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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651247/application-of-the-athlete-s-performance-passport-for-doping-control-a-case-report
#1
Sergei Iljukov, Stephane Bermon, Yorck O Schumacher
The efficient use of testing resources is a key issue in the fight against doping. The longitudinal tracking of sporting performances to identify unusual improvements possibly caused by doping, so-called "athlete's performance passport" (APP) is a new concept to improve targeted anti-doping testing. In fact, unusual performances by an athlete would trigger a more thorough testing program. In the present case report, performance data is modeled using the critical power concept for a group of athletes based on their past performances...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524351/do-athletes-have-a-right-to-access-data-in-their-athlete-biological-passport
#2
REVIEW
Thijs Devriendt, Davit Chokoshvili, Maddalena Favaretto, Pascal Borry
The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) refers to the collection of data related to an individual athlete. The ABP contains the Haematological Module and the Steroidal Module, which are used for the longitudinal monitoring of variables in blood and urine, respectively. Based on changes in these variables, a statistical model detects outliers which indicate doping use and guide further targeted testing of the athlete. Presently, athletes can access their data of the Haematological Module in the Anti-Doping Administration and Management System (ADAMS)...
May 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457371/validation-of-a-blood-marker-for-plasma-volume-in-endurance-athletes-during-a-live-high-train-low-altitude-training-camp
#3
Louisa M Lobigs, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Victor L Vuong, Nicolin Tee, Christopher J Gore, Peter Peeling, Brian Dawson, Yorck O Schumacher
Altitude is a confounding factor within the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) due, in part, to the plasma volume (PV) response to hypoxia. Here, a newly developed PV blood test is applied to assess the possible efficacy of reducing the influence of PV on the volumetric ABP markers; haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and the OFF-score. Endurance athletes (n=34) completed a 21-night simulated live-high train-low (LHTL) protocol (14 h.d-1 at 3000 m). Bloods were collected twice pre-altitude; at days 3, 8, and 15 at altitude; and 1, 7, 21, and 42 days post-altitude...
February 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150907/sensitivity-of-doping-biomarkers-after-administration-of-a-single-dose-testosterone-gel
#4
Jenny Mullen, Annica Börjesson, Oscar Hopcraft, Jenny J Schulze, Magnus Ericsson, Anders Rane, Mikael Lehtihet, Lena Ekström
Micro-doping with testosterone (T) is challenging to detect with the current doping tests. Today, the methods available to detect T are longitudinally monitoring of urine biomarkers in the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and measuring the isotopic composition of excreted biomarkers to distinguish the origin of the molecule. In this study, we investigated the detectability of a single dose of 100 mg T gel in 8 healthy male subjects. We also studied which biomarkers were most sensitive to T gel administration, including blood biomarkers...
May 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143667/validation-of-whole-blood-transcriptome-signature-during-microdose-recombinant-human-erythropoietin-rhuepo-administration
#5
Guan Wang, Jérôme Durussel, Jonathan Shurlock, Martin Mooses, Noriyuki Fuku, Georgie Bruinvels, Charles Pedlar, Richard Burden, Andrew Murray, Brendan Yee, Anne Keenan, John D McClure, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Yannis P Pitsiladis
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) can improve human performance and is therefore frequently abused by athletes. As a result, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) introduced the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) as an indirect method to detect blood doping. Despite this progress, challenges remain to detect blood manipulations such as the use of microdoses of rHuEpo. METHODS: Forty-five whole-blood transcriptional markers of rHuEpo previously derived from a high-dose rHuEpo administration trial were used to assess whether microdoses of rHuEpo could be detected in 14 trained subjects and whether these markers may be confounded by exercise (n = 14 trained subjects) and altitude training (n = 21 elite runners and n = 4 elite rowers, respectively)...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943276/detection-of-anabolic-androgenic-steroid-use-by-elite-athletes-and-by-members-of-the-general-public
#6
REVIEW
Bradley D Anawalt
Because national and international sports competitions are sources of community pride and financial revenue, there have been great efforts to prevent and detect the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic androgenic steroids by elite athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency and its national affiliate anti-doping agencies have created sophisticated monitoring systems and advanced testing techniques to detect the use of banned substances including anabolic androgenic steroids by participants in international and national athletic competitions...
March 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929623/influence-of-combined-iron-supplementation-and-simulated-hypoxia-on-the-haematological-module-of-the-athlete-biological-passport
#7
Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Victor L Vuong, Andrew D Govus, Yorck Olaf Schumacher, David Hughes, Greg Lovell, Daniel Eichner, Christopher J Gore
The integrity of the athlete biological passport (ABP) is underpinned by understanding normal fluctuations of its biomarkers to environmental or medical conditions, for example, altitude training or iron deficiency. The combined impact of altitude and iron supplementation on the ABP was evaluated in endurance-trained athletes (n = 34) undertaking 3 weeks of simulated live-high: train-low (14 h.d-1 , 3000 m). Athletes received either oral, intravenous (IV) or placebo iron supplementation, commencing 2 weeks prior and continuing throughout hypoxic exposure...
April 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901724/codeine-influences-the-serum-and-urinary-profile-of-endogenous-androgens-but-does-not-interact-with-the-excretion-rate-of-administered-testosterone
#8
M Lehtihet, A Andersson, A Börjesson, J Schulze, A Rane, M Ericsson, L Ekström
Today's doping tests involve longitudinal monitoring of urinary steroids including the testosterone glucuronide and epitestosterone glucuronide ratio (T/E) in an Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of short-term use of codeine on the urinary excretion of androgen metabolites included in the steroidal module of the passport prior to and after the co-administration with testosterone. The study was designed as an open study with the subjects being their own control...
April 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28849386/doping-in-two-elite-athletics-competitions-assessed-by-randomized-response-surveys
#9
Rolf Ulrich, Harrison G Pope, Léa Cléret, Andrea Petróczi, Tamás Nepusz, Jay Schaffer, Gen Kanayama, R Dawn Comstock, Perikles Simon
BACKGROUND: Doping in sports compromises fair play and endangers health. To deter doping among elite athletes, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) oversees testing of several hundred thousand athletic blood and urine samples annually, of which 1-2% test positive. Measures using the Athlete Biological Passport suggest a higher mean prevalence of about 14% positive tests. Biological testing, however, likely fails to detect many cutting-edge doping techniques, and thus the true prevalence of doping remains unknown...
January 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571018/achievements-and-challenges-in-anti-doping-research
#10
Larry D Bowers, Xavier Bigard
The most important element in achieving athlete compliance with anti-doping rules is the certainty of detection. Thus, scientific research plays a mission critical role in achieving clean competition. Many factors contribute to the advances in detection. Incremental advances in the ability to detect prohibited substances and methods, and identification of long-lived metabolites continue to lengthen detection windows. While the athlete biological passport hematological and steroidal modules hold great promise, experience shows that new research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the approach for current doping techniques...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571016/next-generation-omics-approaches-in-the-fight-against-blood-doping
#11
Guan Wang, Antonia Karanikolou, Ioanna Verdouka, Theodore Friedmann, Yannis Pitsiladis
Despite being prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), blood manipulations such as the use of recombinant human erythropoietin and blood transfusions are a well-known method used by athletes to enhance performance. Direct detection of illicit blood manipulation has been partially successful due to the short detection window of the substances/methods, sample collection timing, and the use of sophisticated masking strategies. In response, WADA introduced the athlete biological passport (ABP) in 2009, which is an individualised longitudinal monitoring approach that tests primarily haematologic biomarkers of doping in order to identify atypical variability in response(s) in athletes, highlighting a potential doping violation...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548390/a-step-towards-removing-plasma-volume-variance-from-the-athlete-s-biological-passport-the-use-of-biomarkers-to-describe-vascular-volumes-from-a-simple-blood-test
#12
Louisa M Lobigs, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Pitre C Bourdon, Zoran Nikolovski, Mohamed El-Gingo, Evdokia Varamenti, Peter Peeling, Brian Dawson, Yorck O Schumacher
The haematological module of the Athlete's Biological Passport (ABP) has significantly impacted the prevalence of blood manipulations in elite sports. However, the ABP relies on a number of concentration-based markers of erythropoiesis, such as haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), which are influenced by shifts in plasma volume (PV). Fluctuations in PV contribute to the majority of biological variance associated with volumetric ABP markers. Our laboratory recently identified a panel of common chemistry markers (from a simple blood test) capable of describing ca 67% of PV variance, presenting an applicable method to account for volume shifts within anti-doping practices...
February 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382793/rna-sample-preparation-applied-to-gene-expression-profiling-for-the-horse-biological-passport
#13
Ludovic Bailly-Chouriberry, Florent Baudoin, Florence Cormant, Yohan Glavieux, Benoit Loup, Patrice Garcia, Marie-Agnès Popot, Yves Bonnaire
The improvement of doping control is an ongoing race. Techniques to fight doping are usually based on the direct detection of drugs or their metabolites by analytical methods such as chromatography hyphenated to mass spectrometry after ad hoc sample preparation. Nowadays, omic methods constitute an attractive development and advances have been achieved particularly by application of molecular biology tools for detection of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), or to control human growth hormone misuses...
September 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346887/high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-as-an-alternative-detection-method-to-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-the-analysis-of-endogenous-steroids-in-serum
#14
Federico Ponzetto, Julien Boccard, Norbert Baume, Tiia Kuuranne, Serge Rudaz, Martial Saugy, Raul Nicoli
Recently, steroid hormones quantification in blood showed a promising ability to detect testosterone doping and interesting complementarities with the urinary module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). In this work, an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS) method was developed for the quantification of eleven endogenous steroids in serum. The performance of the full scan and targeted SIM acquisition modes was evaluated and compared to the performance of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214385/temporal-changes-in-physiology-and-haematology-in-response-to-high-and-micro-doses-of-recombinant-human-erythropoietin
#15
Brad Clark, Sarah M Woolford, Annette Eastwood, Ken Sharpe, Peter G Barnes, Christopher J Gore
There is evidence to suggest athletes have adopted recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) dosing regimens that diminish the likelihood of being caught by direct detection techniques. However, the temporal response in physiology, performance, and Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) parameters to such regimens is not clearly understood. Participants were assigned to a high-dose only group (HIGH, n = 8, six rHuEPO doses of 250 IU/kg over two weeks), a combined high micro-dose group (COMB, n = 8, high-dose plus nine rHuEPO micro-doses over a further three weeks), or one of two placebo control groups who received saline in the same pattern as the HIGH (HIGH-PLACEBO, n = 4) or COMB (COMB-PLACEBO, n = 4) groups...
October 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967274/a-new-method-to-individualize-monitoring-of-muscle-recovery-in-athletes
#16
Anne Hecksteden, Werner Pitsch, Ross Julian, Mark Pfeiffer, Michael Kellmann, Alexander Ferrauti, Tim Meyer
PURPOSE: Assessment of muscle recovery is essential for the daily fine-tuning of training load in competitive sports, but individual differences may limit the diagnostic accuracy of group-based reference ranges. This article reports an attempt to develop individualized reference ranges using a Bayesian approach comparable to that developed for the Athlete Biological Passport. METHODS: Urea and creatine kinase (CK) were selected as indicators of muscle recovery. For each parameter, prior distributions and repeated-measures SDs were characterized based on data of 883 squad athletes (1758 data points, 1-8 per athlete, years 2013-2015)...
October 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758046/hepcidin-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-blood-doping
#17
Nicolas Leuenberger, Emanuele Bulla, Olivier Salamin, Raul Nicoli, Neil Robinson, Norbert Baume, Martial Saugy
The concentration of hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism, is suppressed during periods of increased erythropoietic activity. The present study obtained blood samples from 109 elite athletes and examined the correlations between hepcidin and markers of erythropoiesis and iron metabolism (i.e., haemoglobin, erythropoietin (EPO), ferritin, erythroferrone (ERFE), and iron concentration). Furthermore, an administration study was undertaken to examine the effect of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) delta (Dynepo™) on hepcidin concentrations in healthy male volunteers...
July 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723957/potential-detection-of-low-dose-transdermal-testosterone-administration-in-blood-urine-and-saliva
#18
M Schönfelder, H Hofmann, T Schulz, T Engl, D Kemper, B Mayr, C Rautenberg, R Oberhoffer, D Thieme
Administration of low amounts of endogenous hormones - so-called micro-dosages - are supposed to represent a major challenge in doping analysis. To model such a situation, we have studied transdermal administrations of 2.4 mg/24 h testosterone patches and examined various steroid concentrations in blood, urine, and saliva of 11 volunteers. Multiple samples were collected at t = 0, 3, 6, 9, 24, 48, and 72 h in four different phases, i.e., all combinations with/without physical exercise and with/without testosterone...
November 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706926/discordant-genotyping-results-using-dna-isolated-from-anti-doping-control-urine-samples
#19
Eva Choong, Jenny J Schulze, Magnus Ericsson, Anders Rane, Lena Ekström
The UGT2B17 gene deletion polymorphism is known to correlate to urinary concentration of testosterone-glucuronide and hence this genotype exerts a large impact on the testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, a biomarker for testosterone doping. The objective of this study was to assess if DNA isolated from athletes' urine samples (n = 713) obtained in routine doping controls could be targeted for genotyping analysis for future integration in the athlete's passport. A control population (n = 21) including both urine and blood DNA was used for genotyping concordance test...
July 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696774/detection-of-erythropoietin-misuse-by-the-athlete-biological-passport-combined-with-reticulocyte-percentage
#20
Jacob Bejder, Niels Jacob Aachmann-Andersen, Thomas Christian Bonne, Niels Vidiendal Olsen, Nikolai Baastrup Nordsborg
The sensitivity of the adaptive model of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and reticulocyte percentage (ret%) in detection of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) misuse was evaluated using both a long-term normal dose and a brief high dose treatment regime. Sixteen subjects received either 65 IU rHuEPO × kg(-1) every second day for two weeks (normal-dose), 390 IU rHuEPO × kg(-1) on three consecutive days (high-dose), or frequent placebo treatment for 13 days in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design...
October 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
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