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Diet during exercise

Emily L Mailey, Carrie Mershon, Jillian Joyce, Brandon C Irwin
BACKGROUND: Military spouses are integral to the health of their families, but have demonstrated elevated levels of stress, depression, and anxiety. Participating in health behaviors such as physical activity and healthy eating may have a positive impact on spouses' physical and mental health, but emerging evidence suggests spouses' participation in these behaviors is scarce. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the most frequently reported barriers to health behaviors among military spouses...
August 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Caroline M Kristensen, Maja M Dethlefsen, Anna S Tøndering, Signe B Lassen, Jacob N Meldgaard, Stine Ringholm, Henriette Pilegaard
Diet-induced obesity is associated with hepatic steatosis, which has been linked with activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). PGC-1α is a transcriptional coactivator involved in exercise training-induced adaptations in muscle and liver. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that PGC-1α is required for exercise training-mediated prevention of diet-induced steatosis and UPR activation in liver. Male liver-specific PGC-1α knockout (LKO) and littermate floxed (lox/lox) mice were divided into two groups receiving either control diet (CON) or high-fat high-fructose diet (HFF)...
August 2018: Physiological Reports
Haruka Takei, Mie Shiraishi, Masayo Matsuzaki, Megumi Haruna
INTRODUCTION: Vegetable intake (VI) is important for both fetal and maternal health. However, VI is insufficient among many pregnant Japanese women. This study aimed to identify the factors related to VI during pregnancy. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014, at a university hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Dietary intake was assessed using a brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Demographic, physical, and psychological characteristics, dietary habits, and health-related behaviors were investigated using another questionnaire...
August 10, 2018: Appetite
E Normandin, D Yow, C Crotts, J Kiel, K M Beavers, B J Nicklas
BACKGROUND: While intentional weight loss in older adults with obesity yields clinically important health benefits there is a need to minimize the negative effects of weight loss on concomitant loss of muscle mass and strength. Data show wearing weighted vests during exercise improves lean mass and lower extremity strength, however the efficacy of wearing a weighted vest during a period of weight loss to mitigate muscle and strength loss is not known. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the feasibility of daily weighted vest use during a dietary weight loss intervention, and examined effects of vest use on body composition and physical function in well-functioning older adults with obesity...
2018: Journal of Frailty & Aging
Hafiz M Imran, Muhammad Baig, Marjan Mujib, Charles Beale, Arlene Gaw, Loren Stabile, Nishant R Shah, Paul C Gordon, Wen-Chih Wu
Background Referral rates and outcomes of cardiac rehabilitation have not been evaluated in patients with transcatheter aortic valve replacement or compared with surgical aortic valve replacement. Method A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 488 patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement ( n = 199) and surgical aortic valve replacement ( n = 289) from a university-based statewide transcatheter aortic valve replacement/surgical aortic valve replacement program during 2015-2017...
August 8, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Yingshan Liu, Marianne Milner, Markos Klonizakis
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term adherence to the Mediterranean diet (MD) was associated with improved physiological function. METHODS: This was a single-center, cohort pilot study with 24 healthy, sedentary younger (18-35 y of age) and older (55-75 y of age) adults. Participants were advised to follow the MD for 4 wk. Baseline and post-intervention measurements were taken of weight, height, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure, and heart rate, as well as microvascular physiological assessments using laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) at rest, as well as transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcpO2) during a sub-maximal exercise assessment...
May 24, 2018: Nutrition
Katsutaka Oishi, Chiaki Hashimoto
Feeding at unusual times of the day is thought to be associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in both experimental animals and humans. We previously reported that time-imposed feeding during the sleep phase (daytime feeding, DF) induces obesity and metabolic disorders compared with mice fed only during the active phase (nighttime feeding, NF). The present study aimed to determine whether leptin resistance is caused by DF, and whether it is involved in the underlying mechanisms of DF-induced obesity in mice, since leptin plays an essential role in regulating energy expenditure and adiposity in addition to food intake...
August 7, 2018: Chronobiology International
Ewa Otto-Buczkowska, Karolina Grzyb, Natalia Jainta
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) usually arises during puberty and is marked by insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperandrogenism. The principle is that the diagnosis of PCOS must be based on the presence of at least two of the following three criteria: chronic anovulation, hyperandrogenism (clinical or biological), and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS in adolescents is particularly difficult due to developmental problems in this group. Many symptoms of PCOS, including acne, menstrual irregularities, and hyperinsulinemia, are common in normal puberty...
2018: Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism
Rogério T Ferreira, Sandra C Gonçalves, Maria L Pedrosa, Marcelo E Silva, Adriana Bassini, Wagner S Coelho, Aníbal M de Magalhães-Neto, Eduardo S Prado, L C Cameron
Keto analogues and amino acids (KAAA) supplementation can reduce blood ammonia concentrations in athletes undergoing high-intensity exercise under both ketogenic and thermoneutral conditions. This study evaluated the acute effects of KAAA supplementation on ammonia metabolism during extenuating endurance exercise in rats fed a ketogenic diet. In all, eighty male Fischer rats at 90 d of age were divided into eight groups, and some were trained using a swimming endurance protocol. A ketogenic diet supplemented with keto analogues was administered for 10 d...
August 6, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
María José López Rey, Manuel Docampo García
OBJECTIVES: This study was intended to analyze the change in prevalence of diabetes mellitus in Spain during the period 1999-2014, and to estimate its prevalence in the near future. On the other hand, the association between DM and the following variables was assessed: sex, age, educational level, and social class, and to others related to lifestyle such as diet and physical activity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A descriptive analysis of prevalence was performed based on the different health surveys conducted in Spain from 1999 to the present day, including EDDES in 1999; ENS in 2003, 2006 and 2012; and EESE in 2009 and 2014...
August 2, 2018: Endocrinología, Diabetes y Nutrición
Serena Pagliarani, Sabrina Lucchiari, Gianna Ulzi, Michela Ripolone, Raffaella Violano, Francesco Fortunato, Andreina Bordoni, Stefania Corti, Maurizio Moggio, Nereo Bresolin, Giacomo P Comi
Glycogen disease type III (GSDIII), a rare incurable autosomal recessive disorder due to glycogen debranching enzyme deficiency, presents with liver, heart and skeletal muscle impairment, hepatomegaly and ketotic hypoglycemia. Muscle weakness usually worsens to fixed myopathy and cardiac involvement may present in about half of the patients during disease. Management relies on careful follow-up of symptoms and diet. No common agreement was reached on sugar restriction and treatment in adulthood. We administered two dietary regimens differing in their protein and carbohydrate content, high-protein (HPD) and high-protein/glucose-free (GFD), to our mouse model of GSDIII, starting at one month of age...
August 1, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Ruy A Louzada, Denise P Carvalho
Thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) are secreted by the thyroid gland, while T3 is also generated from the peripheral metabolism of T4 by iodothyronine deiodinases types I and II. Several conditions like stress, diseases, and physical exercise can promote changes in local TH metabolism, leading to different target tissue effects that depend on the presence of tissue-specific enzymatic activities. The newly discovered physiological and pharmacological actions of T4 and T3 metabolites, such as 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2), and 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) are of great interest...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
John P Mulhall, Annamaria Giraldi, Geoff Hackett, Wayne J G Hellstrom, Emmanuele A Jannini, Eusebio Rubio-Aurioles, Landon Trost, Tarek A Hassan
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is a common condition the treatment of which over the years has expanded from specialty care settings to various other clinical settings. A Process of Care Model was developed in 1999 to provide primary care physicians with guidance in the diagnosis and management of ED. AIM: This update to the Process of Care Model aims to reflect current ED management practices, because the study of ED has changed since 1999. METHODS: Updates to the Process of Care Model were developed during a meeting of international experts from diverse disciplines...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Li Fang, Li-Ping Hsiao, Shu-Hui Fang, Bao-Chen Chen
BACKGROUND: Nurses with obesity will lead to health problems as well as their high turnover rate and low retention rate. OBJECTIVES: This study explored the associations with female nurses' work stress, social support and overweight/obesity, and tried to find the predictors of the female nurses' overweight/obesity. METHODS: The study applied a cross-sectional and correlational design. FINDINGS: The results of this study showed that "regular exercise frequency lower than or equal to 2 days a week", "rotating night shifts greater than or equal to 4 times a month", "nursing working hours higher than 44 hours a week", "high work stress", and "low social support" were the main predictors of "overweight/ obesity"...
April 2018: Contemporary Nurse
Carmen Stavrositu, Jinhee Kim
Countless messages and campaigns have been designed to convince individuals to engage in healthy behaviors in their daily lives. Because the vast majority of these messages are typically generated by others, the current study explores the effects of self-generated messages in the context of mobile media. A 3 × 2 (persuasion: self- vs. other-generated narrative vs. other-generated non-narrative × topic: regular exercise vs. healthy diet) field experiment (n = 133) was conducted during a 10-day timeframe...
July 25, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Yoshihiko Minegishi, Atsuko Otsuka, Noriyasu Ota, Koichi Ishii, Akira Shimotoyodome
Continuous intake of green tea catechins (GTC) increases fatty acid utilization as an energy source and improves endurance capacity. Conversely, the single pre-exercise intake of maltodextrin (MD) as a carbohydrate source and the gluconeogenic amino acids alanine (Ala) and proline (Pro) effectively maintain blood glucose levels and increase endurance performance. In this study, we investigated the synergistic combinational effect of these interventions on endurance performance in mice. Male BALB/c mice were fed a 0...
July 19, 2018: Nutrients
Stergios A Polyzos, Andrew N Margioris
Sarcopenic obesity, a chronic condition, is today a major public health problem with increasing prevalence worldwide, which is due to progressively aging populations, the increasing prevalence of obesity, and the changes in lifestyle during the last several decades. Patients usually present to healthcare facilities for obesity and related comorbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease) or for non-specific symptoms related to sarcopenia per se (e...
July 16, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ellen J I van Dongen, Annemien Haveman-Nies, Nick L W Wezenbeek, Berber G Dorhout, Esmée L Doets, Lisette C P G M de Groot
BACKGROUND: Exercise and nutrition are important for older adults to maintain or to regain their muscle mass, function, strength, and ultimately quality of life. The effectiveness of combined resistance exercise and diet interventions is commonly evaluated in controlled clinical studies, but evidence from real-life settings is lacking. This article describes the effectiveness, process, and economic evaluation design of a combined nutrition and exercise intervention for community-dwelling older adults in a Dutch real-life setting...
July 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Hiroyuki Sagayama, Eiichi Yoshimura, Yosuke Yamada, Hiroaki Tanaka
BACKGROUND: Boxers need to consider energy metabolism during rapid weight loss (RWL) followed by rapid weight regain. We examined the effects of RWL and a 3-h acute weight recovery on energy expenditure, carbohydrate oxidation, and fat oxidation in boxing athletes. METHODS: The analysis was based on the data of seven healthy young male athletes who underwent rapid weight loss followed by acute weight recovery. Energy expenditure was evaluated at three time points: one week prior to the acute weight loss (baseline); after the 1- week weight loss period; after a 3-h acute weight recovery period...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Brittany K Gorres-Martens, Tyler J Field, Emma R Schmidt, Karen A Munger
Previous studies suggest that the loss of estrogens increase one's risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D), and combining the loss of estrogens with a high-fat diet (HFD) poses an even greater risk for T2D. The extent to which exercise can ameliorate the deleterious effects of estrogen loss combined with a HFD and the molecular mechanisms accounting for the whole body changes is currently unknown. Therefore, we fed female Wistar rats a standard diet or a HFD for 10 weeks. The rats fed the HFD were either ovariectomized (OVX) or their ovaries remained intact...
July 2018: Physiological Reports
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