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Preschool Child

Jamie K Capal, Christopher Carosella, Elora Corbin, Paul S Horn, Rebecca Caine, Patricia Manning-Courtney
OBJECTIVES: The association between autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and epilepsy is well-known. Abnormalities on electroencephalography (EEG) results have been reported in patients with ASD without a history of seizures. However, little is known about the relationship between abnormalities on EEG results and the core features of ASD. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between the presence of epilepsy and/or abnormalities on EEG results and disease-associated impairments in young children with ASD...
October 16, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Nikos Papadogiannakis, Maaike Joerink, Erika Rindsjö, Annika Scheynius, Johan Alm
AIM: To investigate; i) if maternal sensitization to allergens, and lifestyle can influence the risk of acute as well as chronic inflammation of the placenta, in the forms of chorioamnionitis and villitis, respectively, and ii) if these placental inflammations are associated with the outcome of sensitization for the child during preschool age. METHODS: Placentas from term uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 275) in the ALADDIN study were analysed for the presence of acute chorioamnionitis and chronic villitis...
October 18, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Eve Reynaud, Anne Forhan, Barbara Heude, Marie-Aline Charles, Sabine Plancoulaine
The objective was to study the longitudinal associations between inattention/hyperactivity symptoms and night-waking in preschool-years, in light of their joint evolution. Within the French birth-cohort study EDEN, repeated measures of 1342 children's night-waking and inattention/hyperactivity symptoms were collected at age 2, 3 and 5-6 through questionnaires. Trajectories were computed using group-based modeling. Logistic regressions, adjusted for confounding factors, were used to measure the association between trajectories and to determine risk factors for belonging to the identified joint trajectories...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tzu Tsun Luk, Man Ping Wang, Yi Nam Suen, David Soo-Quee Koh, Tai Hing Lam, Sophia Siu-Chee Chan
Evidence on behavioural abnormalities in children exposed to secondhand smoke is limited. This study examined the relation between infant/ toddler cotinine concentration, a biomarker of secondhand smoke exposure, and behavioural problems in preschoolers who were unexposed to maternal smoking during gestation. A prospective cohort of 301 non-smoking mothers with their young children aged ≤18 months visiting postnatal primary care clinics in Hong Kong was enrolled in 2012 and followed by telephone survey 3 years afterwards...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cynthia Leung, Sandra Tsang, Lok Yan Chan
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the 18-month effectiveness of the Parent and Child Enhancement (PACE) program through an 18-month follow-up of the participants. METHODS: Participants included parents and children who participated in the PACE program in 2013-2014, where they were randomized into intervention (n = 76) and control (n = 73) groups. At the 18-month follow-up, participating parents completed questionnaires on their children's learning and behavior, and their own parenting...
November 2018: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
Pınar Zengin-Akkuş, Tuba Çelen-Yoldaş, Gökçe Kurtipek, Elif Nursel Özmert
Zengin-Akkuş P, Çelen-Yoldaş T, Kurtipek G, Özmert EN. Speech delay in toddlers: Are they only `late talkers`?. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 165-172. Speech delay is prevalent in toddlers. Although some children with speech delay are able to catch up with their peers with time, the delay might be part of a broader condition such as global developmental delay, which requires specific diagnostic work-up. The current study aimed to present the demographic features, developmental profiles of the first 100 preschool-aged children who were seen at Hacettepe University İhsan Doğramacı Children`s Hospital-Developmental Pediatrics Unit with parental concern of speech delay...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Ö Ece Demir-Lira, Lauren R Applebaum, Susan Goldin-Meadow, Susan C Levine
It is widely believed that reading to preschool children promotes their language and literacy skills. Yet, whether early parent-child book reading is an index of generally rich linguistic input or a unique predictor of later outcomes remains unclear. To address this question, we asked whether naturally occurring parent-child book reading interactions between 1 and 2.5 years-of-age predict elementary school language and literacy outcomes, controlling for the quantity of other talk parents provide their children, family socioeconomic status, and children's own early language skill...
October 16, 2018: Developmental Science
Sophie Reale, Colette M Kearney, Marion M Hetherington, Fiona Croden, Joanne E Cecil, Sharon A Carstairs, Barbara J Rolls, Samantha J Caton
Large portions of high energy dense (HED) snacks are offered to children from a young age and are pervasive in our food environment. This study aimed to explore the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of two strategies of snack portion control: reduction and replacement. Forty-six mother-child dyads aged 22⁻56 months (36.6 ± 9.5 m, 48% female) completed a three-week intervention. In week 1 (baseline) no changes were made to the child's diet; week 2 (acclimation) children received a standardised selection of HED snacks, and in week 3 (intervention) participants were randomly assigned to snack replacement ( n = 24) or snack reduction ( n = 22)...
October 12, 2018: Nutrients
Bita Bahrami, Behrooz Dolatshahi, Abbas Pourshahbaz, Parvaneh Mohammadkhani
Objective: Mothers have an important role in child- rearing, and maternal personality has theoretically been considered as the most influential factor determining the parenting style, because it is thought to affect parental behavior. However, the influence of personality on parenting styles has received surprisingly little attention. The aim of the present study was to compare personality components among mothers with authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive parenting styles. Method : Using a multistage random cluster sampling method, we selected 8 kindergartens in Tehran...
July 2018: Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
Mirjam Meeuwsen, Oliver Perra, Stephanie H M van Goozen, Dale F Hay
We tested the hypothesis that high activity levels in infancy would predict self-regulatory problems and later symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a longitudinal study of British families (N = 321). Infants' activity levels were assessed at 6 months, using 3 informants' reports from the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ) and ActiGraphs during baseline, attention, and restraint tasks. At a mean of 33 months, the children were assessed on self-regulatory tasks; at a mean of 36 months, 3 informants reported symptoms of ADHD...
October 15, 2018: Development and Psychopathology
Luis Rajmil, David Taylor-Robinson, Geir Gunnlaugsson, Anders Hjern, Nick Spencer
OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the level of austerity implemented by national governments was associated with adverse trends in perinatal outcomes and the social determinants of children's health (SDCH) in rich countries DESIGN: Longitudinal ecological study of country-level time trends in perinatal outcomes and SDCH and from 2005 to 2015. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: 16 European countries using available data from the International Monetary Fund, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and Eurostat...
October 12, 2018: BMJ Open
Marsha Gerdes, J Felipe Garcia-Espana, David Webb, Karen Friedman, Sherry Winston, Jennifer Culhane
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity of Spanish versions of the Survey of Well-being of Young Children (SWYC) Milestones and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3) and to document the rates of developmental delays in an urban cohort of children with Hispanic parents. METHODS: Spanish speaking families with a child 9 to 60 months of age (n = 991) were initially screened using Spanish translations of the SWYC Milestones and the ASQ-3. A stratified random sample of 494 of these children subsequently received standardized clinical assessment to confirm the presence of developmental delays...
October 10, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
James P Wirth, Tamerlan Rajabov, Nicolai Petry, Bradley A Woodruff, Nafisa Binte Shafique, Rashed Mustafa, Vilma Qahoush Tyler, Fabian Rohner
Data on the nutritional situation and prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in Azerbaijan are scarce, and knowledge about anemia risk factors is needed for national and regional policymakers. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, over- and undernutrition, and to disentangle determinants of anemia in children and women in Azerbaijan. The survey generated estimates of micronutrient deficiency and growth indicators for children aged 0⁻59 months of age (6⁻59 months for blood biomarkers) and non-pregnant women 15⁻49 years of age...
October 11, 2018: Nutrients
Holly A Hill, Laurie D Elam-Evans, David Yankey, James A Singleton, Yoonjae Kang
The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends routine vaccination by age 24 months against 14 potentially serious illnesses (1). CDC used data from the 2017 National Immunization Survey-Child (NIS-Child) to assess vaccination coverage at national, state, territorial, and selected local levels among children aged 19-35 months in the United States. Coverage remained high and stable overall, exceeding 90% for ≥3 doses of poliovirus vaccine, ≥1 dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), ≥3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB), and ≥1 dose of varicella vaccine...
October 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Jenelle L Mellerson, Choppell B Maxwell, Cynthia L Knighton, Jennifer L Kriss, Ranee Seither, Carla L Black
State and local school vaccination requirements exist to ensure that students are protected from vaccine-preventable diseases (1). This report summarizes vaccination coverage and exemption estimates collected by state and local immunization programs* for children in kindergarten (kindergartners) in 49 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and kindergartners provisionally enrolled (attending school without complete vaccination or exemption while completing a catch-up vaccination schedule) or in a grace period (a set interval during which a student may be enrolled and attend school without proof of complete vaccination or exemption) for 28 states...
October 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Zia Ud Din, Lubna Pervez, Arshad Amir, Muhammad Abbas, Imran Khan, Zafar Iqbal, Mudassar Iqbal
INTRODUCTION: it has previously been shown that parasitic infections (PI) have deleterious effects on the nutritional status of the host, particularly among young children. OBJECTIVE: the objective of this study was to estimate the severity of the problem of malnutrition and anemia in association with PI in preschool children and to identify the possible risk factors that contribute to these health problems. METHODS: four hundred and thirty-seven mother-child pairs were randomly selected from rural areas of Peshawar, Pakistan...
October 5, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Fabiola Paz Henríquez Konings, Fabian Ignacio Lanuza Rilling, Luis Humberto Bustos Medina, Andrea González San Martín, Julia Isabel Hazbún Game
INTRODUCCIÓN: the eating behavior is associated with the nutritional status at early ages. However, in Chile there are still no studies that evaluate this relationship in the preschool stage. OBJECTIVE: to associate the nutritional status and eating behavior of Chilean preschoolers. METHODS: cross-sectional study in 247 preschoolers (2-4 years) from the region of Araucanía, Chile. The nutritional status was evaluated through the anthropometric index weight/height and waist circumference/age...
October 5, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Christopher J Trentacosta, Rebecca Waller, Jenae M Neiderhiser, Daniel S Shaw, Misaki N Natsuaki, Jody M Ganiban, David Reiss, Leslie D Leve, Luke W Hyde
Callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors increase children's risk for subsequent antisocial behavior. This risk process may begin in early childhood with reciprocal pathways between CU behaviors and harsh parenting. In a sample of 561 linked triads of biological mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children, the present study examined bidirectional links between CU behaviors and harsh parenting across three time points from 18 to 54 months and investigated moderation by inherited risk for psychopathic traits. Child CU behaviors and harsh parenting were measured using adoptive mother and adoptive father reports, and biological mothers provided reports of their personality characteristics...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Mary E Weidner, Kenneth O St Louis, Haley L Glover
Purpose: Negative or uninformed stuttering attitudes proliferate among the general public, and bourgeoning research has shown that such attitudes might emerge as early as the preschool years. Much remains unknown about young children's stuttering attitudes, and conclusive recommendations to improve attitudes toward stuttering have yet to be advanced. This study sought to determine the effect of a new educational program on improving stuttering attitudes among preschool children using objective measures...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
J Milgrom, C J Holt, L S Bleker, C Holt, J Ross, J Ericksen, V Glover, K J O'Donnell, S R de Rooij, A W Gemmill
Effective treatment of maternal antenatal depression may ameliorate adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in offspring. We performed two follow-up rounds of children at age 2 and age 5 whose mothers had received either specialized cognitive-behavioural therapy or routine care for depression while pregnant. Of the original cohort of 54 women, renewed consent was given by 28 women for 2-year follow-up and by 24 women for 5-year follow-up. Child assessments at the 2-year follow-up included the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-III) and the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL)...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
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