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CV risk

Kelly K Shum K, Tripti Gupta T, Mary Canobbio, Jennifer Durst, Sangeeta B Shah
With advances in congenital heart disease management, there are an increasing number of women reaching reproductive age. Pregnancy results in a surge of hormones and increased demands on both the cardiovascular (CV) and respiratory systems. Depending on the heart defect and the treatments the mother has undergone, these hemodynamic changes can result in an increased risk of maternal CV events and an increased risk of fetal morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is important to have a comprehensive approach to adult congenital heart disease patients involving pre-pregnancy planning in addition to diligent peri- and post-partum care...
August 10, 2018: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
Vanesa Palau, Marta Riera, Xavier Duran, José Manuel Valdivielso, Angels Betriu, Elvira Fernández, Julio Pascual, Maria José Soler
Background: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) 17, also known as tumour necrosis factor α-converting enzyme (TACE), is a metalloproteinase that releases the ectodomains of most growth factors, cytokines, receptors and enzymes and has been associated with the presence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular (CV) disease. The role of circulating ADAMs in the progression of renal function and CV events in CKD patients is unknown. Methods: A total of 2570 subjects from an observational and multicentre study with CKD Stages 3-5, CKD Stage 5D and controls without any history of CV disease were studied...
August 8, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Eugenio Cersosimo, John M Miles
BACKGROUND & INTRODUCTION: The advent of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors [SGLT-2i] provides an additional tool to combat diabetes and complications. The use of SGLT-2i leads to effective and durable glycemic control with important reductions in body weight/fat and blood pressure. These agents may delay beta-cell deterioration and improve tissue insulin sensitivity, which might slow the progression of the disease. METHODS & RESULTS: In response to glycosuria, a compensatory rise in endogenous glucose production, sustained by a decrease in plasma insulin with an increase in glucagon has been described...
August 13, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Giulia Rastrelli, Mauro Dicuio, Yacov Reismann, Alessandra Sforza, Mario Maggi, Giovanni Corona
Since 2010 some evidence supporting the possible increased cardiovascular (CV) risk related to testosterone treatment (TTh) has created much debate in the scientific community. Based on these results, the US Food and Drug Administration agency has questioned TTh for aging men recognizing its value only for classical hypogonadism due to genetic or organic causes. To better clarify this topic, we scrutinized and summarized, also by using meta-analytic methods, the data generated during the last seven years, as derived from the analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on TTh and CV risk...
August 13, 2018: Expert Review of Cardiovascular Therapy
Ruoxi Liao, Jiameng Li, Yuqin Xiong, Liping Lin, Liya Wang, Si Sun, Baihai Su
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Blood pressure variability (BPV) is a novel cardiovascular risk factor for the population undergoing hemodialysis (HD). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 526 HD patients. Four short-term peridialysis BPV metrics were analyzed: systolic blood pressure (SBP) change, SBP coefficient of variation (CV), SBP intradialytic average real variability (ARV), and absolute SBP residual. Multi variate analysis with Cox regression models were used to account for the potential confounders...
August 10, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Chun-Fu Lai, Yen-Ting Chen, Jian Gu, Jeanne M Nerbonne, Chin-Hsien Lin, Kai-Chien Yang
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are major causes of mortality in uremic patients. Conventional risk factors fail to identify uremic patients with increased propensity for adverse CV outcomes. We aimed to test the hypothesis that circulating long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) could be a prognostic marker to predict adverse CV outcomes in uremic patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma lncRNAs were profiled in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD, n = 28) or chronic kidney disease (CKD, n = 8) and in healthy (n = 12) subjects by RNA sequencing...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Yuan Wang, Yi Jin, Xinming Yun, Meijing Wang, Yue Dai, Yufeng Xia
AIMS: Sinomenine, an anti-rheumatoid arthritis drug used in China for decades, is usually co-administered with cardiovascular (CV) drugs to reduce arthritis-related risk of cardiovascular diseases. This study was to investigate whether and how CV drugs affect the pharmacokinetic profile of sinomenine. MAIN METHODS: In rat liver microsomes (RLMs), the key metabolic enzymes of sinomenine were identified by using specific inhibitors. The influences of CV drugs, including propranolol, verapamil, warfarin, atorvastatin, simvastatin, and lovastatin, on the metabolism of sinomenine were examined...
August 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Michèle Bally, Lyne Nadeau, James M Brophy
PURPOSE: There are clinical trial data on risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients at increased cardiovascular (CV) risk requiring chronic daily treatment. This study investigated whether risks of acute MI with real-world prescription NSAIDs, such as low-dose or intermittent use, vary according to an individual's CV profile. METHODS: Nested case-control analyses were carried out on an administrative health cohort from Quebec, Canada by randomly selecting 10 controls per case matched on age ± 1 year, sex, and month and year of cohort entry...
2018: PloS One
Ningning Wan, Asadur Rahman, Hirofumi Hitomi, Akira Nishiyama
The EMPA-REG OUTCOME study revealed that a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, empagliflozin, can remarkably reduce cardiovascular (CV) mortality and heart failure in patients with high-risk type 2 diabetes. Recently, the CANVAS program also showed that canagliflozin, another SGLT2 inhibitor, induces a lower risk of CV events. However, the precise mechanism by which an SGLT2 inhibitor elicits CV protective effects is still unclear. Possible sympathoinhibitory effects of SGLT2 inhibitor have been suggested, as significant blood pressure (BP) reduction, following treatment with an SGLT2 inhibitor, did not induce compensatory changes in heart rate (HR)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Clifford J Bailey, Nikolaus Marx
This review examines recent randomised controlled cardiovascular (CV) outcome trials with glucose-lowering therapies in type 2 diabetes and their impact on the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes. The trials were designed to comply with regulatory requirements to confirm that major adverse cardiac events (MACE) are not detrimrntally affected by such therapies. Trials involving dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors did not alter a composite MACE comprising CV deaths, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) and non-fatal stroke...
August 8, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Debarchan Jena, Arun Kumar Choudhury, Swayamsidha Mangaraj, Mamata Singh, Binoy Kumar Mohanty, Anoj Kumar Baliarsinha
Aim of the Study: This study aimed to compare the different adiposity parameters, namely visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) between patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controls. In addition, it aimed to correlate these adiposity indices with hormonal parameters as well as cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in patients with PCOS. Materials and Methods: Newly diagnosed PCOS patients of reproductive age group according to Rotterdam criteria were included...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Małgorzata Jacewicz-Święcka, Irina Kowalska
The purpose of this study was to perform a review of the longitudinal studies to determine whether polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with higher prevalence of metabolic complications and cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. The primary outcomes included body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components [waist circumference (WC), lipids profile, arterial hypertension (AH), abnormal glucose metabolism (impaired fasting glucose IFG, impaired glucose tolerance IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus T2DM)], insulin resistance (IR) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) like stroke, angina and coronary heart disease (CHD)...
August 8, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Thomas D Stuckey, Roger S Gammon, Robi Goswami, Jeremiah P Depta, John A Steuter, Frederick J Meine, Michael C Roberts, Narendra Singh, Shyam Ramchandani, Tim Burton, Paul Grouchy, Ali Khosousi, Ian Shadforth, William E Sanders
BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are increasingly applied to cardiovascular (CV) medicine in arenas ranging from genomics to cardiac imaging analysis. Cardiac Phase Space Tomography Analysis (cPSTA), employing machine-learned linear models from an elastic net method optimized by a genetic algorithm, analyzes thoracic phase signals to identify unique mathematical and tomographic features associated with the presence of flow-limiting coronary artery disease (CAD). This novel approach does not require radiation, contrast media, exercise, or pharmacological stress...
2018: PloS One
Vincent Delatour, Noemie Clouet-Foraison, François Gaie-Levrel, Santica M Marcovina, Andrew N Hoofnagle, Zsuzsanna Kuklenyik, Michael P Caulfield, James D Otvos, Ronald M Krauss, Krishnaji R Kulkarni, John H Contois, Alan T Remaley, Hubert W Vesper, Christa M Cobbaert, Philippe Gillery
BACKGROUND: Despite the usefulness of standard lipid parameters for cardiovascular disease risk assessment, undiagnosed residual risk remains high. Advanced lipoprotein testing (ALT) was developed to provide physicians with more predictive diagnostic tools. ALT methods separate and/or measure lipoproteins according to different parameters such as size, density, charge, or content, and equivalence of results across methods has not been demonstrated. METHODS: Through a split-sample study, 25 clinical specimens (CSs) were assayed in 10 laboratories before and after freezing using the major ALT methods for non-HDL particles (non-HDL-P) or apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB-100) measurements with the intent to assess their comparability in the current state of the art...
August 7, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Erik M G Olsson, Fredrika Norlund, Ronnie Pingel, Gunilla Burell, Mats Gulliksson, Anders Larsson, Bo Karlsson, Kurt Svärdsudd, Claes Held
BACKGROUND: The Secondary Prevention in Uppsala Primary Healthcare Project (SUPRIM) is a prospective randomized controlled trial of a group-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) stress management program for coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. The intervention reduced the risk of fatal or non-fatal first recurrent cardiovascular (CV) events. The aim of the present study was to analyze if the positive effects of the CBT program on clinical outcomes could have been mediated by changes in biomarkers for inflammation...
August 8, 2018: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
Patrizio Lancellotti, Thomas M Suter, Teresa López-Fernández, Maurizio Galderisi, Alexander R Lyon, Peter Van der Meer, Alain Cohen Solal, Jose-Luis Zamorano, Guy Jerusalem, Marie Moonen, Victor Aboyans, Jeroen J Bax, Riccardo Asteggiano
Aims: Anticancer therapies have extended the lives of millions of patients with malignancies, but for some this benefit is tempered by adverse cardiovascular (CV) effects. Cardiotoxicity may occur early or late after treatment initiation or termination. The extent of this cardiotoxicity is variable, depending on the type of drug used, combination with other drugs, mediastinal radiotherapy, the presence of CV risk factors, and comorbidities. A recent position paper from the European Society of Cardiology addressed the management of CV monitoring and management of patients treated for cancer...
August 6, 2018: European Heart Journal
Brita Roy, Carley Riley, Rajita Sinha
Chronic stress is a risk factor for incident cardiovascular (CV) disease. Emotion regulation is the ability to modulate one's state or behavior in response to a given situation or stressor, and may mitigate the effect of chronic stress on CV disease risk. Data from a cohort of 754 community-dwelling young to middle-aged adults who were assessed between 2007 and 2012 on stress, emotion regulation, and CV risk measures were used to test the hypothesis that emotion regulation mitigates the effect of chronic stress on CV risk...
August 7, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
Lawrence Blonde, Vivian Fonseca
A growing body of data, guideline recommendations, algorithms, and position papers supports the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists in type 2 diabetes (T2D), given their beneficial effects on glycemic control, weight, lipid parameters, and blood pressure, and low risk for hypoglycemia when used in patients who have not achieved glycemic goals with metformin and lifestyle interventions. Exciting new evidence continues to emerge, showing the utility of certain GLP-1 receptor agonists to decrease incident cardiovascular (CV) outcomes, and to bolster glycemic control when combined with other antihyperglycemic therapies, including basal insulin...
August 7, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Avi Porath, Jonathan Eli Arbelle, Naama Fund, Asaf Cohen, Morris Mosseri
BACKGROUND: The salutary effects of statin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well established. Although generally considered safe, statin therapy has been reported to contribute to induction of diabetes mellitus (DM). OBJECTIVES: To assess the risk-benefit of statin therapy, prescribed for the prevention of CVD, in the development of DM. METHODS: In a population-based real-life study, the incidence of DM and CVD were assessed retrospectively among 265,414 subjects aged 40-70 years, 17...
August 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Eyal Galkin, Ahan Dalal, Alex Evenko, Eyal Fridman, Iddo Kan, Rony Wallach, Menachem Moshelion
Regulation of the rate of transpiration is an important part of plants' adaptation to uncertain environments. Stomatal closure is the most common response to severe drought. By closing their stomata, plants reduce transpiration to better their odds of survival under dry conditions. Under mild to moderate drought conditions, there are several possible transpiration patterns that balance the risk of lost productivity with the risk of water loss. Here, we hypothesize that plant ecotypes that have evolved in environments characterized by unstable patterns of precipitation will display a wider range of patterns of transpiration regulation along with other quantitative physiological traits (QPTs), compared to ecotypes from less variable environments...
August 7, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
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