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endocrine responses

Hui Yu, Daniel J Caldwell, Rominder P Suri
Exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) has been hypothesized to produce potential synergistic or antagonistic effects that can cause undesired effects that are not reflected by the individual compounds. In this study, the estrogenic activities of 11 EDCs of global environmental concern were systematically investigated using the yeast estrogen screen (YES). The contribution of the individual chemical to the total endocrine activity of environmentally relevant mixtures was evaluated. Compared to 17β-estradiol (E2) as a standard, estrone (E1), estriol (E3), ethinyl estradiol (EE2), bisphenol-A (BPA), and genistein (GEN) showed estrogenic effects, while dibutyl phthalate (DBP), n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), nonyl phenol (NP) and 4-tert-octyl phenol (OP) showed anti-estrogenic effects...
October 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Brenna M G Gormally, Rory Fuller, Mitch McVey, L Michael Romero
Corticosterone does not change in consistent ways across species and contexts, making it challenging to use as an indicator of chronic stress. We assessed DNA damage as a potential metric that could be a more integrative stress measurement with direct links to health. We captured free-living house sparrows, took an immediate blood sample, and transferred them to the laboratory, exposing them to the chronic stress of captivity. Biweekly blood and weight samples were then taken for 4 weeks. We immediately assessed DNA damage in red blood cells using the comet assay and later quantified corticosterone...
October 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Xiang Hu, Yan Wang, Jens C Pruessner, Juan Yang
Interdependent self-construal (ISC) is a concept positing that people define their self through social roles and relationships with others. We investigated in two independent studies whether ISC had an effect on psychological and endocrine stress responses. Study 1 collected data of 295 healthy young Chinese participants' subjective report of ISC using the self-construal scale, and daily levels of stress using the daily stress inventory. Correlational analyses showed that individuals with higher ISC perceived higher levels of stress in daily life...
October 15, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
Bahareh Rajaei, Mohammad Massumi, Michael Wheeler
The International Diabetic Federation estimated that 415 million adults currently have diabetes and 318 million adults had impaired glucose tolerance, putting them at high risk of developing diabetes in the future. In Type 1 Diabetes (T1D), the β cells are lost because of autoimmune reactions. Although islet transplantation has been a promising therapy for T1D, it is greatly limited by pancreatic donors. Here, we describe a protocol to generate glucose- responsive pancreatic β-like (GRPβ-L) cells from human-induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells...
October 18, 2018: Current Protocols in Human Genetics
Thomas D Milner, Milind Ronghe, Mohamad G Shaikh, Fiona B MacGregor, Nicholas Reed
Vandetanib has been shown to improve progression-free survival in adults with advanced medullary thyroid cancer. This article describes a pediatric patient with metastatic medullary thyroid cancer secondary to sporadic multiple endocrine neoplasia 2B, treated with vandetanib. At presentation, he had an inoperable primary tumor, with carotid encasement, and pulmonary metastases. Vandetanib induced a significant response: calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen levels both fell considerably, primary tumor maximal diameter decreased by 68%, and pulmonary metastases became no longer detectable...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Adam Sharp, Ilsa Coleman, Wei Yuan, Cynthia Sprenger, David Dolling, Daniel Nava Rodrigues, Joshua W Russo, Ines Figueiredo, Claudia Bertan, George Seed, Ruth Riisnaes, Takuma Uo, Antje Neeb, Jonathan Welti, Colm Morrissey, Suzanne Carreira, Jun Luo, Peter S Nelson, Steven P Balk, Lawrence D True, Johann De Bono, Stephen R Plymate
BACKGROUND: Liquid biopsies have demonstrated that the constitutively active androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) associates with reduced response and overall survival (OS) from endocrine therapies in castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, these studies provide little information pertaining to AR-V7 expression in prostate cancer (PC) tissue. METHODS: Following generation and validation of a novel AR-V7 antibody for immunohistochemistry, AR-V7 protein expression was determined for 358 primary prostate samples and 293 metastatic biopsies...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Claire Sunyach, Barbara Antonelli, Sophie Tardieu, Michele Marcot, Jeanne Perrin, Florence Bretelle
The exposure of adults of reproductive age as well as pregnant women and children to environmental contaminants is of particular concern, as it can impact fertility, in utero development, pregnancy outcomes and child health. Consequently, the World Health Organisation (WHO) and international societies advocate including Environmental Health (EH) in perinatal care, yet perinatal health professionals (HPs) hardly put these recommendations into practice. In 2017, a cross-sectional study was performed in a large panel of perinatal HPs in south-eastern France with the aim of painting a picture of their current attitudes, representation, knowledge, and training expectations...
October 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Sakina Mhaouty-Kodja, Lydie Naulé, Daphne Capela
Sexual behavior constitutes a chain of behavioral responses beginning with courtship and leading to copulation. These responses, which are exhibited in a sexually dimorphic manner by the two partners, are tightly regulated by sex steroid hormones as early as the perinatal period. Hormonal changes or exposure to exogenous factors exhibiting hormone-mimetic activities such as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) can therefore interfere with their expression. Here we review the experimental studies in rodents performed to address the potential effects of exposure to EDC on sexual behavior and underlying mechanisms, with a particular attention to molecules with estrogenic and/or anti-androgenic activities...
October 16, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Lobna Mansouri, Chedly Tizaoui, Sven-Uwe Geissen, Latifa Bousselmi
Several Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) including O3 /H2 O2 , O3 /TiO2 , O3 /activated carbon (AC), O3 /Al2 O3 , O3 /Fe2+ /H2 O2 and UV/TiO2 have been investigated and compared for the removal of diethyl phthalate (DEP), an endocrine disrupting compound, in aqueous solutions. Hydroxyl radicals were the main species responsible for DEP degradation and this was supported by computational chemistry calculation, scavenger experiments, and LC/MS/MS analysis. The change of the abundance of reaction products over time was determined...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Luciele Guerra Minuzzi, Luis Rama, Matheus Uba Chupel, Fátima Rosado, Gabriel Keine Kuga, Rafael Calais Gaspar, Vitor Rosetto Muñoz, José Rodrigo Pauli, Artur Paiva, Ana Maria Teixeira
The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a training season (approximately 7 months) on physiological and salivary immune-endocrine markers in master athletes. Nine male master athletes were evaluated at the beginning of the season (M1) and a week after the main official competition at the end of the sports season (M2). The controlled variables included Maximal oxygen consumption, anthropometric, physiological, and salivary immune-endocrine markers. Master athletes presented a reduced percentage of fat mass and increased lean body mass at the end of the season...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Simon J Tunster, Raquel Boqué-Sastre, Gráinne I McNamara, Susan M Hunter, Hugo D J Creeth, Rosalind M John
Hormones from the fetally derived placenta signal to the mother throughout pregnancy to ensure optimal fetal growth and prepare the mother for her new role in nurturing her offspring. Through evolution, placental hormones have under gone remarkable diversification and species-specific expansions thought to be due to constant rebalancing of resource allocation between mother and offspring. Genomic imprinting, an epigenetic process in which parental germlines silence genes in the offspring, is thought to be the physical embodiment of a second conflicting interest, between the male and female mammal...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
Steven Schepanski, Claudia Buss, Ileana L Hanganu-Opatz, Petra C Arck
Milestones of brain development in mammals are completed before birth, which provide the prerequisite for cognitive and intellectual performances of the offspring. Prenatal challenges, such as maternal stress experience or infections, have been linked to impaired cognitive development, poor intellectual performances as well as neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders in the offspring later in life. Fetal microglial cells may be the target of such challenges and could be functionally modified by maternal markers...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Santiago Escrivá-de-Romaní, Miriam Arumí, Esther Zamora, Meritxell Bellet
For decades, the neoadjuvant setting has provided a useful scenario for research in breast cancer. Historically, neoadjuvant clinical trials, either hormone therapy-based or chemotherapy-based, have tried to recapitulate the results of their counterpart adjuvant studies, but with smaller patient numbers, more rapid outcomes (clinical response and/or pathologic complete response (pCR)), together with additional biologic information. As for neoadjuvant chemotherapy trials, the increase in pCR rates has been recently accepted as an appropriate surrogate marker to accelerate drug approval in high-risk breast cancer patients...
August 2018: Breast Care
Mabrouk Elsabagh, Motomi Ishikake, Yasuaki Sakamoto, Atsushi Haruno, Makoto Miura, Takeshi Fujieda, Taketo Obitsu, Toshihisa Sugino
Single amino acids (AA) feeding is gaining more attention for their functional roles beyond nutritional needs. This study aimed to describe the endocrine and metabolic responses to a single AA administration (at 10% of MP for maintenance) in 48 hr fasted sheep (n = 4) receiving, over continued 4 hr, a duodenal infusate of saline (control), glutamate (Glu), glutamine (Gln), lysine HCl (Lys), threonine (Thr), or valine (Val) in a 4 by 6 Youden square design with weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected at 0, 15, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min relative to the infusion onset, and plasma AA, glucose, β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), ghrelin, insulin, glucagon, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) concentrations were measured...
October 14, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Sharon F McGee, Lisa Vandermeer, Sasha Mazzarello, Marta Sienkiewicz, Carol Stober, Brian Hutton, Dean Fergusson, John Hilton, Jean-Michel Caudrelier, Phillip Blanchette, Mark Clemons
BACKGROUND: Patients can start endocrine therapy before, concurrently with, or sequentially after radiotherapy. The optimal timing of starting adjuvant endocrine therapy is unknown. This survey was performed to evaluate physician recommendations. METHODS: Canadian oncologists were surveyed to evaluate institutional and personal practices regarding the prescription of adjuvant endocrine therapy and radiotherapy. Perspectives regarding the design of a clinical trial to compare concurrent versus sequential therapy, and the optimum end points for such a trial, were also sought...
September 4, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
C-H Lin, S-N Chang, C-H Chen
OBJECTIVE: Hormonal changes, in either men or women experiencing chronic kidney disease, cause decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, dysmenorrhea, and ovarian dysfunction, all of which may contribute to infertility. Patients' endocrinal and sexual function could be rapidly restored after successful renal transplantation (RTx), which may assist in achieving a successful pregnancy. However, fetuses will be exposed to the immunosuppressive agents passed on from the female recipients, which may be another potential factor leading to a poor fetal outcome...
October 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Zahndra Diann Butt, Erin O'Brien, Hélène Volkoff
In order to assess potential interspecific differences in the endocrine mechanisms regulating feeding in Characiformes, we used three fish species with different feeding habits: two Characidae, the omnivore black widow tetra and the carnivore bucktooth tetra, and one Serrasalmidae, the herbivore silver dollar, as models. cDNAs encoding for appetite-regulating peptides (orexin, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript CART, cholecystokinin CCK and leptin) were isolated and their tissue distribution examined...
October 10, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Melissa A Maczis, Michael Maceyka, Michael R Waters, Jason Newton, Manjulata Singh, Madisyn F Rigsby, Tia H Turner, Mohammad A Alzubi, J Chuck Harrell, Sheldon Milstien, Sarah Spiegel
In breast cancer, 17β-estradiol (E2) plays critical roles mainly by binding to its canonical receptor, estrogen receptor (ER) α66, and eliciting genomic effects. E2 also triggers rapid, non-genomic responses. E2 activates sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), increasing sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) that binds to its receptors leading to important breast cancer signaling. However, the E2 receptor responsible for SphK1 activation has not yet been identified. Here we demonstrate in triple negative breast cancer cells, which lack the canonical ERα66 but express the novel splice variant ERα36, that ERα36 is the receptor responsible for E2-induced activation of SphK1 and formation and secretion of S1P and dihydro-S1P, the ligands for S1PRs...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Sandra Leal, Lídia Rocha, Ana Silva, Juliana Faria, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Susana I Sá
Tamoxifen (TAM) therapy is the better treatment for breast cancer and the drug use the prophylaxis of this disease in young premenopausal women. Yet, the effects associated with this therapy are unknown. To better understand the extension of this problem, we developed an animal model to mimic this therapy, aiming to evaluate its potential biochemical and histopathological changes in the liver. Young cycling female rats were treated with TAM for one, two and three months and toxicological biomarkers and liver histomorphometry were evaluated...
October 3, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Heike Biebermann, Gunnar Kleinau, Dirk Schnabel, Detlef Bockenhauer, Louise C Wilson, Ian Tully, Sarah Kiff, Patrick Scheerer, Monica Reyes, Sarah Paisdzior, John W Gregory, Jeremy Allgrove, Heiko Krude, Michael Mannstadt, Thomas J Gardella, Mehul Dattani, Harald Jüppner, Annette Grüters
Context: The alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G-protein (Gαs) links numerous receptors to adenylyl cyclase. Gαs, encoded by GNAS, is expressed predominantly from the maternal allele in certain tissues. Thus, maternal heterozygous loss-of-function mutations cause hormonal resistance, as in pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia, while somatic gain-of-function mutations cause hormone-independent endocrine stimulation, as in McCune-Albright Syndrome. Objective: We here report two unrelated boys presenting with a new combination of clinical findings that suggest both gain and loss of Gαs function...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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