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vibrio pathogen

Gillian A M Tarr, Linda Chui, Bonita E Lee, Xiao-Li Pang, Samina Ali, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Otto G Vanderkooi, Byron M Berenger, James Dickinson, Phillip I Tarr, Steven Drews, Judy MacDonald, Kelly Kim, Stephen B Freedman
Background: The ability to identify bacterial pathogens that necessitate specific clinical management or public health action in children with acute gastroenteritis is crucial to patient care and public health. However, existing stool testing guidelines offer inconsistent recommendations, and their performance characteristics are unknown. We evaluated six leading gastroenteritis guidelines (e.g. those of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Infectious Disease Society of America) that recommend when to test children's stool for bacterial enteropathogens...
December 4, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Ishita Mukherjee, Anwesha Ghosh, Punyasloke Bhadury, Priyadarsi De
Design of new drug material through modification of some well known antibiotics to combat pathogenic bacteria must include a complete understanding of matrix regulation, since the human body consists of majorly three types of matrices; solid, semisolid and liquid which has a tendency to regulate antibacterial efficacy along with bactericidal mechanism of several antimicrobial agents. Herein, matrix dependent action of ciprofloxacin based polymeric hydrogel scaffold was explored against a new species of Vibrio, namely Vibrio chemaguriensis Iso1 (V...
December 5, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Cristina Torres-Duarte, Sara Hutton, Carol Vines, James Moore, Gary N Cherr
Copper and copper oxide nanomaterials (nCuO) can enter the marine environment negatively impacting mussels, an environmental and commercially relevant organism. We analyzed the effects on the immune system of adult mussels exposed to soluble copper (CuSO4 , 20-50 μg/L) or nCuO (100-450 μg/L). CuSO4 caused significant copper accumulation in gills and cell-free hemolymph, while nCuO caused cell damage to gills and significant copper accumulation in hemocytes, the most abundant cells in the hemolymph. Both sources of copper caused cellular toxicity in hemocytes by increasing reactive oxygen species production and lysosome abundance, and decreasing multi-drug resistance transporter activity...
December 2, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Xiaojian Gao, Daming Pi, Nan Chen, Xixi Li, Xiaodan Liu, Hui Yang, Wanhong Wei, Xiaojun Zhang
Many bacteria have developed strategies for metamorphosis into sophisticated survival forms to survive extended periods of environmental stress. As a global causative agent of vibriosis in marine fish farming, Vibrio anguillarum ( V. anguillarum ) can efficiently grow and proliferate under environmental stress, but the specific mechanism is not clear. In the present study, survival, virulent characteristics, and transcriptomic analysis of the V. anguillarum BH1 were performed under starvation stress. The results demonstrated that V...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Deanna S Beatty, Cody S Clements, Frank J Stewart, Mark E Hay
Tropical reefs are shifting from coral to macroalgal dominance, with macroalgae suppressing coral recovery, potentially via effects on coral microbiomes. Understanding how macroalgae affect corals and their microbiomes requires comparing algae- versus coral-dominated reefs without confounding aspects of time and geography. We compared survival, settlement, and post-settlement survival of larvae, as well as the microbiomes of larvae and adults, of the Pacific coral Pocillopora damicornis between an Marine Protected Area (MPA) dominated by corals versus an adjacent fished area dominated by macroalgae...
2018: Marine Ecology Progress Series
Mona Shaaban, Abdelaziz Elgaml, El-Sayed E Habib
High incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial clinical isolates necessitates the discovery of new targets for inhibition of microbial pathogenicity without stimulation of microbial resistance. This could be achieved by targeting virulence determinants which cause host damage and disease. Many pathogenic bacteria elaborate signaling molecules for cellular communication. This signaling system is named quorum sensing system (QS), and it is contingent on the bacterial population density and mediated by signal molecules called pheromones or autoinducers (AIs)...
November 29, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Prasenjit Paria, Hirak Jyoti Chakraborty, Bijay Kumar Behera, Pradeep Kumar Das Mahapatra, Basanta Kumar Das
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a major seafood-borne pathogen that causes life-threatening gastroenteric diseases in humans through the consumption of contaminated seafoods. V. parahaemolyticus produces different kinds of toxins, including thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH), TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), and some effector proteins belonging to the Type 3 Secretion System, out of which TDH and TRH are considered to be the major factors for virulence. Although TRH is one of the major virulent proteins, there is a dearth of understanding about the structural and functional properties of this protein...
November 29, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Kunbawui Park, Jong Soo Mok, A Ra Ryu, Ji Young Kwon, In Tae Ham, Kil Bo Shim
We determined the abundance and virulence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in seawater and bivalves from the Gyeongnam coast in Korea, a major area for the seafood industry, during 2004-2016. V. parahaemolyticus is one of the most common pathogen causing seafood-borne illnesses in Korea, and increases during the summer. Its occurrence in seawater and bivalve samples was seasonally dependent, with high levels during the summer to early autumn. There were more strains in the area of sea continually exposed to inland wastewater...
December 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Roman Herzog, Kai Papenfort
Transcriptome analysis using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) has now become the standard approach to determine the transcriptional output of an organism. Various modifications to this technology have been developed over the years, usually aiming to improve the annotation of transcript borders, or to identify novel classes of RNAs, such as small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) and antisense transcripts. RNA-seq has also led to the identification of dozens of new sRNAs in the major human pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. Several of these sRNAs function in the context of a cell-to-cell communication process, called quorum sensing (QS)...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Huan Wang, Wei Tang, Rui Zhang, Shaoxiong Ding
Recently, mucosal surfaces, especially fish skin and its secreted mucus, have attracted significant interest from immunologists. Amphiprion clarkii, a member of the family Pomacentridae, lives symbiosis with sea anemones and has a good resistance to common seawater bacterial diseases and parasites owing to the protection from its abundant skin mucus. In the present work, the activity of immune-related enzymes (lysozyme, protease, antiprotease, cathepsin B, alkaline phosphatase and peroxidase), the antibacterial activity against two Gram-positive bacteria and five Gram-negative bacteria, the antiparasitic activity against the pathogen of marine white spot disease (Cryptocaryon irritans theronts) and the physico-chemical stability (to pH and heat) of the skin mucus of A...
November 28, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Mingkang Chen, Xia Liu, Jing Zhou, Xu Wang, Ruiting Liu, Hongyu Peng, Boyan Li, Zhonglu Cai, Chen Jiang
Galectins are a family of proteins with conserved carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) that bind to specific glycans, including the glycans on the surface of pathogens, and therefore play a role in cytokine secretion, cell activation, migration, adhesion and apoptosis. Currently, galectins have been extensively studied in mammalian species but rarely studied in teleost fish species. In this study, a total of 12 galectin genes were characterized to understand the molecular mechanisms of galectin function in Japanese pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes)...
November 27, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Tao Peng, Jie Kan, Jingsheng Lun, Zhong Hu
Vibrio alginolyticus as an important pathogen in aquaculture can encounter the oxidative stress produced by the immune system during infection. Previous studies showed that sRNAs have important functions in response to oxidative stress in bacteria; however, less of sRNAs related to oxidative stress response were identified in V. alginolyticus. In this study, a total of 749 novel sRNAs were identified by RNA sequencing; among them, 128 sRNAs were up- or downregulated in response to oxidative stress. In addition, 1,870 genes exhibited variation on mRNA levels in oxidative stress response...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Li Gong, Pan Yu, Huajun Zheng, Wenyi Gu, Wei He, Yadong Tang, Yaping Wang, Yue Dong, Xu Peng, Qunxin She, Lu Xie, Lanming Chen
Vibrio cholerae, which is autochthonous to estuaries worldwide, can cause human cholera that is still pandemic in developing countries. A number of V. cholerae isolates of clinical and environmental origin worldwide have been subjected to genome sequencing to address their phylogenesis and bacterial pathogenesis, however, little genome information is available for V. cholerae isolates derived from estuaries, particularly in China. In this study, we determined the complete genome sequence of V. cholerae CHN108B (non-O1/O139 serogroup) isolated from the Yangtze River Estuary, China and performed comparative genome analysis between CHN108B and other eight representative V...
November 28, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Genomics: MGG
An Ngoc Nguyen, Elena Disconzi, Guillaume M Charrière, Delphine Destoumieux-Garzón, Philippe Bouloc, Frédérique Le Roux, Annick Jacq
CsrBs are bacterial highly conserved and multiple-copy noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs) that play major roles in cell physiology and virulence. In the Vibrio genus, they are known to be regulated by the two-component system VarS/VarA. They modulate the well-characterized quorum sensing pathway controlling virulence and luminescence in Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio harveyi , respectively. Remarkably, Vibrio tasmaniensis LGP32, an oyster pathogen that belongs to the Splendidus clade, was found to have four copies of csrB , named csrB1-4 , compared to two to three copies in other Vibrio species...
November 28, 2018: MSphere
Sophie Rodrigues, Christine Paillard, Sabine Van Dillen, Ali Tahrioui, Jean-Marc Berjeaud, Alain Dufour, Alexis Bazire
Marine pathogenic bacteria are able to form biofilms on many surfaces, such as mollusc shells, and they can wait for the appropriate opportunity to induce their virulence. Vibrio tapetis can develop such biofilms on the inner surface of shells of the Ruditapes philippinarum clam, leading to the formation of a brown conchiolin deposit in the form of a ring, hence the name of the disease: Brown Ring Disease. The virulence of V. tapetis is presumed to be related to its capacity to form biofilms, but the link has never been clearly established at the physiological or genetic level...
November 26, 2018: Pathogens
Carlos L Fernández-Rendón, Guadalupe Barrera-Escorcia, Irma Wong-Chang, Alfonso Vázquez Botello, Bruno Gómez-Gil, Marcial Leonardo Lizárraga-Partida
Oysters can accumulate potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as Vibrio cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus, and V. vulnificus. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of these Vibrio species and their toxigenic variants in oysters from the Gulf of Mexico sold in Mexico City. Oyster samples were studied using traditional culture and molecular polymerase chain reaction analysis. V. cholerae was present in 30.4% of the samples and its toxigenic variant chxA+ in 26.1%. It was isolated only in deshelled oysters, mainly in the dry season...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
R Vargas, J C Balasch, I Brandts, F Reyes-López, L Tort, M Teles
Environmental insults, such as exposure to pathogens, modulate the behavioural coping style of animals to stressors, and repeated exposure to stressful environments may lead to species-specific infection phenotypes. To analyse the influence of stress behavioural phenotypes on immune and metabolic performance, gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) were first screened for proactive and reactive coping styles. Once characterized, both behavioural phenotypes fish groups were bath vaccinated with bacterin from Vibrio anguillarum, an opportunistic widespread pathogen of fish...
November 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthew J Dorman, Charles J Dorman
Gram-negative enteropathogenic bacteria use a variety of strategies to cause disease in the human host and gene regulation in some form is typically a part of the strategy. This article will compare the toxin-based infection strategy used by the non-invasive pathogen Vibrio cholerae , the etiological agent in human cholera, with the invasive approach used by Shigella flexneri , the cause of bacillary dysentery. Despite the differences in the mechanisms by which the two pathogens cause disease, they use environmentally-responsive regulatory hierarchies to control the expression of genes that have some features, and even some components, in common...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Emily Curren, Sandric Chee Yew Leong
Plastic waste is a global issue of an increasing concern in aquatic ecosystems. Microplastics form a large proportion of plastic pollution in marine environments. Although microplastics are prevalent, their distribution along the coasts of tropical regions is not well studied. Microplastic pieces (1-5 mm) were collected from two distinct regions along the coastlines of Singapore, from the northern coast in the Johor Strait and the southern coast in the Singapore Strait. Microplastics were present in concentrations ranging from 9...
November 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Mengqiang Wang, Baojie Wang, Mei Liu, Keyong Jiang, Lei Wang
Leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-only proteins are involved in innate immune responses through mediating protein-ligand or protein-protein interactions, yet the exact roles of most LRR-only proteins in invertebrates are not well documented. In the present study, a novel LRR-only protein (designated CfLRRop-7) was identified in Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri. The full-length cDNA sequence of CfLRRop-7 was 1463 bp and contained an open reading frame of 1086 bp, which encoded a protein of 361 amino acids. Five LRR motifs with a conserved signature sequence LxxLxLxxNxL were identified in the predicted protein sequence...
November 20, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
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