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Vitamin D Gut

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031175/environmental-factors-gut-microbiota-and-colorectal-cancer-prevention
#1
Mingyang Song, Andrew T Chan
The substantial burden of colorectal cancer and increasing trend in young adults highlight the importance of lifestyle modification as a complement to screening for colorectal cancer prevention. Several dietary and lifestyle factors have been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer, possibly through the intricate metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms. Likewise, as a key metabolic and immune regulator, the gut microbiota has been recognized to play an important role in colorectal tumorigenesis. Increasing data support that environmental factors are crucial determinants for the gut microbial composition and function, whose alterations induce changes in the host gene expression, metabolic regulation, and local and systemic immune response, thereby influencing cancer development...
July 18, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981368/mechanisms-of-action-of-vitamin-d-in-colon-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Gemma Ferrer-Mayorga, María Jesús Larriba, Piero Crespo, Alberto Muñoz
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the neoplasia that is most frequently associated with vitamin D deficiency in epidemiological and observational studies in terms of incidence and mortality. Many mechanistic studies show that the active vitamin D metabolite (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or calcitriol) inhibits proliferation and promotes epithelial differentiation of human colon carcinoma cell lines that express vitamin D receptor (VDR) via the regulation of a high number of genes. A key action underlining this effect is the multilevel inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, whose abnormal activation in colon epithelial cells initiates and promotes CRC...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29972876/the-cotton-stainer-s-gut-microbiota-suppresses-infection-of-a-cotransmitted-trypanosomatid-parasite
#3
Thomas O Onchuru, Adam J Martinez, Martin Kaltenpoth
The evolutionary and ecological success of many insects is attributed to mutualistic partnerships with bacteria that confer hosts with novel traits including food digestion, nutrient supplementation, detoxification of harmful compounds and defence against natural enemies. Dysdercus fasciatus firebugs (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae), commonly known as cotton stainers, possess a simple but distinctive gut bacterial community including B vitamin-supplementing Coriobacteriaceae symbionts. In addition, their guts are often infested with the intestinal trypanosomatid parasite Leptomonas pyrrhocoris (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae)...
July 4, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29960865/the-role-of-kidney-in-the-inter-organ-coordination-of-endogenous-glucose-production-during-fasting
#4
Keizo Kaneko, Maud Soty, Carine Zitoun, Adeline Duchampt, Marine Silva, Erwann Philippe, Amandine Gautier-Stein, Fabienne Rajas, Gilles Mithieux
OBJECTIVE: The respective contributions to endogenous glucose production (EGP) of the liver, kidney and intestine vary during fasting. We previously reported that the deficiency in either hepatic or intestinal gluconeogenesis modulates the repartition of EGP via glucagon secretion (humoral factor) and gut-brain-liver axis (neural factor), respectively. Considering renal gluconeogenesis reportedly accounted for approximately 50% of EGP during fasting, we examined whether a reduction in renal gluconeogenesis could promote alterations in the repartition of EGP in this situation...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950551/-body-weight-and-bone-calcium-metabolism-response-of-bone-metabolism-after-bariatric-surgery
#5
Takashi Yamaguchi, Atsuhito Saiki, Ichiro Tatsuno
While bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for severe obesity, these procedures may have unfavorable effects on bone and mineral metabolism. The most pronounced abnormalities are disorders of calcium/vitamin D metabolism, bone loss, as well as increased risk of bone fracture. These changes that occur after surgery vary by procedure type. Proposed mechanisms include skeletal unloading, malabsorption, secondary hyperparathyroidism and changes in gut hormones. This review explores bone response to bariatric surgery, potential mechanisms for these changes...
2018: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29939763/the-neurobiology-of-adaptation-to-seasons-relevance-and-correlations-in-bipolar-disorders
#6
Julia Maruani, George Anderson, Bruno Etain, Michel Lejoyeux, Frank Bellivier, Pierre A Geoffroy
Bipolar disorders (BDs) are severe and common psychiatric disorders. BD pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and relapses are associated with numerous circadian rhythm abnormalities. In addition, infradian fluctuations of mood, social activity, weight and sleep patterns are very frequent in BD. Disease course with a seasonal pattern (SP) occurs in approximately 25% of depressive and 15% of manic episodes, which is coupled to a more severe disease symptomatology. The pathophysiological mechanisms of seasonal effects in BD await clarification, with likely important clinical consequences...
June 25, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29886687/-effects-of-calcium-supplementation-during-the-pregnancy-and-early-infancy-stage-on-the-body-mass-index-and-gut-microbiota-in-the-infants
#7
X L Chang, Y Shang, Y J Liu, P Li, Y Y Wang, A M Liang, K M Qi
Objective: To investigate the effects of calcium supplementation during the pregnancy and early infancy stage on body mass index (BMI) and gut microbiota in the infants. Methods: A total of 1 752 healthy pregnant women and their infants (breast feeding) in two maternal and child health care hospitals of Beijing were chosen as the subjects in this study from May to October 2016. Questionnaires were used to obtain the general information and supplementation of calcium and vitamin D in mothers and their infants...
June 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880619/small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-sibo-and-vitamin-k-responsive-coagulopathy-a-previously-unrecorded-association
#8
Ricardo Brandt Oliveira, Ana Lourdes Candolo Martinelli, Luiz Ernesto Almeida Troncon, Jorge Elias
A 17-year-old woman, with a history of three operations on the upper gut in early life and intermittent diarrhoea, presented with a history of epistaxis and leg ecchymosis for the previous 3 months. Initial investigation revealed mild anaemia, low serum albumin, moderately elevated aminotransferases and an exceedingly prolonged prothrombin time (PT) which was promptly shortened to normal by intravenous vitamin K. Additional investigations revealed a grossly abnormal glucose hydrogen breath test, a dilated duodenum and deficiencies of vitamins A, D and E...
June 6, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29804586/vitamin-d-restricted-high-fat-diet-down-regulates-expression-of-intestinal-alkaline-phosphatase-isozymes-in-ovariectomized-rats
#9
Kanae Nakaoka, Asako Yamada, Seiko Noda, Masae Goseki-Sone
Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is expressed at a high concentration in the brush border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase controls bacterial endotoxin-induced inflammation by dephosphorylating lipopolysaccharide and is a gut mucosal defense factor. Previously, we reported that IAP activity in the duodenum was significantly decreased in male rats receiving a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction. Here, we tested the hypothesis that IAP is also regulated by a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet in an animal model of menopause...
May 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766369/nutritional-issues-in-food-allergy
#10
REVIEW
Isabel J Skypala, Rebecca McKenzie
Diet and nutrition play an important role in the development and management of food allergy. The diet of expectant mothers can have an effect on their offspring in terms of allergic outcomes. A host of confounding factors may influence this, with a maternal diet rich in fruits and vegetables, fish, vitamin D-rich foods associated with a lower risk of allergic disease in their children. More surprisingly, the consumption of milk and butter has also been shown to have a protective effect, especially in a farm environment...
May 15, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762159/vitamin-d-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-more-than-just-a-supplement
#11
John Gubatan, Alan C Moss
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to explore the protective role of vitamin D on the gastrointestinal tract, summarize the epidemiology of vitamin D deficiency in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and highlight recent studies examining the impact of low vitamin D and vitamin D supplementation on IBD clinical outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D protects the gut barrier by regulating tight junction proteins and inhibiting intestinal apoptosis. Vitamin D enhances innate immunity by inducing antimicrobial peptides and regulates adaptive immunity by promoting anti-inflammatory T cells and cytokines...
July 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754190/allergic-and-immunologic-perspectives-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
REVIEW
Kofi Clarke, Jayakrishna Chintanaboina
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory condition primarily involving the gastrointestinal tract. It includes Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and a less common phenotype-indeterminate colitis. It is thought to result from a complex interplay of environmental, microbial, and host factors including genetic factors, although the exact mechanism is not known. Dietary factors have been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD and can potentially alter the intestinal microbiota as well as disrupt the immune function in the gut...
May 12, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693729/inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-immunonutrition-novel-therapeutic-approaches-through-modulation-of-diet-and-the-gut-microbiome
#13
REVIEW
Larissa S Celiberto, Franziska A Graef, Genelle R Healey, Else S Bosman, Kevan Jacobson, Laura M Sly, Bruce A Vallance
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract, thought to at least in part reflect an aberrant immune response to gut bacteria. IBD is increasing in incidence, particularly in populations that have recently immigrated to western countries. This suggests that environmental factors are involved in its pathogenesis. We hypothesize that the increase in IBD rates might reflect the consumption of an unhealthy Western diet, containing excess calories and lacking in key nutritional factors, such as fibre and vitamin D...
April 25, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684027/chronic-calcitriol-supplementation-improves-the-inflammatory-profiles-of-circulating-monocytes-and-the-associated-intestinal-adipose-tissue-alteration-in-a-diet-induced-steatohepatitis-rat-model
#14
Yen-Bo Su, Tzu-Hao Li, Chia-Chang Huang, Hung-Cheng Tsai, Shiang-Fen Huang, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Ying-Ying Yang, Yi-Hsiang Huang, Ming-Chih Hou, Han-Chieh Lin
Vitamin D deficiency and up-regulated TNFα-related signals are reported to be involved in abnormalities including intestinal hyper-permeability, bacterial translocation, systemic/portal endotoxemia, intestinal/adipose tissue/hepatic inflammation, and hepatic steatosis in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms and effects of chronic calcitriol [1,25-(OH)2D3, hormonal form of vitamin D] on gut-adipose tissue-liver axis abnormalities using a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed rat model of NASH...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599772/the-gut-microbiota-regulates-endocrine-vitamin-d-metabolism-through-fibroblast-growth-factor-23
#15
Stephanie A Bora, Mary J Kennett, Philip B Smith, Andrew D Patterson, Margherita T Cantorna
To determine the effect of the microbiota on vitamin D metabolism, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(25D), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25D), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) were measured in germ-free (GF) mice before and after conventionalization (CN). GF mice had low levels of 25D, 24,25D, and 1,25D and were hypocalcemic. CN of the GF mice with microbiota, for 2 weeks recovered 25D, 24,25D, and 1,25D levels. Females had more 25D and 24,25D than males both as GF mice and after CN. Introducing a limited number of commensals (eight commensals) increased 25D and 24,25D to the same extent as CN...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515679/role-of-diet-in-influencing-rheumatoid-arthritis-disease-activity
#16
REVIEW
Humeira Badsha
Background: Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) frequently ask their doctors about which diets to follow, and even in the absence of advice from their physicians, many patients are undertaking various dietary interventions. Discussion: However, the role of dietary modifications in RA is not well understood. Several studies have tried to address these gaps in our understanding. Intestinal microbial modifications are being studied for the prevention and management of RA...
2018: Open Rheumatology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511074/the-drosophila-melanogaster-gut-microbiota-provisions-thiamine-to-its-host
#17
David R Sannino, Adam J Dobson, Katie Edwards, Esther R Angert, Nicolas Buchon
The microbiota of Drosophila melanogaster has a substantial impact on host physiology and nutrition. Some effects may involve vitamin provisioning, but the relationships between microbe-derived vitamins, diet, and host health remain to be established systematically. We explored the contribution of microbiota in supplying sufficient dietary thiamine (vitamin B1 ) to support D. melanogaster at different stages of its life cycle. Using chemically defined diets with different levels of available thiamine, we found that the interaction of thiamine concentration and microbiota did not affect the longevity of adult D...
March 6, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500722/vitamin-k2-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#18
Reza Lasemi, Michael Kundi, Nahid Beladi Moghadam, Hanns Moshammer, Johannes A Hainfellner
BACKGROUND: Vitamin K2 (VK2) belongs to the vitamin K family and comprises a number of subtypes differing in length of side chains consisting of isoprenoid groups (menaquinone-n, MK-n). It is essential for a number of physiological functions although the full spectrum of activity has not yet been elucidated. Due to its role in protection of mitochondrial damage, VK2 could be relevant in preventing disease progress in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We measured VK2 serum levels by the double antibody sandwich Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) technique in MS patients and age and sex matched controls, both under vitamin D supplementation, and related it to disease characteristics and treatment...
May 2018: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459707/hologenomic-adaptations-underlying-the-evolution-of-sanguivory-in-the-common-vampire-bat
#19
M Lisandra Zepeda Mendoza, Zijun Xiong, Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Anne Kathrine Runge, Julien Thézé, Daniel Streicker, Hannah K Frank, Elizabeth Loza-Rubio, Shengmao Liu, Oliver A Ryder, Jose Alfredo Samaniego Castruita, Aris Katzourakis, George Pacheco, Blanca Taboada, Ulrike Löber, Oliver G Pybus, Yang Li, Edith Rojas-Anaya, Kristine Bohmann, Aldo Carmona Baez, Carlos F Arias, Shiping Liu, Alex D Greenwood, Mads F Bertelsen, Nicole E White, Michael Bunce, Guojie Zhang, Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén, M P Thomas Gilbert
Adaptation to specialized diets often requires modifications at both genomic and microbiome levels. We applied a hologenomic approach to the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus), one of the only three obligate blood-feeding (sanguivorous) mammals, to study the evolution of its complex dietary adaptation. Specifically, we assembled its high-quality reference genome (scaffold N50 = 26.9 Mb, contig N50 = 36.6 kb) and gut metagenome, and compared them against those of insectivorous, frugivorous and carnivorous bats...
April 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413959/role-of-gut-microbiota-and-oxidative-stress-in-the-progression-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-to-hepatocarcinoma-current-and-innovative-therapeutic-approaches
#20
REVIEW
Antonella Borrelli, Patrizia Bonelli, Franca Maria Tuccillo, Ira D Goldfine, Joseph L Evans, Franco Maria Buonaguro, Aldo Mancini
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the most common chronic liver disease in industrialized countries. NAFLD progresses through the inflammatory phase of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to fibrosis and cirrhosis, with some cases developing liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Liver biopsy remains the gold standard approach to a definitive diagnosis of NAFLD and the distinction between simple steatosis and NASH. The pathogenesis of NASH is still not clear. Several theories have been proposed ranging from the "Two Hit Theory" to the "Multiple Hit Theory"...
May 2018: Redox Biology
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