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Preschool Child

Sylvana M Côté, Massimiliano Orri, Mikko Marttila, Tiina Ristikari
BACKGROUND: To ensure their protection and healthy development, children exposed to adverse family circumstances might be placed in foster homes, institutions, or kinship care (out-of-home placement). We aimed to compare the rates of psychiatric diagnoses and criminal convictions in young adulthood (ages 18-25 years) among children who were first placed at ages 2-6 years with those of children who were not placed and who had similar sociodemographic and family characteristics. METHOD: We did a population-wide cohort study using the 1987 Finnish Birth Cohort, which collects longitudinal data linking nationwide child welfare, medical, and criminal registers for all 59 476 livebirths in Finland in 1987...
September 2018: Lancet Child & Adolescent Health
Brittany A Robinson, Cassandra L Hendrix, H Sloan Krakovsky, Alicia K Smith, Patricia A Brennan
The current study aimed to explore the relationship between maternal exposure to various types of trauma and child anxiety outcomes, and to investigate maternal depression and parenting quality as potential mediators of these relationships. Aims were examined within a sample of 185 mother-child dyads who participated in a longitudinal study assessing maternal trauma history, maternal depression, and parenting quality at preschool age (ages 2.5 to 5.5 years), and for whom maternal and secondary caregiver reports of child anxiety were obtained at school age (ages 6 to 11 years)...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Amber E Vaughn, Rachel Bartlett, Courtney T Luecking, Heidi Hennink-Kaminski, Dianne S Ward
Although social marketing principles have been successfully employed in school-based interventions to prevent obesity, use in early care and education (ECE) settings has been limited. This paper describes the use of the social marketing approach to develop an ECE-based intervention that encourages an ECE provider-parent partnership to improve the quality of preschool children's diets and their level of physical activity. A six-step social marketing approach for public health interventions guided the development of this ECE-based intervention...
August 10, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Steven Hope, Jessica Deighton, Nadia Micali, Catherine Law
OBJECTIVE: We assessed whether maternal mental health problems increased rates for child injury during the preschool years and mid-childhood, and the extent to which associations could be accounted for by a range of potential explanatory factors. DESIGN: We analysed the UK Millennium Cohort Study, a nationally representative sample with data collected throughout childhood. Multinomial regression was used to investigate whether two measures of maternal mental health (diagnosed depression/anxiety and psychological distress) were associated with subsequent childhood injury...
August 13, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
Jin Zhao, Yunting Zhang, Fan Jiang, Patrick Ip, Frederick Ka Wing Ho, Yuning Zhang, Hong Huang
OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between excessive screen time and psychosocial well-being in preschool children, and the potential mediating role of body mass index, sleep duration, and parent-child interaction. STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in Shanghai, China using stratified random sampling design. A representative sample of 20 324 children aged 3-4 years old from 191 kindergartens participated in this study. Parents completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire and reported the child's time spent on screen exposure, sleep duration, height, weight, and parent-child interactive activities...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Sarah Miragoli, Stefania Balzarotti, Elena Camisasca, Paola Di Blasio
Based on the Social Information Processing model of parenting risk for child abuse, the present study examined the associations between mothers' and fathers' perception of child behavior and child abuse potential, as well as whether parenting stress mediates the association between these constructs. Two hundred and fifty-nine mother-father couples raising preschool children answered the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI). The results of dyadic path analysis showed that perception of child behavior was related to heightened parenting stress and abuse potential in both mothers and fathers...
August 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Thomas G Power, Karina Silva Garcia, Ashley D Beck, L Suzanne Goodell, Susan L Johnson, Sheryl O Hughes
BACKGROUND: Demandingness and responsiveness are dimensions used in general parenting as well as the feeding literature to measure parent attitudes and behaviors. These dimensions can be treated as continuous variables (variable-centered) or used to form groups of parents based on scores on each dimension (person-centered). Research focusing on these dimensions in the feeding domain has relied exclusively on maternal self-reports; observational studies of feeding styles have yet to be conducted...
August 9, 2018: Appetite
Pernilla Sandvik, Anna Ek, Maria Somaraki, Ulf Hammar, Karin Eli, Paulina Nowicka
BACKGROUND: Characteristics of picky eaters of different weight status have not been sufficiently investigated. We used two newly developed screening cut-offs for picky eating in the Food fussiness (FF) subscale of the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to investigate the prevalence and characteristics of picky eaters in preschool-aged children with thinness, normal weight, overweight or obesity. METHODS: Data for 1272 preschoolers (mean age 4.9 years) were analyzed...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Shari L Barkin, William J Heerman, Evan C Sommer, Nina C Martin, Maciej S Buchowski, David Schlundt, Eli K Po'e, Laura E Burgess, Juan Escarfuller, Charlotte Pratt, Kimberly P Truesdale, June Stevens
Importance: Prevention of obesity during childhood is critical for children in underserved populations, for whom obesity prevalence and risk of chronic disease are highest. Objective: To test the effect of a multicomponent behavioral intervention on child body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) growth trajectories over 36 months among preschool-age children at risk for obesity. Design, Setting, and Participants: A randomized clinical trial assigned 610 parent-child pairs from underserved communities in Nashville, Tennessee, to a 36-month intervention targeting health behaviors or a school-readiness control...
August 7, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Feyza Corapci, Hande Benveniste, Sibel Bilge
This study examined the relative contribution of mothers' self-construal to parenting above and beyond family socioeconomic status (SES) and maternal efficacy beliefs about parenting. A total of 58 Turkish mothers and their preschool-aged children participated in dyadic tasks in the laboratory setting. For the measurement of parenting, direct behavioral observations of mother-child interactions in three interaction contexts were utilized, and mother ratings of emotion socialization were obtained. Mothers also reported on their parenting efficacy, self-construal, child temperament, and family demographics...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Andrea De Giacomo, Annamaria Coppola, Teresa Tricarico, Vanessa Terrenzio, Mariella Margari, Maria Giuseppina Petruzzelli, Francesco Craig
AIM: This study examines the effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on language acquisition in preschool children. It also evaluates the differences between the development of spontaneous imitation and language skills in verbal and nonverbal children. METHODS: New Reynell Developmental Language Scales (NRDLS) was administered to a sample of 60 children aged from 3 years to 5 years and 11 months, with apparently normal language development. The NRDLS were administered in a public nursery school in a poor area of Bari and to a private nursery school in the "Noicattaro" residential district, in order to differentiate SES...
July 2018: Rivista di Psichiatria
Lucinda K Bell, Elena Jansen, Kimberley Mallan, Anthea M Magarey, Lynne Daniels
Previous studies have investigated associations between individual foods or food group intake, and breastfeeding duration, age of solid introduction and food neophobia. This study aimed to investigate associations between whole dietary patterns in young children, and breastfeeding duration, age of solid introduction and food neophobia. Parents of children (N = 234) aged 1-5 years completed an online questionnaire. Dietary risk scores were calculated using the Toddler (1-3 years) or Preschool (>3-<5 years) Dietary Questionnaires which evaluates the previous week's food-group intake (scored 0-100; higher score = higher risk of poor dietary quality)...
June 22, 2018: Eating Behaviors
Jill S Cannon, M Rebecca Kilburn, Lynn A Karoly, Teryn Mattox, Ashley N Muchow, Maya Buenaventura
The past two decades have been characterized by a growing body of research from diverse disciplines-child development, psychology, neuroscience, and economics, among others-demonstrating the importance of establishing a strong foundation in the early years of life. The research evidence has served to document the range of early childhood services that can successfully put children and families on the path toward lifelong health and well-being, especially those at greatest risk of poor outcomes. As early childhood interventions have proliferated, researchers have evaluated whether the programs improve children's outcomes and, when they do, whether the improved outcomes generate benefits that can outweigh the program costs...
March 2018: Rand Health Quarterly
Gözde İnci, Serpil Uğur Baysal, Ali Rıza Şişman
Aim: Children are commonly affected by environmental tobacco smoke. The presence of exposure can be deduced from urinary urine kotinine/creatinine ratio and history. The aim of this study was to investigate passive smoking in healthy children between one-month and five year old, and to determine the adverse effects of passive smoking on child health. Material and Methods: Children between one-month and five year old who were regularly monitored for health were included following informed consent given by their parents...
March 2018: Türk Pediatri Arşivi
Ana Cristina Lindsay, Carlos André Moura Arruda, Márcia Maria Tavares Machado, Gabriela Pereira De Andrade, Mary L Greaney
OBJECTIVE: To explore how Brazilian-born immigrant mothers living in the USA obtain information about physical activity (PA) and screen time (ST) behaviours for their preschool-aged children. RESEARCH DESIGN: Focus group discussions (FGDs) were used to gain an in-depth understanding of research topics. All FGDs were audio-recorded and professionally transcribed verbatim. The Portuguese transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis, an iterative process of coding the data in phases to create meaningful patterns...
August 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Yuto Kumaki, Yusuke Moriguchi, Masako Myowa-Yamakoshi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Justin E Karr, Corson N Areshenkoff, Philippe Rast, Scott M Hofer, Grant L Iverson, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) has been frequently applied to executive function measurement since first used to identify a three-factor model of inhibition, updating, and shifting; however, subsequent CFAs have supported inconsistent models across the life span, ranging from unidimensional to nested-factor models (i.e., bifactor without inhibition). This systematic review summarized CFAs on performance-based tests of executive functions and reanalyzed summary data to identify best-fitting models. Eligible CFAs involved 46 samples ( N = 9,756)...
August 6, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
Melinda Randall, Kristine J Egberts, Aarti Samtani, Rob Jpm Scholten, Lotty Hooft, Nuala Livingstone, Katy Sterling-Levis, Susan Woolfenden, Katrina Williams
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behaviourally diagnosed condition. It is defined by impairments in social communication or the presence of restricted or repetitive behaviours, or both. Diagnosis is made according to existing classification systems. In recent years, especially following publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition (DSM-5; APA 2013), children are given the diagnosis of ASD, rather than subclassifications of the spectrum such as autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified...
July 24, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Lilly-Marlen Bihler, Alexandru Agache, Katharina Kohl, Jessica A Willard, Birgit Leyendecker
The quality of early childhood education and care (ECEC) is important for children's development. One instrument that was developed to assess an aspect of ECEC quality is the Classroom Assessment Scoring System for pre-kindergarten children (CLASS Pre-K). We examined the factorial validity of the instrument using data from 177 German preschool classrooms. The three-factor teaching through interaction model (Hamre et al., 2013) was contrasted to a one-factor, a two-factor, and a bifactor model as proposed by Hamre et al...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Anne-Mette Lange, David Daley, Morten Frydenberg, Tine Houmann, Lene Juel Kristensen, Charlotte Rask, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Signe Søndergaard-Baden, Aparna Udupi, Per Hove Thomsen
OBJECTIVE: Parent training is recommended for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in preschool children. Evidence-based interventions are important, but only if they produce better outcomes than usual care. METHOD: The authors conducted a multicenter, 2-arm, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial in routine specialist ADHD clinics in the Danish Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services. Children (N = 164, 3-7 years old) with ADHD received a well-established parent training program (New Forest Parenting Programme; n = 88) or treatment as usual (n = 76)...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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