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vibrio pathogen

Nathan D McDonald, Kristen E DeMeester, Amanda L Lewis, Catherine Leimkuhler Grimes, E Fidelma Boyd
Nonulosonic acids (NulOs) are a diverse family of α-keto acid carbohydrates present across all branches of life. Bacteria biosynthesize NulOs among which are several related prokaryotic-specific isomers and one of which N -acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid), is common among all vertebrates. Bacteria display various NulO carbohydrates on lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and the identities of these molecules tune host-pathogen recognition mechanisms. The opportunistic bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus possesses the genes for NulO biosynthesis; however, the structures and functions of the V...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Thanuja Gangi Setty, Jonathan C Mowers, Aaron G Hobbs, Shubha P Maiya, Sanaa Syed, Robert S Munson, Michael A Apicella, Ramaswamy Subramanian
The primary role of bacterial periplasmic binding proteins is sequestration of essential metabolites present at a low concentration in the periplasm and making them available for active transporters that transfer these ligands into the bacterial cell. The periplasmic binding proteins(SiaP) from the tripartite ATP-independent periplasmic (TRAP) transport system that transports mammalian host-derived sialic acids, have been well studied from different pathogenic bacteria, including Haemophilus influenzae , Fusobacterium nucleatum , Pasteurella multocida , and Vibrio cholerae SiaPs bind the sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) with nanomolar affinity by forming electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Shams Tabrez Khan, Abdul Malik
Clean water is vital for life; it is required not only for drinking but also for the preparation of food and proper hygiene. Unfortunately, more than fifty percent of the world population mainly in China and India face a severe scarcity of water. Around 1.8 billion people inevitably drink water from sources having fecal contamination resulting in the death of about a million children every year. Scientists are developing various economic technologies to decontaminate and purify water. Nanomaterials-based technology offers an economic and effective alternative for water purification and decontamination...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Julia Bauer, Felix Teitge, Lisa Neffe, Mikolaj Adamek, Arne Jung, Christina Peppler, Dieter Steinhagen, Verena Jung-Schroers
Due to their pathogenic potential, identifying Vibrio species from recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for Pacific white shrimp (Litopennaeus vannamei) is of great importance to determine the risk for animal's as well as for the consumer's health. The present study compared identification results for a total of 93 Vibrio isolates, including type strains and isolates from shrimp aquaculture. Results from biochemical identifications, 16S rRNA sequencing, sequencing of the uridylate kinase encoding gene pyrH and analysis of the protein spectra assessed by MALDI-TOF MS were compared...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Radha Verma, B S Balaji, Aparna Dixit
Jasminum mesnyi Hance (yellow jasmine, Family Oleaceae) belongs to an important subclass of Jasminum family whose biological significance is under explored. The current study pertains to isolation of various solvent extracts fractions and their anti-bacterial effects on the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. Ethanolic extract of J. mesnyi Hance leaves was subjected to further partitioning using different solvents with increasing polarity to get different solvent fractions. Different extracts were analysed for their phytochemical constitutents and were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against a number of diseases causing bacteria...
2018: Bioinformation
Monika A Roy, Jean M Arnaud, Paul M Jasmin, Steve Hamner, Nur A Hasan, Rita R Colwell, Timothy E Ford
The cholera epidemic that occurred in Haiti post-earthquake in 2010 has resulted in over 9000 deaths during the past eight years. Currently, morbidity and mortality rates for cholera have declined, but cholera cases still occur on a daily basis. One continuing issue is an inability to accurately predict and identify when cholera outbreaks might occur. To explore this surveillance gap, a metagenomic approach employing environmental samples was taken. In this study, surface water samples were collected at two time points from several sites near the original epicenter of the cholera outbreak in the Central Plateau of Haiti...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shyamalina Haldar, Sarita W Nazareth
The present study compared the taxonomic diversity and evaluated the functional attributes of the bacterial species from Mandovi and Zuari mangrove sediments, Goa, using paired-end amplicon sequencing of 16S rDNA and culture-based analyses, respectively. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed Proteobacteria, Firmicutes , and Actinobacteria as the dominant phyla in both the sediments. However, the abundance of these phyla significantly differed between the samples. Bacteroidetes from Mandovi sediment, and Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes from Zuari sediment were the other exclusive major phyla...
October 2018: 3 Biotech
Peng Luo, Long Yun, Yingying Li, Yushun Tian, Qiuting Liu, Wen Huang, Chaoqun Hu
BACKGROUND: Biocontrol of bacterial pathogens by bacteriophages (phages) represents a promising strategy. Vibrio alginolyticus, a gram-negative bacterium, is a notorious pathogen responsible for the loss of economically important farmed marine animals. To date, few V. alginolyticus phages have been successfully isolated, and only three complete genome sequences of them have been released. The limited available phage resources and poor genomic data hamper research on V. alginolyticus phages and their applications for the biocontrol of V...
October 11, 2018: BMC Genomics
Chang-Ho Kang, YuJin Shin, HongSik Yu, SuKyung Kim, Jae-Seong So
Vibrio parahaemolyticus, found frequently in oysters and other seafoods, is the most prevalent gastroenteritis-causing pathogen in Korea and other Asian countries. It is associated exclusively with the consumption of raw or improperly cooked contaminated seafood, especially oysters. In this study, we isolated and characterized 59 V. parahaemolyticus strains (toxR-positive) from May to October 2016 in shellfish-harvesting areas off the west coast of Korea. The results revealed that none of the isolates contained the tdh and trh toxicity genes...
October 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Fenglu Han, Xiaodan Wang, Jianlin Guo, Changle Qi, Chang Xu, Yuan Luo, Erchao Li, Jian G Qin, Liqiao Chen
This study investigates the effects of two soybean antigens (glycinin and β-conglycinin) as an antinutritional substance in the diet on the growth, digestive ability, intestinal health and microbiota of juvenile Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis). The isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets contained two soybean antigens at two levels each (70 and 140 g/kg β-conglycinin, 80 and 160 g/kg glycinin) and a control diet without β-conglycinin or glycinin supplementation, and were used respectively to feed juvenile E...
October 6, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Teresa Balbi, Manon Auguste, Katia Cortese, Michele Montagna, Alessio Borello, Carla Pruzzo, Luigi Vezzulli, Laura Canesi
Vibrio coralliilyticus has emerged as a coral pathogen of concern throughout the Indo-Pacific reef. The interest towards understanding its ecology and pathogenic potential has increased since V. coralliilyticus was shown to be strongly virulent also for other species; in particular, it represents a serious threat for bivalve aquaculture, being one of the most important emerging pathogen responsible for oyster larval mortalities worldwide. V. coralliilyticus has a tightly regulated temperature-dependent virulence and it has been related to mass mortalities events of benthic invertebrates also in the temperate northwestern Mediterranean Sea...
October 6, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Zibo Wei, Wanwei Sun, Ngoc Tuan Tran, Yi Gong, Hongyu Ma, Huaiping Zheng, Yueling Zhang, Shengkang Li
Serine proteases (SPs) are important in various immune responses, including prophenoloxidase (proPO) activation, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) synthesis, and hemolymph coagulation in invertebrates. In this study, SP3 and SP5 of mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) were studied. SP3 and SP5 were expressed in all examined tissues (mainly in hemocytes), and are associated with the immune responses of mud crab to Vibrio parahemolyticus and Staphylococcus aureus, as well as interacted with TRAF6, and are involved in the activation of anti-lipopolysaccharide factors (ALFs) probably through the TLR/NF-κB pathway...
October 6, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Rinrada Pattanayaiying, Amporn Sane, Penchom Photjanataree, Catherine N Cutter
In order to control foodborne pathogens on seafood products, an antimicrobial, thermoplastic starch/polybutylene adipate terephthalate (TPS/PBAT; 40/60) film was produced by coating gelatin (15% v/v) containing lauric arginate (LAE; 0.8 mg/cm2 ), alone or combination with nisin Z (69.4 AU/cm2 ) to produce LAE-Gelatin-TPS/PBAT and Nisin-LAE-Gelatin-TPS/PBAT films, respectively. Both films were investigated for control of Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802 and Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028 on bigeye snapper (Lutjanus lineolatus) and tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) slices during long-term (28 days), refrigerated (4 °C; chilled) and frozen (-20 °C) storage up to 90 days...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Diliana Pérez-Reytor, Victor Jaña, Leonardo Pavez, Paola Navarrete, Katherine García
Gastrointestinal episodes associated with Vibrio species have been rising worldwide in the last few years. Consequently, it is important to comprehend how occurs the production of diarrhea, to establish new preventive and therapeutic measures. Besides the classical CT and TCP toxins, Zot, RTX, and Ace among others have been deeply studied in V. cholerae. However, in other Vibrio species of clinical interest, where some of these toxins have been reported, there is practically no information. Zot activates a cascade of signals inside of the cell that increase the permeability of epithelial barrier, while RTX causes depolymerization of the actin cytoskeleton and Ace increases the permeability of intestinal cell monolayers...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shougang Song, Beiping Tan, Xiaohui Dong, Qihui Yang, Shuyan Chi, Hongyu Liu, Haitao Zhang, Shuang Zhang
Armadillo repeat-containing proteins (ARMCs) comprise a large family that is widely distributed in eukaryotes and plays prominent roles in cell-cell adhesion, intracellular signaling, and cytoskeletal regulation. In this study, three ARMC genes, termed LvARMC6, LvARMC7 and LvARMC8, were identified and characterized from Litopenaeus vannamei. The complete cDNAs open reading frames (ORF) of LvARMC6, LvARMC7, and LvARMC8 (GenBank accession no. MG735126, MG728109 and KX058562) were 1410 bp, 570 bp and 2046 bp, encoding 469, 189, and 681 amino acids, respectively...
October 5, 2018: Gene
Sasiwipa Tinwongger, Jumroensri Thawonsuwan, Hidehiro Kondo, Ikuo Hirono
Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is a shrimp farming disease, caused by the pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus carrying a plasmid encoding Vp_PirAB-like toxins. Formalin-killed cells of V. parahaemolyticus AHPND-causing strain D6 (FKC-VpD6) were used to select Vp_PirAB-like toxin-resistant Litopenaeus vannamei by oral administration. Stomach and hepatopancreas tissues of shrimps that survived for one week were subjected to RNA sequencing. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between surviving shrimp, AHPND-infected shrimp, and normal shrimp were identified...
October 4, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Hannah E Gavin, Karla J F Satchell
Background: The bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus causes severe septic foodborne infections. The multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxins (MARTX) toxin is an important secreted virulence factor. The effector domain region is essential for lethal intestinal infection in mice, but the contribution of each of the five effector domains to infection has not been investigated. Methods: V. vulnificus mutants with varying effector domain content were inoculated intragastrically to mice and time-to-death was monitored to establish the contribution of each effector domain to overall virulence...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Xiao Chen, Qiaoyun Zhu, Fei Yu, Wen Zhang, Ruonan Wang, Xianfei Ye, Linfeng Jin, Yanchao Liu, Shufei Li, Yu Chen
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading foodborne pathogen in southeastern China. In this study, 105 strains of V. parahaemolyticus were isolated from fresh seafood in 2013 and 2014. The serotypes, virulence-associated genes and sequence types (STs) of these strains were analyzed. 26 defined serotypes were identified and 69 strains (65.7%) had untypeable O or K antigen. 8 strains (7.6%) had the virulence-associated gene tdh and no strain carried the trh gene. 45.7% (48/105) of isolates contained all four T3SS1 genes and 50% (4/8) tdh+ trh- V...
2018: PloS One
Song Yee Jang, Jungwon Hwang, Byoung Sik Kim, Eun-Young Lee, Byung-Ha Oh, Myung Hee Kim
Multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin (MARTX) toxins are secreted by Gram-negative bacteria and function as primary virulence-promoting macromolecules that deliver multiple cytopathic and cytotoxic effector domains into the host cytoplasm. Among these effectors, Ras/Rap1-specific endopeptidase (RRSP) catalyzes the sequence-specific cleavage of the switch I region of the cellular substrates Ras and Rap1 that are crucial for host innate immune defenses during infection. To dissect the molecular basis underpinning RRSP-mediated substrate inactivation, we determined the crystal structure of an RRSP from the sepsis-causing bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus ( Vv RRSP)...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Marco Biancucci, George Minasov, Avik Banerjee, Alfa Herrera, Patrick J Woida, Matthew B Kieffer, Lakshman Bindu, Maria Abreu-Blanco, Wayne F Anderson, Vadim Gaponenko, Andrew G Stephen, Matthew Holderfield, Karla J F Satchell
The Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway is critical for controlling cell proliferation, and its aberrant activation drives the growth of various cancers. Because many pathogens produce toxins that inhibit Ras activity, efforts to develop effective Ras inhibitors to treat cancer could be informed by studies of Ras inhibition by pathogens. Vibrio vulnificus causes fatal infections in a manner that depends on multifunctional autoprocessing repeats-in-toxin, a toxin that releases bacterial effector domains into host cells...
October 2, 2018: Science Signaling
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