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Diet during exercise

Russell Emmons, Guanying Xu, Diego Hernandez-Saavedra, Adam Kriska, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Hong Chen, Michael De Lisio
Obesity-induced inflammation associated with increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). The role of diet and exercise in modulating increased CRC risk in obesity, and the potential role of altered hematopoiesis as a contributor to these effects remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine how weight loss induced during CRC induction with or without exercise alter CRC initiation and their relationship to altered hematopoiesis. Mice consumed either a control (CON) or high fat diet to induce obesity...
December 4, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
M Pia Chaparro, Alissa Bilfield, Katherine P Theall
BACKGROUND: Neighborhood safety has been linked to physical activity and obesity among adolescents, but few studies have used objective measures of crime or examined associations by gender. The goal of this study was to investigate if exposure to objectively measured neighborhood crime was associated with physical activity and overweight/obesity among adolescents, and if this association varied by gender. METHODS: Georeferenced data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2006 were linked to census tract-level data on crime reports from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, focusing on a sample of adolescents 12-20 years of age (n = 15,261)...
December 1, 2018: Childhood Obesity
Dequan Chen, Shicheng Cao, Bo Chang, Tie Ma, Haining Gao, Yao Tong, Tao Li, Junchao Han, Xuejie Yi
To explore the role of nesfatin-1 in regulating male reproductive function during energy balance variation, we employed an obese mouse model which was first induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and followed by interventions of a normal diet (ND) and/or moderate exercise, and then serum reproductive hormones of male mice, hypothalamic nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2)/nesfatin-1, inflammatory factors, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) levels were tested. Our findings showed that both serum nesfatin-1, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone (T) levels and hypothalamic NUCB2/nesfatin-1 and Gnrh mRNA levels were reduced, whereas, the mRNA and protein levels of hypothalamic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, inhibitor kappa B kinase β (IKKβ), and nuclear factor (NF)-κB were increased in obese male mice...
November 1, 2018: Neuropeptides
Ginger D Constantine, Grant Kessler, Shelli Graham, Steven R Goldstein
BACKGROUND: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Result (SEER) database shows a variable increase in endometrial cancer incidence over time. The objective of this review was to examine published endometrial cancer rates and potential etiologies. METHODS: Endometrial cancer incidence was obtained from the SEER Program database from 1975 through 2014, and a test for trend in incidence was calculated. Changes in risk factors thought to be associated with endometrial cancer, including age, obesity, diabetes, diet and exercise, reproductive factors, and medications (hormone therapy [HT] including Food and Drug Administration [FDA]-approved and non-FDA-approved [compounded] estrogens and progestogens, tamoxifen, and hormonal contraceptives) were found through PubMed searches...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
Xue Zou, Hongmei Wang, Dianlong Ge, Yan Lu, Lei Xia, Chaoqun Huang, Chengyin Shen, Yannan Chu
AIM: This study aims to develop a method for monitoring fat loss by detection of breath acetone. METHODS: A new method combining direct breath sampling system and proton transfer reaction MS (PTR-MS) was developed for on-line detection of breath acetone. The breath acetone of 272 volunteers was detected respectively when exercise or diet. RESULTS: Exercises perennially can make the breath acetone increase by 40-130%. Dinner fasting for 1 week can make it increase by 140%...
November 26, 2018: Bioanalysis
Dana E Lowry, Peri H Fenwick, Kaitlin Roke, Khursheed Jeejeebhoy, Rupinder Dhaliwal, Paula Brauer, Dawna Royall, Angelo Tremblay, Doug Klein, David M Mutch
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises a cluster of risk factors including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose homeostasis. Lifestyle interventions that promote improvements in diet quality and physical activity represent a first line of therapy for MetS. However, varying responses to lifestyle interventions are well documented and may be partially explained by underlying genetic differences. The aim of this study was to investigate if variants in genes previously associated with MetS influence the magnitude of change in MetS risk during a 1-year lifestyle intervention...
November 23, 2018: Lifestyle genomics
Natalie Ein, Bonnie Armstrong, Kristin Vickers
There are conflicting findings regarding the effect very low calorie diets (VLCDs) have on self-reported depressive symptoms and anxiety levels. Some studies have reported decreased subjective depressive symptoms and anxiety post-diet, whereas other studies have not. Further complicating matters, the protocol for VLCDs vary substantially across studies, which could account for the mixed findings. The primary goal of this meta-analysis and systematic review was to determine the effect VLCDs have on subjective depressive symptoms and anxiety pre- to post-diet...
November 23, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Adriana Espinosa, Selma Kadić-Maglajlić
The goals of this study were to identify groups of health-related behaviors among young adults ( N = 314, M age = 21.94, SD = 6.53), gauge the relation between emotional intelligence and health behaviors in this population, and assess health consciousness as mediator of said relation. Latent class analysis identified two mutually exclusive health behavior groups, which according to response patterns were labeled as Healthy and Unhealthy. The Healthy group (56%) was composed of individuals who had a healthy diet (i...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Hossein Shirvani, Alireza Delpasand, Behzad Bazgir
The present data article aims at investigating the muscular levels of Irisin, FNDC5, and UCP1 in male Wistar rats during the aerobic exercise with or without calorie restriction (CR). Twenty four, 8-week-old male Wistar rats (190±16 g) were selected and purchased for the research. After obesity induction by high-fat diet, the animals were randomly divided into three groups: exercise EX ( n = 8), EX-CR ( n = 8) and CO as control ( n = 8). EX exercised 6 sessions per week and EXCR exercise 3 sessions + 3 days caloric restriction per week...
December 2018: Data in Brief
Sihui Ma, Qingyi Huang, Takaki Tominaga, Chunhong Liu, Katsuhiko Suzuki
Adjusting dietary fat intake is reported to affect mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and thus may enhance exercise capacity. However, a high-fat diet where carbohydrate intake is not limited enough also makes it difficult for athletes to maintain weight, and may fail to force the body to utilize fat. As such, a low-carbohydrate, high-fat, ketogenic diet (KD) may be viable. We have previously reported that an eight-week KD enhances exercise capacity, and suggested the mechanism to be enhanced lipolysis and ketolysis...
November 7, 2018: Nutrients
Tiffany Y Yang, Jennie C Gardner, Juliet D Gentile, Nu-Chu Liang
The modern environment is characterized by convenient access to a variety of high fat (HF) foods and encourages excess energy intake, which leads to weight gain. While healthier diets and exercise are common interventions that facilitate energy balance, meal patterns also influence body weight and energy metabolism. The current study characterized the association between exercise, diet choice, and meal patterns in rats. Unlike sedentary rats that prefer a HF to a chow diet, wheel running rats initially avoid the HF diet...
November 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Rachel S Fisher, Joseph R Rausch, Amanda C Ferrante, Kemar V Prussien, Randal S Olshefski, Kathryn A Vannatta, Bruce E Compas, Cynthia A Gerhardt
OBJECTIVE: The majority of childhood cancer survivors develop at least one late effect subsequent to treatment (eg, cardiovascular disease and obesity). Consistent engagement in recommended health behaviors may mitigate some of these conditions. Researchers have identified early survivorship as a teachable moment, yet few studies have examined positive health behaviors during this period. METHODS: Families of children with cancer (ages 5-17) were initially recruited following a diagnosis or relapse of cancer...
November 6, 2018: Psycho-oncology
Zhenni Zhu, Fan Wu, Ye Lu, Chunfeng Wu, Zhengyuan Wang, Jiajie Zang, Changyi Guo, Xiaodong Jia, Jiahui Yao, Hui Peng, Yuna He, Jing Sun, Jian Huang, Gangqiang Ding
The causal relationship between serum ferritin and metabolic syndrome (MetS) remains inconclusive. Dietary iron intake increases serum ferritin. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations of total, heme, and nonheme dietary iron intake with MetS and its components in men and women in metropolitan China. Data from 3099 participants in the Shanghai Diet and Health Survey (SDHS) obtained during 2012⁻2013 were included in this analysis. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-h diet records from 3 consecutive days...
November 4, 2018: Nutrients
Takafumi Ando, Paolo Piaggi, Clifton Bogardus, Jonathan Krakoff
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Energy expenditure measured under sedentary conditions predicts weight change but evidence that directly measured VO2 max is associated with weight change is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the associations of VO2 max with measures of predominantly sedentary 24-h thermogenesis, and subsequent weight change. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Three hundred fifty-seven individuals (162 females; 27 Blacks, 72 Caucasians, and 258 American Indians) had measures of body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and intermittent treadmill run test for assessment of VO2 max...
January 2019: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Willem T Peppler, Logan K Townsend, Grace M Meers, Matthew R Panasevich, Rebecca Ek MacPherson, R Scott Rector, David C Wright
Obesity can lead to impairments in hepatic glucose and insulin homeostasis, and although exercise is an effective treatment, the molecular targets remain incompletely understood. As interleukin-6 (IL-6) is an exercise-inducible cytokine, we aimed to identify if IL-6 itself influences hepatic glucose and insulin homeostasis, and if this response differs during obesity. In vivo, male mice were fed a low fat diet (LFD, 10% kcal) or high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal) for 7 weeks, which induced obesity and hepatic lipid accumulation...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Mackenzie L Hagan, Anoosh Bahraini, Jessica L Pierce, Sarah M Bass, Kanglun Yu, Ranya Elsayed, Mohammed Elsalanty, Maribeth H Johnson, Anna McNeil, Paul L McNeil, Meghan E McGee-Lawrence
Osteocytes experience plasma membrane disruptions (PMD) that initiate mechanotransduction both in vitro and in vivo in response to mechanical loading, suggesting that osteocytes use PMD to sense and adapt to mechanical stimuli. PMD repair is crucial for cell survival; antioxidants (e.g., alpha-tocopherol, also known as Vitamin E) promote repair while reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can accumulate during exercise, inhibit repair. The goal of this study was to determine whether depleting Vitamin E in the diet would impact osteocyte survival and bone adaptation with loading...
October 24, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Loes Ca Rutten-Jacobs, Susanna C Larsson, Rainer Malik, Kristiina Rannikmäe, Cathie L Sudlow, Martin Dichgans, Hugh S Markus, Matthew Traylor
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations of a polygenic risk score and healthy lifestyle with incident stroke. DESIGN: Prospective population based cohort study. SETTING: UK Biobank Study, UK. PARTICIPANTS: 306 473 men and women, aged 40-73 years, recruited between 2006 and 2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Hazard ratios for a first stroke, estimated using Cox regression. A polygenic risk score of 90 single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with stroke was constructed at P<1×10-5 to test for an association with incident stroke...
October 24, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Kristin I Stanford, Morten Rasmussen, Lisa A Baer, Adam C Lehnig, Leslie A Rowland, Joseph D White, Kawai So, Ana Luisa De Sousa-Coehlo, Michael F Hirshman, Mary-Elizabeth Patti, Oliver J Rando, Laurie J Goodyear
Poor paternal diet has emerged as a risk factor for metabolic disease in offspring, and alterations in sperm may be a major mechanism mediating these detrimental effects of diet. While exercise in the general population is known to improve health, the effects of paternal exercise on sperm and offspring metabolic health are largely unknown. Here, we studied seven wk-old C57BL/6 male mice fed a chow or high fat diet, and housed either in static cages (sedentary) or cages with attached running wheels (exercise-trained)...
October 21, 2018: Diabetes
Soeun Jeon, Kyungho Cho, Gina Ok, Sukho Lee, Hyon Park
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of weight loss practices on nutritional status, bone health, and injury history among Korean professional jockeys. METHODS: Forty-three male jockeys completed a questionnaire to assess their weight loss practices. Of these, 10 jockeys were selected for in-depth assessment of their nutritional status, bone health, and injury history. RESULTS: The questionnaires revealed that 81...
September 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
John E Morley
Cognitive decline occurs in all persons during the aging process. Eventually, this can result in mild cognitive impairment and dementia. There are more than 100 causes of dementia. A multifocal approach to slowing cognitive decline (Mediterranean diet, exercise, computer games, socialization, and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors) appears to be effective.
November 2018: Clinics in Geriatric Medicine
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