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Preschool Child

E Schworer, D J Fidler, E Lunkenheimer, L A Daunhauer
BACKGROUND: Parenting behaviours influence many domains of child development, and recent work has demonstrated the specific effects of parenting on the development of executive function (EF) abilities. The relationship between parent-child interaction patterns and EF has been examined in typically developing (TD) children but has not yet been examined in dyads where the child has a diagnosis of Down syndrome (DS). METHOD: The current study examines the differences in patterns of parenting behaviours between DS dyads and dyads with TD children equated on nonverbal mental age...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Line C Gjerde, Espen M Eilertsen, Thalia C Eley, Tom A McAdams, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Espen Røysamb, Eivind Ystrom
Do associations between maternal anxiety symptoms and offspring mental health remain after comparing differentially exposed siblings? Participants were 17,724 offspring siblings and 11,553 mothers from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study. Mothers reported anxiety and depressive symptoms at 30 weeks' gestation, and 0.5, 1.5, 3, and 5 years postpartum. Child internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed at ages 1.5, 3, and 5, and modeled using multilevel analyses with repeated measures nested within siblings, nested within mothers...
December 11, 2018: Child Development
Rita Baião, Pasco Fearon, Jay Belsky, Joana Baptista, Alexandra Carneiro, Raquel Pinto, Marlene Nogueira, César Oliveira, Isabel Soares, Ana R Mesquita
The oxytocinergic system is a primary biological system involved in regulating a child's needs for bonding and for protection from threats. It is responsive to social experiences in close relationships, though evidence across studies is not entirely consistent. Guided by previous literature, we investigated individual and environmental factors predicting and presumably affecting children's oxytocin (OT) response during mother-child interaction. by focusing on children's OXTR genotype, and maternal behavior, respectively...
November 16, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Maureen H Craig, JoAnna M Scott, Rebecca L Slayton, Amy L Walker, Donald L Chi
BACKGROUND: Preschool-aged children with special health care needs (CSHCN) from low-income households are at increased risk of developing poor oral health. The study goal was to assess preventive dental care use for CSHCN enrolled in Medicaid within Washington state's Access to Baby and Child Dentistry (ABCD) program. METHODS: The authors analyzed 2012 Medicaid eligibility and claims files for children younger than 6 years in the ABCD program (N = 206,488). The authors used medical diagnosis and eligibility data to identify each child's special needs status (no or yes)...
October 19, 2018: Journal of the American Dental Association
Haley L Glover, Kenneth O St Louis, Mary E Weidner
BACKGROUND: Theories relating to young children's social cognitive maturity and their prevailing social groups play important roles in the acquisition of attitudes. Previous research has shown that preschool and kindergarten children's stuttering attitudes are characterized by stronger negative beliefs and self reactions than those of parents. By contrast, 12 year-old children's stuttering attitudes have been shown to be similar to their parents' attitudes. Other research indicates that parental stuttering attitudes are no different from attitudes of adults who are not parents...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Fluency Disorders
Denise Froon-Torenstra, Elise Beket, Ali M Khader, Majed Hababeh, Arwa Nasir, Akihiro Seita, Marc A Benninga, Maartje M van den Berg
AIM: Increasing evidence exists with respect to the relation between stressful life events and functional constipation (FC). We aimed to investigate the prevalence of FC in Palestinian refugee preschool children and to determine if stress and trauma exposure are risk factors of FC in these children. METHODS: From November 2013 until May 2014, a cross-sectional survey was conducted in West Bank, Gaza and Jordan. Mothers of 862 Palestinian refugee children aged 7-48 months were interviewed on defecation pattern, socio-economic factors and the child's exposure to traumatic events...
2018: PloS One
Monalisa Cesarino Gomes, Érick Tássio Neves, Matheus França Perazzo, Saul Martins Paiva, Fernanda Morais Ferreira, Ana Flávia Granville-Garcia
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of individual and contextual factors on the occurrence of toothache in five-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 756 five-year-old children from public and private preschools in a city in the countryside of the northeast of Brazil. The sample was determined through probabilistic sampling in two stages (preschools and children). The children included could not have systematic diseases, permanent tooth or orthodontic treatment...
November 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Eun Byul Choi, Ji Eun Lee, Ji-Yun Hwang
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although a lot of effort has been put into increasing fruit and vegetable intakes in preschool children, vegetable intake in this group is still low. This study investigated whether nutrition education focusing on fruit and vegetable intakes can affect preschoolers' fruit and vegetable intakes as well as their behavioral outcomes. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty-five preschoolers (54.3% boys, n = 19) aged 4-6 years residing in Seoul underwent weekly nutrition education intervention (8 sessions) between May and July 2016...
December 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
D K Kudayarov, E K Turdubaeva
Objective: This paper presents the results of a risk factors-analysis and the analysis of physical development of pre-school children born with a low birth weight to teenage mothers. Materials and Methods: The study has also identifed unfavorable factors affecting the birth of low weight children and the lag in physical development of preschool children born with low birth weight to adolescent mothers. Results: According to our research, children born out of wedlock are mostly born with low birth weight (66...
October 2018: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Andrea Romanos-Nanclares, Itziar Zazpe, Susana Santiago, Lucía Marín, Anaïs Rico-Campà, Nerea Martín-Calvo
Parental nutrition knowledge and attitudes play a fundamental role in their children's food knowledge. However, little is known about their influence on their children's diet quality and micronutrient intake. Thus, we aimed to assess the association of parental nutrition knowledge and healthy-eating attitudes with their children's adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern and micronutrient adequacy. Parental healthy-eating attitudes and knowledge of the quality of their child's diet as well as anthropometric, lifestyle, and nutrient intake characteristics were recorded with a basal questionnaire that included a 140-item-food frequency-questionnaire...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
Thomas G Power, Susan L Johnson, Ashley D Beck, AnaMaria Diaz Martinez, Sheryl O Hughes
Currently, a number of questionnaires exist assessing a wide range of food parenting practices with young children. In 2016, a concept map covering three food parenting domains-coercive control, parental structure, and autonomy support-was published along with a critical review of the literature. Mapping existing food parenting questionnaires onto these concepts showed that the major focus had been on coercive control. Important aspects of the parenting process around feeding have been inadvertently omitted-parental responsiveness to children's fullness cues, parental strategies to encourage children to try new foods, and parental practices related to children's portion sizes...
November 30, 2018: Appetite
Suzanne N Landi, Sarah Radke, Stephanie M Engel, Kim Boggess, Til Stürmer, Anna S Howe, Michele Jonsson Funk
Importance: Metformin is an emerging option for treating gestational diabetes (GDM). However, because metformin crosses the placenta, patients and clinicians are concerned with its long-term effect on child health. Objective: To estimate the association of treating GDM with metformin vs insulin with child growth and development. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based cohort study of New Zealand women treated with metformin or insulin for GDM from 2005 to 2012 and their children...
December 3, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Alexander K Schuster, Heike M Elflein, Christiane Diefenbach, Christine Gräf, Jochem König, Martina F Schmidt, Kathleen Schnick-Vollmer, Michael S Urschitz
BACKGROUND: Each child in Germany undergoes a preschool health examination including vision screening and recommendations for further ophthalmic care. This study investigated the frequency of and adherence to these recommendations. METHODS: A population-based prospective cohort study was performed in the area of Mainz-Bingen (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany). All preschoolers were examined at the statutory preschool health examination, which includes vision testing (Rodenstock vision screener) with available correction in the last preschool year...
2018: PloS One
Bengu Cetinkaya, Turkan Turan
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the health and safety knowledge of preschool children. METHODS: The descriptive study was conducted in the Aegean Region of Western Turkey from November 2009 to February 2010, and comprised children aged 4-6 years attending five nursery schools. The data-collection period lasted 3 months and the subjects were enrolled from class lists using random sampling technique. Preschool Child Health and Safety Knowledge Assesment Form and a sociodemographic data form were used for data collection...
December 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Kitty J Chen, Sherry S Gao, Duangporn Duangthip, Edward C M Lo, Chun Hung Chu
The aim of the present review was to describe the updated prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) among 5-year-old children globally. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search to identify English publications from January 2013 to December 2017 using MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, and Scopus. Search MeSH key words were "dental caries" and "child, preschool". The inclusion criteria were epidemiological surveys reporting the caries status of 5-year-old children with the decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth (dmft) index...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Eva Eurenius, Linda Richter Sundberg, Masoud Vaezghasemi, Sven-Arne Silfverdal, Anneli Ivarsson, Marie Lindkvist
AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate mental health with respect to social-emotional problems among three-year-olds in relation to their gender, custody arrangements and place of residence. METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based design was used, encompassing 7,179 three-year-olds in northern Sweden during the period 2014-2017 from the regional Salut Register. Descriptive and comparative analyses were performed based on parents' responses on the Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional (ASQ:SE), supplemented with items on gender, custody arrangement and place of residence...
November 29, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Tanja Sobko, Zhenzhen Jia, Gavin Brown
BACKGROUND: The urban environment has been criticized for promoting 'nature-deficit' and 'child-nature disconnectedness'. Keeping in mind the importance of nature exposure and its extensive health benefits, many environmental programs around the world hope to (re)connect children with nature. To evaluate the effectiveness of such efforts, valid tools to measure Connectedness to Nature (CN) are needed but do not exist today, especially for use with pre-schoolers. METHODS: The original CN Index was modified and tested among the Parents of Preschool Children (CNI-PPC) in an urban setting (Hong Kong) for its internal consistency (n = 299) and external validity (n = 194)...
2018: PloS One
Christina G McDonnell, Catherine C Bradley, Stephen M Kanne, Clara Lajonchere, Zachary Warren, Laura A Carpenter
Differential diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is challenging, and uncertainty regarding a child's diagnosis may result in under-identification or prolonged diagnostic pathways. The current study examined diagnostic certainty, or how sure clinicians were that their diagnosis was accurate, among 478 toddler and preschool-aged children referred for possible ASD to academic medical specialty clinics. Overall, 60 percent of diagnoses were made with complete certainty. Clinicians were more certain when positively identifying ASD than ruling it out...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Malin Garemo, Amal Elamin, Andrew Gardner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Eating habits established during childhood affect health in later life. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) has a high prevalence of obesity in adolescents and adults; however, data on the health of preschool children are scarce. This study assessed the weight status and dietary habits of Emirati and non-Emirati children attending nurseries in Abu Dhabi, UAE. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Weight and height were measured in children aged 18 months-4 years...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Jenna E Finch, Aisha K Yousafzai, Muneera Rasheed, Jelena Obradović
The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is widely-used to measure symptoms of common childhood behavioral problems that may lead to mental health difficulties. In a sample of 1,302 highly-disadvantaged mothers and their preschoolers, we evaluated the factor structure and reliability of the parent-report version of the SDQ in rural Pakistan. Confirmatory factor analyses suggested that the original structure of the SDQ was not appropriate for our data. We created conceptually- and empirically-coherent measures of children's externalizing behavior problems and prosocial skills...
2018: PloS One
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