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CV risk

Phyllis Yeboah, Fang-Chi Hsu, Alain G Bertoni, Joseph Yeboah
Weight management is highly recommended to patients with diabetes mellitus. However, this prescription is often characterized by weight fluctuations. It remains unclear the effects of weight fluctuations on outcomes in diabetes mellitus. We used the public use dataset from the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial to assess the effects of baseline weight, change in weight, and body weight variability (BWV) on outcomes. The ACCORD trial participant's weights were documented annually during the trial...
December 3, 2018: American Journal of Cardiology
Minh Tu Van Hoang, To Anh Nguyen, Tan Thanh Tran, Thi Ty Hang Vu, Nguyen Truc Nhu Le, Thi Han Ny Nguyen, Thanh Hoang Nhat Le, Thi Thu Hong Nguyen, Thanh Hung Nguyen, Nguyen Thanh Nhan Le, Huu Khanh Truong, Tuan Quy Du, Manh Tuan Ha, Lu Viet Ho, Chau Viet Do, Tran Nam Nguyen, Thi My Thanh Nguyen, Saraswathy Sabanathan, Tu Qui Phan, Vinh Chau Nguyen Van, Guy E Thwaites, Bridget Wills, C Louise Thwaites, Van Tan Le, H Rogier van Doorn
BACKGROUND: Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) has been associated with large outbreaks among young children, including severe illness and fatality, in the Asia-Pacific Region since 1997. Severe illness is often associated with enterovirus A71 (EV-A71). Vietnam experienced a large sustained outbreak of 200.000 hospitalised cases and over 200 deaths in 2011-12, the large majority occurring in southern Vietnam. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in outpatient clinics, infectious diseases wards and paediatric intensive care units in the three main referral centres for treatment of HFMD in southern Vietnam...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Prinya Prasongdee, Patcharaporn Tippayawat, Temduang Limpaiboon, Chanvit Leelayuwat, Molin Wongwattanakul, Patcharee Jearanaikoon
Persistent infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 and 18 is known to be a major risk factor for cervical cancer. Increased prevalence of co-infection with these high-risk types has been observed in pre-cancerous and cancerous tissues. The determination of physical status and copy numbers of viruses is therefore useful in clinical settings. A simple multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for HPV16/HPV18 co-infection in one tube reaction was established in the present study using TaqMan® -based PCR for E2 and E6 viral DNA...
December 2018: Oncology Letters
Pedro R Pereira, Marta Guimarães, Tiago Morais, Sofia S Pereira, Mário Nora, Mariana P Monteiro
Background/Objetives: Obesity and obesity related co-morbidities are well-recognized risks for cardiovascular (CV) disease and mortality. Weight loss improves CV risk factors and the efficacy of bariatric surgery in decreasing CV mortality is now well-established. Our aim was to assess CV risk progression and occurrence of CV events in a cohort of patients that underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) for obesity treatment in a single academic public center. Subjects and Methods: Ten year CV risk was estimated using the Framingham Equation at baseline and 2 years after RYGB surgery in our patients cohort ( n = 260)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Joseph T Knapper, Zankhana Raval, Matthew E Harinstein, John J Friedewald, Anton I Skaro, Michael I Abecassis, Ziad A Ali, Mihai Gheorghiade, James D Flaherty
: Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing evaluation for kidney and/or pancreas transplantation represent a population with unique cardiovascular (CV) profiles and unique therapeutic needs. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is common in patients with ESRD, mediated by both the overrepresentation and higher prognostic value of traditional CV risk factors amongst this population, as well as altered cardiovascular responses to failing renal function, likely mediated by dysregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and abnormal calcium and phosphate metabolism...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine
Luca Degli Esposti, Valentina Perrone, Chiara Veronesi, Stefano Buda, Roberta Rossini
Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) events in patients after a period of 12 months of treatment with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a real-world setting. Health care costs for the management of patients post-AMI was also assessed. Methods: A retrospective analysis using data from the administrative databases of six local health units (LHUs) was performed...
2018: Vascular Health and Risk Management
Alejandro Kral, Jorge Cortés, Gonzalo Wilson
INTRODUCTION: Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in HIV patients has shown reduction in morbidity and mortality, and decrease in contagious risk. International recommendations include early initiation of ART, irrespectively of CD4 cell count. OBJECTIVE: To describe the impact of ART initiation in CD4 cell count and viral load at the end of the first year of HIV treatment, for patients who entered the program at 2013 and 2015. METHODOLOGY: Descriptive study...
2018: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
Jose Jayme G De Lima, Luis Henrique W Gowdak, Flavio J de Paula, Henrique Cotchi S Muela, Elias David-Neto, Luiz A Bortolotto
Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is prevalent in older patients on dialysis, but the prognostic relevance of coronary assessment in asymptomatic subjects remains undefined. We tested the usefulness of a protocol, based on clinical, invasive, and noninvasive coronary assessment, by answering these questions: Could selecting asymptomatic patients for coronary invasive assessment identify those at higher risk of events? Is CAD associated with a worse prognosis? Methods: A retrospective study including 276 asymptomatic patients at least 65 years old on the waiting list, prospectively evaluated for CAD and followed up until death or renal transplantation, were classified into two groups: 1) low-risk patients who did not undergo coronary angiography (n=63) and 2) patients who did undergo angiography (n=213)...
2018: International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease
Dhvani Shah, Nancy A Risebrough, Johnna Perdrizet, Neeraj N Iyer, Cory Gamble, Tam Dang-Tan
Background: The Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcomes Results (LEADER) clinical trial demonstrated that liraglutide added to standard-of-care (SoC) therapy for type 2 diabetes (T2D) with established cardiovascular disease (CVD) or elevated cardiovascular (CV) risk was associated with lower rates of death from CVD, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), or nonfatal stroke than SoC alone. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness (CE) and budget impact of liraglutide vs SoC in T2D patients with established CVD or elevated CV risk, over a lifetime horizon from a US managed care perspective...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
Eirini Andrikou, Costas Tsioufis, Ioannis Andrikou, Ioannis Leotsinis, Dimitrios Tousoulis, Nikolaos Papanas
Nowadays, major cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials with glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are available. These have proven their CV safety, in harmony with the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendation for antidiabetic drugs. The potential cardioprotective effect of incretin-based therapies is attributed to their multiple non-glycaemic actions in the CV system, including changes in insulin resistance, weight loss, reduction in blood pressure, improved lipid profile, as well as direct effects on the heart and vascular endothelium...
December 5, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Cardiology: HJC, Hellēnikē Kardiologikē Epitheōrēsē
Edwin Phillip Greenup, Boyd Alexander Potts
Objective This study sought to estimate and observe the risks imposed on patients as they travel to hospital for referred treatment. Factors such as distance and remoteness were compared to understand how they affect this risk. Methods This study focused on Queensland residents attending specialist out-patient appointments in a Queensland public hospital throughout 2016. Deidentified information on all recipients of a specialist out-patient appointment in 2016 (n = 2 946 584) were included in the study...
December 10, 2018: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
Vedran Premužić, Vanja Ivković, Ninoslav Leko, Želimir Stipančić, Sandra Karanović, Ana Jelaković, Ivana Vuković Brinar, Živka Dika, Bojan Jelaković
Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), an environmental form of aristolochic acid nephropathy is characterized with later onset and milder forms of hypertension (HT). Thus, we hypothesized that arterial stiffness progresses slower in BEN patients resulting in lower CV mortality. A total of 186 hemodialysed (HD) patients (90 BEN, 96 non-BEN; 67.3 + 13.0 years) were enrolled and followed-up for 25 months. Brachial blood pressure (BP) and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were determined before mid-week dialysis. BEN patients were older (72...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
William G Herrington, David Preiss, Richard Haynes, Maximilian von Eynatten, Natalie Staplin, Sibylle J Hauske, Jyothis T George, Jennifer B Green, Martin J Landray, Colin Baigent, Christoph Wanner
Diabetes is a common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but in aggregate, non-diabetic diseases account for a higher proportion of cases of CKD than diabetes in many parts of the world. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system reduces the risk of kidney disease progression and treatments that lower blood pressure (BP) or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduce cardiovascular (CV) risk in this population. Nevertheless, despite such interventions, considerable risks for kidney and CV complications remain...
December 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Marco Zuin, Gianluca Rigatelli, Mauro Carraro, Gianni Pastore, Daniela Lanza, Pietro Zonzin, Giovanni Zuliani, Loris Roncon
INTRODUCTION: The temporal window for the administration of systemic thrombolysis (ST) in acute pulmonary embolism (PE) has not yet been clarified. We assessed the relationship between short-term cardiovascular (CV) mortality and time of ST administration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Among 394 consecutive patients admitted between January 2010 and June 2017 with a confirmed PE, we retrospectively review the clinical and instrumental data of those labelled as high-risk PE (n = 76, 41 males, mean aged 64...
November 29, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Judy W M Cheng, Vincent J Colucci, James S Kalus, Sarah A Spinler
OBJECTIVE: While improving glycemic control with antihyperglycemics has been demonstrated to reduce microvascular complications, the benefits of reduction in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have not been demonstrated with older agents. This article reviews current evidence of the CV outcomes of newer antihyperglycemics approved since 2008. DATA SOURCES: Peer-reviewed articles were identified from MEDLINE (1966 to October 31, 2018) using search terms exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, dulaglutide, semaglutide, alogliptin, linagliptin, saxagliptin, sitagliptin, canagliflozin, dapagliflozin, empagliflozin, mortality, myocardial infarction (MI), heart failure (HF), and stroke...
December 5, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Paulo Ronaldo Sousa Teixeira, Ana Siqueira do Nascimento Marreiro Teixeira, Emanuel Airton de Oliveira Farias, Edson Cavalcanti da Silva Filho, Helder Nunes da Cunha, José Ribeiro Dos Santos Júnior, Lívio César Cunha Nunes, Handerson Rodrigues Silva Lima, Carla Eiras
There are increasing concerns regarding the risks arising from the contamination of manipulators of antineoplastic drugs promoted by occupational exposure or even in the dosage of drugs. The present work proposes the use of an electrochemical sensor based on a biopolymer extracted from the babassu coconut (Orbignya phalerata) for the determination of an antineoplastic 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) drug as an alternative for the monitoring of these drugs. In order to reduce the cost of this sensor, a flexible gold electrode (FEAu) is proposed...
December 5, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Erkan Topkan, Ugur Selek, Yurday Ozdemir, Ali A Besen, Ozan C Guler, Berna A Yildirim, Huseyin Mertsoylu, Alper Findikcioglu, Ozgur Ozyilkan, Berrin Pehlivan
We aimed to identify the fatal pulmonary hemorrhage- (FPH-) related risk factors in stage 3B/C squamous-cell lung carcinoma (SqCLC) patients treated with definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (C-CRT). Medical records of 505 stage 3B/C SqCLC patients who underwent 66 Gy radiotherapy plus 1-3 cycles of concurrent chemotherapy with available pretreatment thoracic computerized tomography scans were retrospectively analyzed. Primary end-point was the identification of FPH-related risk factors. Examined factors included the basal patient and tumor characteristics with specific emphasis on the tumor cavitation (TC) status, tumor size (TS) and cavitation size (CS), tumor volume and cavitation volume (TV and CV), relative cavitation size (RCS = CS/TS), and relative cavitation volume (RCV=CV/TV)...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Keith C Norris, Opeyemi Olabisi, M Edwina Barnett, Yuan-Xiang Meng, David Martins, Chamberlain Obialo, Jae Eun Lee, Susanne B Nicholas
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major non-communicable disease associated with high rates of premature morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D (deficiency of 25(OH)D or 25D) is greater in racial/ethnic minorities and in patients with CKD than the general population. Low 25D is associated with bone and mineral disorders as well as immune, cardiometabolic and cardiovascular (CV) diseases. Thus, it has been suggested that low 25D contributes to the poor outcomes in patients with CKD. The prevalence of hypovitaminosis D rises progressively with advancing severity of kidney disease with over 30% of patients with CKD stage 3 and 70% patients with CKD stage 5 estimated to have low levels of 25D...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Simon Correa, Marc P Bonaca, Benjamin M Scirica, Sabina A Murphy, Erica L Goodrich, David A Morrow, Michelle L O'Donoghue
Patients with renal disease are often undertreated with antiplatelet therapy due to concerns about bleeding. Vorapaxar blocks platelet activation via the PAR-1 receptor and reduces cardiovascular events in patients with stable atherosclerosis, but with increased bleeding. We examined the efficacy and safety of vorapaxar in patients with impaired renal function. TRA2°P-TIMI 50 randomized patients with stable atherosclerosis to vorapaxar or. We analyzed patients with eGFR assessed who qualified with a history of MI or PAD (without stroke or TIA) (n = 19,932)...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Alexandra Demcsák, Tamás Lantos, Emese Réka Bálint, Petra Hartmann, Áron Vincze, Judit Bajor, László Czopf, Hussain Alizadeh, Zoltán Gyöngyi, Katalin Márta, Alexandra Mikó, Zsolt Szakács, Dániel Pécsi, Péter Hegyi, Imre László Szabó
Background: Clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Contradictory results have been reported on possible complications of simultaneous PPI and clopidogrel use. Our aim was to investigate the clinical relevance of this debate with a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials electronic databases were searched for human studies [randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies] using the PICO format (P: patients on clopidogrel; I: patients treated with PPI; C: patients without PPI treatment; O: cardiovascular risk)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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