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Cardiovascular diagnosis

Johan van Cleemput, Andrea Sonaglioni, Wim A Wuyts, Monica Bengus, John L Stauffer, Sergio Harari
The presence of rare comorbidities in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) presents a diagnostic challenge to cardiologists. In evaluating these patients, cardiologists are faced with a unique opportunity to shorten diagnosis times and direct patients towards correct treatment pathways. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a type of interstitial lung disease (ILD), is an example of a rare disease where patients frequently demonstrate comorbid CVD. Both CVD and IPF most commonly affect a similar patient demographic: men over the age of 60 years with a history of smoking...
December 15, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Amy Shaver, Melissa Morano, Jill Pogodzinski, Stacy Fredrick, David Essi, Erin Slazak
OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of a transitions-of-care (TOC) program on both all-cause and related 30-day hospital readmission. The secondary objective was to evaluate which patient-specific factors, if any, are predictive of 30-day hospital readmissions. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A TOC program in an outpatient pharmacy, driven primarily by student pharmacists, provided telephone-based counseling to recently discharged patients...
December 11, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
Sarika Chaudhari, Spencer C Cushen, Oluwatobiloba Osikoya, Paresh A Jaini, Rachel Posey, Keisa W Mathis, Styliani Goulopoulou
Epidemiological studies demonstrate disparities between men and women in cardiovascular disease prevalence, clinical symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. Enrollment of women in clinical trials is lower than men, and experimental studies investigating molecular mechanisms and efficacy of certain therapeutics in cardiovascular disease have been primarily conducted in male animals. These practices bias data interpretation and limit the implication of research findings in female clinical populations. This review will focus on the biological origins of sex differences in cardiovascular physiology, health, and disease, with an emphasis on the sex hormones, estrogen and testosterone...
December 13, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Angela K Lucas-Herald, Petra Zürbig, Avril Mason, Esther Kinning, Catriona E Brown, Bahareh Mansoorian, William Mullen, Syed Faisal Ahmed, Christian Delles
BACKGROUND: Progeria-like syndromes offer a unique insight into ageing. Here we present the case of a boy affected with mandibuloacral dysplasia and compound heterozygous mutations in ZMPSTE24. METHODS: Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectroscopy was used for proteome analysis to analyse peptides previously found to be differentially regulated in chronic kidney disease (273 peptides defining the CKD273 classifier), coronary artery disease (238 peptides defining the CAD238 classifier) and ageing (116 peptides defining the AGE116 classifier)...
December 13, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Simona Costanzo, Kenneth J Mukamal, Augusto Di Castelnuovo, Marialaura Bonaccio, Marco Olivieri, Mariarosaria Persichillo, Amalia De Curtis, Chiara Cerletti, Maria Benedetta Donati, Giovanni de Gaetano, Licia Iacoviello
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epidemiological evidence on the impact of different alcohol drinking patterns on health-care systems or hospitalizations is sparse. We investigated how the different average volumes of alcohol consumed relate to all-cause and cause-specific hospitalizations. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study (baseline 2005-10) linked to a registry of hospital discharge records to identify hospitalizations at follow-up (December 2013). SETTING: Molise region, Italy...
December 12, 2018: Addiction
Radu Andrei Baisan, Vasile Vulpe, Mircea Lazăr, Sorin Aurelian Pașca
BACKGROUND: In both humans and animals, cardiac fibrosarcoma is rare among primary cardiac malignant neoplasia. The overall prevalence of cardiac neoplasia in dogs is low, reported to be between 0.17% and 0.19% of hospital admissions. The aim of this report is to describe the clinical and pathological findings of a dog presenting signs of right sided congestive heart failure due to an intracardiac and venous obstructing mass, diagnosed by histopathology as cardiac fibrosarcoma with myxoid features...
December 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Mark S Nash, James L J Bilzon
Purpose of Review: Persons with spinal cord injuries (SCI) commonly experience individual risks and coalesced health hazards of the cardiometabolic syndrome (CMS). This review will examinethe role of exercise and nutritional intervention as countermeasures to these disease risks. Recent Findings: The CMS hazards of overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are strongly associated with physical deconditioning and are common after SCI...
2018: Current Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Reports
Timothy Kenealy, Geoffrey Herd, Samarina Musaad, Susan Wells
AIM: To describe quality management processes and appropriate interpretation with respect to HbA1c point-of-care (POC) testing in a national diabetes and cardiovascular risk screening programme. METHODS: We compared HbA1c results from capillary blood, measured by the cobas b 101 (Roche Diagnostics) POC testing system, with results from venous blood measured by accredited laboratory analysers to inform national screening practice and a (separately-reported) randomised controlled trial...
December 10, 2018: Primary Care Diabetes
Karolina Machowska-Sempruch, Anna Bajer-Czajkowska, Karol Makarewicz, Karolina Zaryczańska, Adam Koryzma, Przemysław Nowacki
Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a genetically determined disease of the cerebral vessels, characterized by recurrent ischemic strokes, dementia, and degeneration of the cerebral white matter. The condition is caused by a mutation in the NOTCH3 gene, whose product plays a great role in the development and physiology of the cardiovascular system. Magnetic resonance imaging reveals multiple hyperintensive lesions of the white matter in the T2-weighted images also in asymptomatic carriers of CADASIL and can be detected even 10-15 years prior to clinical signs...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Vanessa M Ferreira, Jeanette Schulz-Menger, Godtfred Holmvang, Christopher M Kramer, Iacopo Carbone, Udo Sechtem, Ingrid Kindermann, Matthias Gutberlet, Leslie T Cooper, Peter Liu, Matthias G Friedrich
This JACC Scientific Expert Panel provides consensus recommendations for an update of the cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) diagnostic criteria for myocardial inflammation in patients with suspected acute or active myocardial inflammation (Lake Louise Criteria) that include options to use parametric mapping techniques. While each parameter may indicate myocardial inflammation, the authors propose that CMR provides strong evidence for myocardial inflammation, with increasing specificity, if the CMR scan demonstrates the combination of myocardial edema with other CMR markers of inflammatory myocardial injury...
December 18, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Qian Wang, Dongmei Zheng, Jia Liu, Li Fang, Qiu Li
BACKGROUND: The atherogenic index of plasma showed to be related with some chronic disease like cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis. Body mass index which was commonly used in clinical practice is not an accurate index to predict non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between atherogenic index of plasma and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese participants. METHODS: 538 obese subjects were included in this cross sectional study...
December 13, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Leonardo Elia, Gianluigi Condorelli
Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of death and disability. Despite enormous progress in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment over the years, the incidence of this group of pathologies continues to increase worldwide. An important step in reversing this situation is filling in the gaps we have in our understanding of cardiovascular homeostasis and of the pathogenic processes leading to disease. On this point, the discovery of epigenetics - heritable chemical modifications of DNA bases and histone proteins, as well as non-coding RNA-based mechanisms regulating gene expression - has opened up new vistas...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Katsuhiro Ito, Toshihiro Uchida, Yumi Manabe, Yu Miyazaki, Haruki Itoh, Mutsuki Mishina, Hiroshi Okuno
A 66-year-old man had undergone multiple treatments for metastatic renal cell carcinoma, including 11 cycles of nivolumab, which was discontinued because of disease progression. About three weeks after discontinuing nivolumab, he reported suffering from worsening of dyspnea. Pulse oximetry showed no desaturation. His cardiovascular and pulmonary functions were normal. His dyspnea slowly worsened with no underlying diagnosis. Two months after symptoms developed, he was diagnosed with isolated adrenocorticotropic hormone deficiency...
October 2018: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
Antonio Cervadoro, Roberto Palomba, Giuseppe Vergaro, Roberta Cecchi, Luca Menichetti, Paolo Decuzzi, Michele Emdin, Stefano Luin
Atherosclerosis (AS) is a disorder of large and medium-sized arteries; it consists in the formation of lipid-rich plaques in the intima and inner media, whose pathophysiology is mostly driven by inflammation. Currently available interventions and therapies for treating atherosclerosis are not always completely effective; side effects associated with treatments, mainly caused by immunodepression for anti-inflammatory molecules, limit the systemic administration of these and other drugs. Given the high degree of freedom in the design of nanoconstructs, in the last decades researchers have put high effort in the development of nanoparticles (NPs) formulations specifically designed for either drug delivery, visualization of atherosclerotic plaques, or possibly the combination of both these and other functionalities...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Yuanli Lei, Zhelong Jiang, Jiaozhen Chen, Dongsheng Wang, Guangliang Hong, Shouquan Chen
In acute aortic dissection (AD) in pregnancy, increased cardiovascular stress due to pregnancy is an important factor leading to an emergent aortic event. It is rare but often results in a devastating event for both the pregnant patient and the foetus. Two cases of acute AD (Stanford type A) in pregnant females are presented in the present study. The patients were diagnosed via echocardiography, and the diagnosis was confirmed with computed tomography angiography prior to aortic surgery. Up to 50% of ADs in pregnancy occur in patients with fibrillin-1 (FBN1) gene mutations...
December 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Dorothy A Fink, Lawrence M Nelson, Reed Pyeritz, Josh Johnson, Stephanie L Sherman, Yoram Cohen, Shai E Elizur
Abnormalities in the X-linked FMR1 gene are associated with a constellation of disorders, which have broad and profound implications for the person first diagnosed, and extended family members of all ages. The rare and pleiotropic nature of the associated disorders, both common and not, place great burdens on (1) the affected families, (2) their care providers and clinicians, and (3) investigators striving to conduct research on the conditions. Fragile X syndrome, occurring more severely in males, is the leading genetic cause of intellectual disability...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Fouzia Radouani, Loubna El Yazouli, Zakaria Elyazghi, Hicham Hejaji, Aziz Aroussi Alami, Naima Elmdaghri
BACKGROUND: Chlamydia pneumoniae is a pathogen associated with human respiratory tract infection, its viable presence in atherosclerotic plaques is also assumed to play significant function in cardiac diseases. Our study's main objective is to evaluate Chlamydia pneumoniae sero-prevalence in Moroccan patients with cardiovascular diseases using and comparing two serological methods. METHODS: Two hundred eighteen patients were enrolled; serums were tested by microimmunofluorescence to explore the sero-prevalence...
December 1, 2018: Infection, disease & health
Yankui Ding, Qiming Wang, Yang Yang, Liansheng Wang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of copeptin and cancer antigen 125 (Ca-125) in acute heart failure (AHF) patients with atrial fibrillation, and to explore the relationship between copeptin, Ca-125 and short-term cardiovascular events. METHODS: A total of 376 patients with acute left heart failure or permanent atrial fibrillation admitted to the Department of Cardiology of First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from January 2016 to January 2018 were enrolled as the study group...
November 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Heather R Britt, Meghan M JaKa, Karl M Fernstrom, Paige E Bingham, Anne E Betzner, Jessica R Taghon, Nathan D Shippee, Tetyana P Shippee, Sandra E Schellinger, Eric W Anderson
Whole-person care is a new paradigm for serious illness, but few programs have been robustly studied. We sought to test the effect of LifeCourse (LC), a person-centered program for patients living with serious illness, on health-care utilization, care experience, and quality of life, employing a quasi-experimental design with a Usual Care (UC) comparison group. The study was conducted 2012 to 2017 at an upper-Midwest not-for-profit health-care system with outcomes measured every 3 months until the end of life...
December 13, 2018: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Stefanie Völk, Uwe Koedel, Hans-Walter Pfister, Roland Schwankhart, Mark Op den Winkel, Konstanze Mühlbauer, Matthias Klein
BACKGROUND: The approach to unconscious patients in the emergency department (ED) is difficult, often depends on local resources and interests, and workup strategies often lack standardization. One reason for this is that data on causes, management, and outcome of patients who present to the ED with sudden onset unconsciousness of unknown cause is limited. OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to analyze the causes of acute impaired consciousness in patients in an interdisciplinary ED...
December 12, 2018: European Neurology
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