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Diet during exercise

Soeun Jeon, Kyungho Cho, Gina Ok, Sukho Lee, Hyon Park
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of weight loss practices on nutritional status, bone health, and injury history among Korean professional jockeys. METHODS: Forty-three male jockeys completed a questionnaire to assess their weight loss practices. Of these, 10 jockeys were selected for in-depth assessment of their nutritional status, bone health, and injury history. RESULTS: The questionnaires revealed that 81...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
John E Morley
Cognitive decline occurs in all persons during the aging process. Eventually, this can result in mild cognitive impairment and dementia. There are more than 100 causes of dementia. A multifocal approach to slowing cognitive decline (Mediterranean diet, exercise, computer games, socialization, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors) appears to be effective.
November 2018: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
Mikko Pänkäläinen, Mikael Fogelholm, Raisa Valve, Olli Kampman, Markku Kauppi, Erja Lappalainen, Jukka Hintikka
BACKGROUND: Dietary habits have a great influence on physiological health. Even though this fact is generally recognized, people do not eat as healthily as they know they should. The factors that support a healthy diet, on the other hand, are not well known. It is supposed that there is a link between personal traits and dietary habits. Personal traits may also partially explain why some people manage to make healthy dietary changes while some fail to do so or are not able to try to make changes even when they desire to do so...
October 15, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Joana Ribeiro da Silva, Luísa Proença, Adélia Rodrigues, Rolando Pinho, Ana Ponte, Jaime Rodrigues, Mafalda Sousa, Rita Almeida, João Carvalho
Background: Obesity is an increasing worldwide problem associated with a vast number of comorbidities. Decreasing body weight by only 5-10% has been shown to slow and even prevent the onset of obesity-related comorbidities. Between pharmacological therapy and bariatric surgery a great variety of endoscopic techniques are available, the most common being intragastric balloon (IGB). The purpose of this study was to assess the safety, tolerance, and kinetics of IGBs in weight loss. The kinetics of weight loss were evaluated in 2 different contexts and phases: after the IGB's removal and after follow-up that varied between 6 and 12 months...
September 2018: GE Portuguese Journal of Gastroenterology
Radoslaw Slopien, Ewa Wender-Ozegowska, Anita Rogowicz-Frontczak, Blazej Meczekalski, Dorota Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz, Jesse D Jaremek, Antonio Cano, Peter Chedraui, Dimitrios G Goulis, Patrice Lopes, Gita Mishra, Alfred Mueck, Margaret Rees, Levent M Senturk, Tommaso Simoncini, John C Stevenson, Petra Stute, Pauliina Tuomikoski, Stavroula A Paschou, Panagiotis Anagnostis, Irene Lambrinoudaki
INTRODUCTION: Whether menopause increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) independently of ageing has been a matter of debate. Controversy also exists about the benefits and risks of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) in women with T2DM. AIMS: To summarise the evidence on 1) the effect of menopause on metabolic parameters and the risk of T2DM, 2) the effect of T2DM on age at menopause, 3) the effect of MHT on the risk of T2DM, and 4) the management of postmenopausal women with T2DM...
November 2018: Maturitas
Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser, Stephanie J Wilson, Annelise Madison
Couples influence each other's mental and physical health. This review focuses on how couples' relationships, the partners' individual and joint vulnerabilities, and their health behaviors influence health through changes in the gut microbiota, metabolism, and immune function. Couples' shared stressors and emotions and their intertwined lifestyles and routines serve to promote common disease risks in part through parallel changes in their gut microbiotas. Marital discord, stress, and depression have strong bidirectional links, fueling one another...
October 10, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Ofelia C Flores, Yasna Z Orellana, Bárbara D Leyton, Rodrigo B Valenzuela, Cynthia R Barrera, Atilio F Almagià, Víctor C Martínez, Daniza Ivanovic
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the association between overnutrition and scholastic achievement (SA). METHODS: A representative and proportional sample of 477 children of the 5th elementary school grade of both genders was randomly chosen during 2010, in the Metropolitan Region of Chile. SA was measured through the 2009 Education Quality Measurement System (SIMCE) tests of language (LSA), mathematics (MSA) and understanding of the natural environment (UNESA)...
October 12, 2018: Obesity Facts
Delfin Rodriguez Leyva, Ayelen Rodriguez-Portelles, Wendy Weighell, Randolph Guzman, Thane G Maddaford, Grant N Pierce
Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) are at increased risk for cardiovascular events and higher susceptibility for cardiac arrhythmias may be involved. The objectives of this double blinded, randomized controlled FLAX-PAD trial were to determine whether daily consumption of a diet supplemented with 30g of milled flaxseed (or placebo) over one year by PAD patients has effects on the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and exercise capacity. Cardiac arrhythmias were assessed on a cardiac stress test and at rest...
October 11, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Julie Dupas, Annie Feray, Anthony Guernec, Morgane Pengam, Manon Inizan, François Guerrero, Jacques Mansourati, Christelle Goanvec
Background: Metabolic Syndrom has become a public health problem. It mainly results from the increased consumption of fat and sugar. In this context, the benefits of personalized moderate exercise training were investigated on a metabolic syndrome male wistar rat model food with fructose drinking water (20-25% w / v ). Different markers including body weight, metabolic measurements, blood biochemistry related to metabolic syndrome complications have been evaluated. Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to 4 groups: control (sedentary (C, n  = 8) and exercise trained (Ex, n = 8)), fructose fed (sedentary (FF, n = 8) and exercise trained fructose fed rats (ExFF, n  = 10))...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Zheng Li, Yun Hu, Rengna Yan, Huiqin Li, Danfeng Zhang, Fengfei Li, Xiaofei Su, Jianhua Ma
BACKGROUND Postprandial hyperglycemia and glycemic fluctuations are significant cardiovascular disease risk factors for patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated the effects of a single session of post-dinner moderate-intensity exercise on the postprandial glycemic response compared with a non-exercise condition in a study population of Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS This randomized crossover self-controlled pilot study involved 29 patients with type 2 diabetes who participated in post-dinner exercise days using non-exercise days as a control...
October 8, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Jessica H Beeson, Heather L Blackmore, Sarah K Carr, Laura Dearden, Daniella E Duque-Guimarães, Laura C Kusinski, Lucas C Pantaleão, Adele G Pinnock, Catherine E Aiken, Dino A Giussani, Denise S Fernandez-Twinn, Susan E Ozanne
OBJECTIVE: Obesity during pregnancy is associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease in the offspring. With increased numbers of women entering pregnancy overweight or obese, there is a requirement for targeted interventions to reduce disease risk in future generations. Using an established murine model of maternal obesity during pregnancy, we investigated if a treadmill exercise intervention in the mother could improve offspring cardiac health and explored potential underlying mechanisms...
October 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Licht Miyamoto
 Physical exercise is well known to be beneficial to our health. Therapeutic exercise is widely applicable to metabolic disorders, including obesity and diabetes. In addition, recent studies have suggested its potential benefit in the treatment of more various diseases such as mental disorders and cancer. 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is an intracellular central metabolic sensor as well as a regulator, has been demonstrated to play significant roles in the contracting skeletal muscles, suggesting that AMPK should be one of the key molecules mediating metabolic effects during physical exercise...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Edwin C Jones, J Craig Rylands, Cortney L Jardet
A case report is presented in which a type-II diabetic patient significantly improved his dysfunctional β -islet cells using a combination of a strenuous exercise program, cyclical ketogenic diet, and oral GABA/probiotic supplementation. The patient was diagnosed with type-II diabetes at the age of 41 which then progressed through a typical series of treatment changes over 14 years. Treatment periods consisted of metformin therapy alone for 4 years followed by a metformin/glyburide combination therapy for 6 years, and eventually an insulin/metformin combination therapy for 4 years...
2018: Case Reports in Endocrinology
Maija Huttunen-Lenz, Sylvia Hansen, Pia Christensen, Thomas Meinert Larsen, Finn Sandø-Pedersen, Mathijs Drummen, Tanja C Adam, Ian A Macdonald, Moira A Taylor, J Alfredo Martinez, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Svetoslav Handjiev, Sally D Poppitt, Marta P Silvestre, Mikael Fogelholm, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Jennie Brand-Miller, Agnes Am Berendsen, Anne Raben, Wolfgang Schlicht
Purpose: Onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is often gradual and preceded by impaired glucose homeostasis. Lifestyle interventions including weight loss and physical activity may reduce the risk of developing T2D, but adherence to a lifestyle change is challenging. As part of an international T2D prevention trial (PREVIEW), a behavior change intervention supported participants in achieving a healthier diet and physically active lifestyle. Here, our aim was to explore the influence of this behavioral program (PREMIT) on social-cognitive variables during an 8-week weight loss phase...
2018: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
Eric Williamson, Hiroyuki Kato, Kimberly A Volterman, Katsuya Suzuki, Daniel R Moore
Recommendations for dietary protein are based primarily intakes that maintain nitrogen (i.e. protein) balance rather than optimize metabolism and/or performance. PURPOSE: To determine how varying protein intakes, including a new tracer-derived safe intake, alter whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during training. METHODS: Using a double-blind randomized crossover design, 10 male endurance-trained runners (age, 32±8 yr; VO2peak, 65.9±7.9 ml O2·kg·min) performed 3 trials consisting of 4 days of controlled training (20, 5, 10, 20 km·d, respectively) while consuming diets providing 0...
September 24, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Dawn Lemanne, Victoria Maizes
A majority of women undergoing conventional treatment for breast cancer also undertake complementary and integrative approaches. Practitioners knowledgeable about the evidence base behind common integrative approaches can help patients attain improved quality of life, and at times, improved survival. Evidence-based recommendations include the following: a plant-based diet for general health after diagnosis, and carbohydrate restriction for patients with estrogen receptor-positive postmenopausal breast cancer may be prudent...
September 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Kara L Marlatt, Robbie A Beyl, Leanne M Redman
OBJECTIVES: A qualitative research study was performed to assess the health and lifestyle behaviors of middle-aged women during the menopause transition, as well as to inform the development of interventions designed to combat menopause symptoms and improve quality of life during and after menopause. STUDY DESIGN: Data were collected from 1611 women via a 21-item questionnaire distributed electronically. Only women who self-reported age ≥40 years and who were either peri-menopausal or post-menopausal were included in the analyses...
October 2018: Maturitas
Marcos Martin-Rincon, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Alberto Pérez-López, Jesús Gustavo Ponce-González, David Morales-Alamo, Pedro de Pablos-Velasco, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Jose A L Calbet
BACKGROUND: Exercise and protein ingestion preserve muscle mass during moderate energy deficits. OBJECTIVE: To determine the molecular mechanisms by which exercise and protein ingestion may spare muscle mass during severe energy deficit (5500 kcal/day). DESIGN: Fifteen overweight, but otherwise healthy men, underwent a pre-test (PRE), caloric restriction (3.2 kcals/kg body weight/day) + exercise (45 min one-arm cranking + 8 h walking) for 4 days (CRE), followed by a control diet (CD) for 3 days, with a caloric content similar to pre-intervention while exercise was reduced to less than 10,000 steps per day...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Julia H Chambers, Melissa Zerofsky, Robert H Lustig, Philip Rosenthal, Emily R Perito
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of physical activity and eating behaviors on precursors of cardiovascular disease-including overweight/obesity, hypertension, low HDL, and impaired glucose tolerance-in pediatric liver transplant (LT) recipients and matched controls. METHOD: Cross-sectional study of pediatric LT recipients 8-30 years, matched to controls from NHANES. Dietary intake assessed with 24-hour recall. Physical activity assessed by standardized questionnaires...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Ronald L Simons, Man-Kit Lei, Steven R H Beach, Ashley B Barr, Leslie G Simons, Frederick X Gibbons, Robert A Philibert
Several studies have reported a relation between race-related stressors and the poor health of Black Americans. Such findings raise questions regarding the mediating biological mechanisms that might account for this link. The present study investigated elevated systemic inflammation, a factor shown to be a strong predictor of chronic illness and mortality in all ethnic populations, as a possible factor. Using 7 waves of data from the Family and Community Health Study, collected over a 20-year period from over 400 Black Americans, we investigated the extent to which exposure to discrimination and segregation at various points in the life course predicted adult inflammation at age 28...
October 2018: Developmental Psychology
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