, Ronald J Wong, David K Stevenson
PROBLEM: Uterine and placental macrophages play critical roles in maintaining a normal pregnancy. The majority of these macrophages are believed to be alternatively activated macrophages (M2). METHOD OF STUDY: Mouse bone marrow cells were differentiated into macrophages and polarized to M2 in vitro by treatment with IL-4 [M2a] or IL-10 [M2c] and M1 with LPS/IFN-γ as controls. Macrophage subtypes were confirmed by surface markers and characterized by gene expression profiles...
June 22, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
Iveta Oravcova, Eva Mikuskova, Michaela Leitnerova, Jan Gyarfas, Andrea Mlcakova, Peter Szepe, Lukas Plank, Ludmila Demitrovicova, Vanda Mikudova, Silvia Cingelova, Michal Mego, Lubos Drgona
Myeloid sarcoma is a rare presentation of acute leukemia as a solid tumor at various extramedullary sites. It may present concurrently, before or after the onset of systemic bone marrow leukemia. Unusual clinical localization may lead to misdiagnosis, or delayed diagnosis and treatment. We describe the first case, to our knowledge, of de novo myeloid sarcoma of the breast confirmed as acute promyelocytic leukemia. Immunohistochemical analysis, flow cytometry, fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis and molecular analysis using RQ-PCR of tissue samples should be routine in determining the correct diagnosis in this setting...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
Thomas A Ollila, Adam J Olszewski
Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) arises from extranodal organs in about 30% of cases. Its prognosis and risk of recurrence in the central nervous system (CNS) vary according to the primary site of origin. Recent studies begin to clarify these differences using molecular classification. Testicular, breast, and uterine DLBCL (as well as possibly primary cutaneous DLBCL, leg-type) share a high prevalence of the non-germinal center B cell (non-GCB) phenotype and the MYD88/CD79B-mutated (MCD) genotype. These biologic features, which resemble primary CNS lymphoma, may underlie their stage-independent propensity for CNS involvement...
June 21, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
Trushil Shah, Shanshan Qin, Mona Vashi, Dan N Predescu, Niranjan Jeganathan, Cristina Bardita, Balaji Ganesh, Salvatore diBartolo, Louis F Fogg, Robert A Balk, Sanda A Predescu
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary endothelial cells' (ECs) injury and apoptotic death are necessary and sufficient for the pathogenesis of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), regardless of epithelial damage. Interaction of dysfunctional ECs with circulatory extracellular vesicles (EVs) holds therapeutic promise in ARDS. However, the presence in the blood of long-term ARDS survivors of EVs with a distinct phenotype compared to the EVs of non-surviving patients is not reported. With a multidisciplinary translational approach, we studied EVs from the blood of 33 patients with moderate-to-severe ARDS...
June 22, 2018: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Hong Ruan, Renshun Xiao, Xinghai Jiang, Biao Zhao, Kai Wu, Zongzuan Shao, Zhongjie Zhang, Huyang Duan, Yulin Song
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are multipotential differentiation cells which can differentiate into different cell types such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, hepatocytes, endothelial cells, and neuronal cells. Such multipotential differentiation makes them attractive for stem cell-based therapy aimed at treating previously incurable disorders. In the present work, we encapsulated BMSCs into a hydrogel with a three-dimensional (3D) network of nanofibers, formed from self-assembling of peptide amphiphile...
June 21, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Wei Zhao, Xiaodong Li, Yuanzhen Peng, Yiwen Qin, Jiangping Pan, Jiliang Li, Aihua Xu, Michael S Ominsky, Christopher Cardozo, Jian Q Feng, Hua Zhu Ke, William A Bauman, Weiping Qin
To date, no efficacious therapy exists that will prevent or treat the severe osteoporosis in individuals with neurologically motor-complete spinal cord injury (SCI). Recent preclinical studies have demonstrated that sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) can prevent sublesional bone loss after acute SCI in rats. However, it remains unknown whether sclerostin inhibition reverses substantial bone loss in the vast majority of the SCI population who have been injured for several years. This preclinical study tested the efficacy of Scl-Ab to reverse the bone loss that has occurred in a rodent model after chronic motor-complete SCI...
June 21, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Roumei Xing, Fang Liu, Yiqing Yang, Xueqin Cui, Tongtong Wang, Ling Xie, Yongliang Zhao, Lei Fang, Tingfang Yi, Biao Zheng, Mingyao Liu, Huaqing Chen
GPR54 is highly expressed in the central nervous system and plays a crucial role in pubertal development. However, GRP54 is also expressed in the immune system, implying possible immunoregulatory functions. Here we investigated the role of GPR54 in T cell and immune tolerance. GPR54 deficiency led to an enlarged thymus, an increased number of thymocytes, and altered thymic micro-architecture starting around puberty, indicating GPR54 function in T-cell development through its regulatory effect on the gonadal system...
June 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
Christopher J Burke, William R Walter, Sushma Gaddam, Hien Pham, James S Babb, Joseph Sanger, Fabio Ponzo
OBJECTIVES: To correlate patterns of 18 F-FDG uptake on whole-body PET-CT with MR findings and compare the degree of FDG activity between symptomatic and asymptomatic knees. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective database query was performed using codes for knee MRI as well as whole-body PET-CT. Patients with malignant disease involving the knee or hardware were excluded. Patients who had both studies performed within 1 year between 2012 and 2017 were included for analysis...
June 21, 2018: Skeletal Radiology
Hitoshi Kayatani, Naoki Nitta, Suzuko Moritani, Kazuhiko Nozaki
Background: Primary lymphomas in the choroid plexus are much less frequent than primary lymphomas in the brain parenchyma. Case Description: A 66-year-old male patient was referred to our department with a right intraventricular mass that had been diagnosed by biopsy at another hospital as anaplastic ependymoma. The patient underwent subtotal removal of the tumor via a transcortical inferior temporal gyrus approach. The mass was attached to the choroid plexus in the right atrium...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
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