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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30072909/a-bayesian-approach-for-the-use-of-athlete-performance-data-within-anti-doping
#1
Silvia Montagna, James Hopker
The World Anti-doping Agency currently collates the results of all doping tests for athletes involved in elite sporting competition with the aim of improving the fight against doping. Existing anti-doping strategies involve either the direct detection of use of banned substances, or abnormal variation in metabolites or biological markers related to their use. As the aim of any doping regime is to enhance athlete competitive performance, it is interesting to consider whether performance data could be used within the fight against doping...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29998639/-the-necessary-dialogue-between-medicine-and-anti-doping-for-the-integrity-of-sport-and-the-athlete
#2
Raphael Faiss, Olivier Salamin, Tiffany Astolfi, Martial Saugy
In the light of recurring anti-doping news, this article discusses some special cases and extends to the future prospects of developing effective anti-doping strategies. After recalling the current principles of the fight against doping, the use of substances tole-rated at a certain threshold, and the therapeutic use exemptions (TUE) are discussed. Authorized substances with a health risk for athletes are discussed before concluding on the development of the athlete's biological passport as a future common ground for anti-doping and medical follow-up of athletes...
July 11, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29963077/passport-seq-a-novel-high-throughput-bioassay-to-functionally-test-polymorphisms-in-micro-rna-target-sites
#3
Joseph Ipe, Kimberly S Collins, Yangyang Hao, Hongyu Gao, Puja Bhatia, Andrea Gaedigk, Yunlong Liu, Todd C Skaar
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) studies have identified large numbers of genetic variants that are predicted to alter miRNA-mRNA interactions. We developed a novel high-throughput bioassay, PASSPORT-seq, that can functionally test in parallel 100s of these variants in miRNA binding sites (mirSNPs). The results are highly reproducible across both technical and biological replicates. The utility of the bioassay was demonstrated by testing 100 mirSNPs in HEK293, HepG2, and HeLa cells. The results of several of the variants were validated in all three cell lines using traditional individual luciferase assays...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797687/monitoring-dehydroepiandrosterone-dhea-in-the-urine-of-thoroughbred-geldings-for-doping-control-purposes
#4
Marjaana Viljanto, Pamela Hincks, Lynn Hillyer, Adam Cawley, Craig Suann, Glenys Noble, Christopher J Walker, Mark C Parkin, Andrew T Kicman, James Scarth
The use of testosterone and its pro-drugs, such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), is currently regulated in horseracing by the application of international testosterone thresholds. However, additional steroidomic approaches, such as steroid ratios, to distinguish overall adrenal stimulation from drug administrations and an equine biological passport for longitudinal steroid profiling of individual animals could be advantageous in equine doping testing. Thus, DHEA concentrations and related ratios (testosterone [T] to DHEA and DHEA to epitestosterone [E]) were assessed in the reference population by quantitative analysis of 200 post-race gelding urine samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
May 24, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651247/application-of-the-athlete-s-performance-passport-for-doping-control-a-case-report
#5
Sergei Iljukov, Stephane Bermon, Yorck O Schumacher
The efficient use of testing resources is a key issue in the fight against doping. The longitudinal tracking of sporting performances to identify unusual improvements possibly caused by doping, so-called "athlete's performance passport" (APP) is a new concept to improve targeted anti-doping testing. In fact, unusual performances by an athlete would trigger a more thorough testing program. In the present case report, performance data is modeled using the critical power concept for a group of athletes based on their past performances...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580881/doping-risk-and-career-turning-points-in-male-elite-road-cycling-2005-2016
#6
Olivier Aubel, Brice Lefèvre, Jean-Marie Le Goff, Natascia Taverna
OBJECTIVES: Determine whether career paths of elite male professional riders explain the risk of being sanctioned for an Anti-Doping Rules Violation through the International Cycling Union. DESIGN, METHODS: A discrete-time logit model explored the link between career path and ADRV risk in a database of 10,551 riders engaged in the first three world divisions (2005-2016), including 271 sanctioned riders. RESULTS: Despite a longer career (7...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524351/do-athletes-have-a-right-to-access-data-in-their-athlete-biological-passport
#7
REVIEW
Thijs Devriendt, Davit Chokoshvili, Maddalena Favaretto, Pascal Borry
The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) refers to the collection of data related to an individual athlete. The ABP contains the Haematological Module and the Steroidal Module, which are used for the longitudinal monitoring of variables in blood and urine, respectively. Based on changes in these variables, a statistical model detects outliers which indicate doping use and guide further targeted testing of the athlete. Presently, athletes can access their data of the Haematological Module in the Anti-Doping Administration and Management System (ADAMS)...
May 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486413/ladies-first-female-and-male-adult-height-in-switzerland-1770-1930
#8
Nikola Koepke, Joël Floris, Christian Pfister, Frank J Rühli, Kaspar Staub
When investigating the well-being of a society, the living conditions of females are of special importance, not only due to the immediate impact for those directly involved, but also because of the potential intergenerational effects. Studying the dimorphism in the mean height helps to depict variation in the basic biological sex difference due to gender-related factors that potentially determine net nutrition. To expand knowledge of diachronic development in Swiss well-being conditions we investigate changes in the height of adult females born 1770-1930, and compare the series with data on contemporary males from the same sources: We employ a sample of N = 21'028 women and N = 21'329 men from passport-, convict-, maternity hospital-, and voluntary World War II army auxiliary records...
May 2018: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457371/validation-of-a-blood-marker-for-plasma-volume-in-endurance-athletes-during-a-live-high-train-low-altitude-training-camp
#9
Louisa M Lobigs, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Victor L Vuong, Nicolin Tee, Christopher J Gore, Peter Peeling, Brian Dawson, Yorck O Schumacher
Altitude is a confounding factor within the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) due, in part, to the plasma volume (PV) response to hypoxia. Here, a newly developed PV blood test is applied to assess the possible efficacy of reducing the influence of PV on the volumetric ABP markers; haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and the OFF-score. Endurance athletes (n=34) completed a 21-night simulated live-high train-low (LHTL) protocol (14 h.d-1 at 3000 m). Bloods were collected twice pre-altitude; at days 3, 8, and 15 at altitude; and 1, 7, 21, and 42 days post-altitude...
February 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349906/pregnancy-greatly-affects-the-steroidal-module-of-the-athlete-biological-passport
#10
Jenny Mullen, Yifat Gadot, Emma Eklund, Alexander Andersson, Jenny J Schulze, Magnus Ericsson, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Anders Rane, Lena Ekström
Concentrations of urinary steroids are measured in anti-doping test programs to detect doping with endogenous steroids. These concentrations are combined into ratios and followed over time in the steroidal module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). The most important ratio in the ABP is the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio but this ratio is subject to intra-individual variations, especially large in women, which complicates interpretation. In addition, there are other factors affecting T/E. Pregnancy, for example, is known to affect the urinary excretion rate of epitestosterone and hence the T/E ratio...
January 18, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278450/effect-of-glucocorticoid-administration-on-the-steroid-profile
#11
Sergi Coll, Xavier Matabosch, Lorena Garrostas, Clara Perez-Maña, Rosa Ventura
The steroid profile (SP) is a powerful tool to detect the misuse of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids in sports, and it is included in the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). Glucocorticoids (GCs), which are widely prescribed in sports and only prohibited in competition by systemic routes, inhibit the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Since the metabolites monitored in the SP have a partial adrenal origin, their excretion in urine might be altered by GCs consumption. The aim of the present work was to investigate if GCs administered by either systemic or local routes could influence the SP parameters...
June 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163232/considerations-on-the-assessment-and-use-of-cycling-performance-metrics-and-their-integration-in-the-athlete-s-biological-passport
#12
Paolo Menaspà, Chris R Abbiss
Over the past few decades the possibility to capture real-time data from road cyclists has drastically improved. Given the increasing pressure for improved transparency and openness, there has been an increase in publication of cyclists' physiological and performance data. Recently, it has been suggested that the use of such performance biometrics may be used to strengthen the sensitivity and applicability of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and aid in the fight against doping. This is an interesting concept which has merit, although there are several important factors that need to be considered...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150907/sensitivity-of-doping-biomarkers-after-administration-of-a-single-dose-testosterone-gel
#13
Jenny Mullen, Annica Börjesson, Oscar Hopcraft, Jenny J Schulze, Magnus Ericsson, Anders Rane, Mikael Lehtihet, Lena Ekström
Micro-doping with testosterone (T) is challenging to detect with the current doping tests. Today, the methods available to detect T are longitudinally monitoring of urine biomarkers in the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and measuring the isotopic composition of excreted biomarkers to distinguish the origin of the molecule. In this study, we investigated the detectability of a single dose of 100 mg T gel in 8 healthy male subjects. We also studied which biomarkers were most sensitive to T gel administration, including blood biomarkers...
May 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149240/z-scores-based-methods-and-their-application-to-biological-monitoring-an-example-in-professional-soccer-players
#14
Guillaume Saulière, Jérôme Dedecker, Laurie-Anne Marquet, Pierre Rochcongar, Jean-Francois Toussaint, Geoffroy Berthelot
The clinical and biological follow-up of individuals, such as the biological passport for athletes, is typically based on the individual and longitudinal monitoring of hematological or urine markers. These follow-ups aim to identify abnormal behavior by comparing the individual's biological samples to an established baseline. These comparisons may be done via different ways, but each of them requires an appropriate extra population to compute the significance levels, which is a non-trivial issue. Moreover, it is not necessarily relevant to compare the measures of a biomarker of a professional athlete to that of a reference population (even restricted to other athletes), and a reasonable alternative is to detect the abnormal values by considering only the other measurements of the same athlete...
November 15, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148228/evaluation-of-markers-out-of-the-steroid-profile-for-the-screening-of-testosterone-misuse-part-i-transdermal-administration
#15
Aristotelis Kotronoulas, Àlex Gomez-Gómez, Andreu Fabregat, Jordi Segura, Sheng Yang, Yanyi Xing, Wu Moutian, Josep Marcos, Jesús Joglar, Rosa Ventura, Oscar J Pozo
Although the introduction by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) of the steroid module of the athlete biological passport (ABP) marked an important step forward in the screening of testosterone (T) misuse, it still remains one of the most difficult challenges in doping control analysis. The urinary determination of alternative markers has been recently reported as a promising tool for improving the screening of T oral administration. However, their evaluation for other, commonly used, administration routes is still required...
May 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143667/validation-of-whole-blood-transcriptome-signature-during-microdose-recombinant-human-erythropoietin-rhuepo-administration
#16
Guan Wang, Jérôme Durussel, Jonathan Shurlock, Martin Mooses, Noriyuki Fuku, Georgie Bruinvels, Charles Pedlar, Richard Burden, Andrew Murray, Brendan Yee, Anne Keenan, John D McClure, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Yannis P Pitsiladis
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) can improve human performance and is therefore frequently abused by athletes. As a result, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) introduced the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) as an indirect method to detect blood doping. Despite this progress, challenges remain to detect blood manipulations such as the use of microdoses of rHuEpo. METHODS: Forty-five whole-blood transcriptional markers of rHuEpo previously derived from a high-dose rHuEpo administration trial were used to assess whether microdoses of rHuEpo could be detected in 14 trained subjects and whether these markers may be confounded by exercise (n = 14 trained subjects) and altitude training (n = 21 elite runners and n = 4 elite rowers, respectively)...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032611/fast-irms-screening-of-pseudoendogenous-steroids-in-doping-analyses
#17
Xavier de la Torre, Cristiana Colamonici, Davide Curcio, Francesco Botrè
The detection of the abuse of pseudoendogenous steroids (testosterone and/or its precursors) is currently based, when possible, on the application of the steroid module of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), athlete biological passport (ABP), implemented through the global database, ADAMS. When a suspicious sample is detected, the confirmation by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is required. It is well known that this confirmation procedure is time consuming and expensive and can be only applied on a reduced number of samples...
November 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943276/detection-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-use-by-elite-athletes-and-by-members-of-the-general-public
#18
REVIEW
Bradley D Anawalt
Because national and international sports competitions are sources of community pride and financial revenue, there have been great efforts to prevent and detect the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic androgenic steroids by elite athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency and its national affiliate anti-doping agencies have created sophisticated monitoring systems and advanced testing techniques to detect the use of banned substances including anabolic androgenic steroids by participants in international and national athletic competitions...
March 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929623/influence-of-combined-iron-supplementation-and-simulated-hypoxia-on-the-haematological-module-of-the-athlete-biological-passport
#19
Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Victor L Vuong, Andrew D Govus, Yorck Olaf Schumacher, David Hughes, Greg Lovell, Daniel Eichner, Christopher J Gore
The integrity of the athlete biological passport (ABP) is underpinned by understanding normal fluctuations of its biomarkers to environmental or medical conditions, for example, altitude training or iron deficiency. The combined impact of altitude and iron supplementation on the ABP was evaluated in endurance-trained athletes (n = 34) undertaking 3 weeks of simulated live-high: train-low (14 h.d-1 , 3000 m). Athletes received either oral, intravenous (IV) or placebo iron supplementation, commencing 2 weeks prior and continuing throughout hypoxic exposure...
April 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901724/codeine-influences-the-serum-and-urinary-profile-of-endogenous-androgens-but-does-not-interact-with-the-excretion-rate-of-administered-testosterone
#20
M Lehtihet, A Andersson, A Börjesson, J Schulze, A Rane, M Ericsson, L Ekström
Today's doping tests involve longitudinal monitoring of urinary steroids including the testosterone glucuronide and epitestosterone glucuronide ratio (T/E) in an Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of short-term use of codeine on the urinary excretion of androgen metabolites included in the steroidal module of the passport prior to and after the co-administration with testosterone. The study was designed as an open study with the subjects being their own control...
April 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
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