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Vitamin D Gut

Hemant Goyal, Abhilash Perisetti, M Rubayat Rahman, Avi Levin, Giuseppe Lippi
Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2 D3 ) performs various activities throughout the body. Although low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with several disease processes such as risk of fractures and falls, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus, recent evidence attests that this important hormone also regulates several cellular pathways involved in cancer development and progression. Calcitriol modulates several genes controlling gut physiology and calcium homeostasis and also maintains the integrity of epithelial barriers, regulates the absorption of phosphate and calcium, and modulates host defense against pathogens and inflammatory response by interplaying with several types of secretory and immune cells...
December 3, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Majid Ghareghani, Russel J Reiter, Kazem Zibara, Naser Farhadi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). While the etiology of MS is still largely unknown, scientists believe that the interaction of several endogenous and exogenous factors may be involved in this disease. Epidemiologists have seen an increased prevalence of MS in countries at high latitudes, where the sunlight is limited and where the populations have vitamin D deficiency and high melatonin levels. Although the functions and synthesis of vitamin D and melatonin are contrary to each other, both are involved in the immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Erin Bove-Fenderson, Michael Mannstadt
Calcium is vital for life, and extracellular calcium concentrations must constantly be maintained within a precise concentration range. Low serum calcium (hypocalcemia) occurs in conjunction with multiple disorders and can be life-threatening if severe. Symptoms of acute hypocalcemia include neuromuscular irritability, tetany, and seizures, which are rapidly resolved with intravenous administration of calcium gluconate. However, disorders that lead to chronic hypocalcemia often have more subtle manifestations...
October 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Yi Quan Zhou, Ren Ying Xu, Yan Ping Wan
The current review aimed to elucidate the role of diet in every stage of inflammatory bowel diseases, from aspects of prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. Western diet, characterized by overconsumption of refined sugar and saturated fat and low consumption of dietary fiber, may partly be blamed for its pathogenesis. Some immune-modulated nutrients (fibers, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D) exert their potential beneficial effects on gut microbiota and immune function, resulting in clinical remission and/or preventing relapse...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Jiezhong Chen, Michael Thomsen, Luis Vitetta
The intestinal microbiota is now recognised to play key roles in health due to its involvement in many aspects of human physiology. Disturbance in gut microbiota (dysbiosis) is thus associated with many diseases including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which includes nonalcoholic fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The mechanisms for the effect of dysbiosis in NAFLD pathogenesis are not completely elucidated. Many explanations have been proposed to trigger dysbiosis, leading to NAFLD including inflammation, ethanol produced by the gut bacteria and lipotoxicity...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Emanuele Rinninella, Maria Cristina Mele, Nicolò Merendino, Marco Cintoni, Gaia Anselmi, Aldo Caporossi, Antonio Gasbarrini, Angelo Maria Minnella
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex multifactorial disease and the primary cause of legal and irreversible blindness among individuals aged ≥65 years in developed countries. Globally, it affects 30⁻50 million individuals, with an estimated increase of approximately 200 million by 2020 and approximately 300 million by 2040. Currently, the neovascular form may be able to be treated with the use of anti-VEGF drugs, while no effective treatments are available for the dry form. Many studies, such as the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) and AREDS 2, have shown a potential role of micronutrient supplementation in lowering the risk of progression of the early stages of AMD...
November 5, 2018: Nutrients
Menglian Lv, Shengyi Yang, Lingkai Cai, Li-Qiang Qin, Bing-Yan Li, Zhongxiao Wan
SCOPE: To explore how quercetin will affect memory impairments in APP/PS1 mice under different vitamin D status. METHODS AND RESULTS: APP/PS1 mice are divided into four groups, i.e., control (CON), low (LVD), medium, and high vitamin D supplemented with quercetin. During Morris Water Maze test, mice of the LVD group function best for improving cognitive function demonstrated by reduced latency to platform, and increased number of crossing and swimming distance in the target quadrant...
October 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Mary Waterhouse, Bronwyn Hope, Lutz Krause, Mark Morrison, Melinda M Protani, Martha Zakrzewski, Rachel E Neale
PURPOSE: Variation in the human microbiome has been linked with a variety of physiological functions, including immune regulation and metabolism and biosynthesis of vitamins, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Evidence for extraskeletal effects of vitamin D has been accruing and it has been suggested that the effect of vitamin D on health is partially mediated through the microbiome. We aimed to critically evaluate the evidence linking vitamin D and the gastrointestinal microbiome. METHODS: We systematically searched the Embase, Web of Science, PubMed and CINAHL databases, including peer-reviewed publications that reported an association between a measure of vitamin D and the gastrointestinal microbiome in humans or experimental animals...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Amir Abbasnezhad, Reza Amani, Amin Hasanvand, Esmaeil Yousefi Rad, Meysam Alipour, Somayeh Saboori, Razieh Choghakhori
OBJECTIVE: A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and the role of vitamin D in the function of the gut have been shown previously. Therefore, we aimed to evaluated the VDD and the possible association of the GI symptoms severity and quality of life (QoL) score with the serum levels of vitamin D in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: A total of 90 patients with IBS based on Rome III criteria enrolled in the study from the tertiary referral university hospital...
September 25, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Seyed-Amir Tabatabaeizadeh, Niayesh Tafazoli, Gordon A Ferns, Amir Avan, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
Vitamin D has an important role in bone metabolism but recently has been recognized as an immunoregulator, and this has led to investigations on the effect of Vitamin D supplementation in various autoimmune diseases and its anti-inflammatory effects. There is some evidence that Vitamin D can regulate gastrointestinal inflammation. In addition, previous studies have shown that Vitamin D can affect the gut microbiome. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of Vitamin D on inflammatory processes, especially its relation to the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and gut microbiome...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Jessica H Savage, Kathleen A Lee-Sarwar, Joanne E Sordillo, Nancy E Lange, Yanjiao Zhou, George T O'Connor, Megan Sandel, Leonard B Bacharier, Robert Zeiger, Erica Sodergren, George M Weinstock, Diane R Gold, Scott T Weiss, Augusto A Litonjua
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between diet during pregnancy and infancy, including breastfeeding vs formula feeding, solid food introduction, and the infant intestinal microbiome. STUDY DESIGN: Infants participating in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial were included in this study (n = 323). Maternal and infant diets were assessed by questionnaire. Infant stool samples were collected at age 3-6 months. Stool sequencing was performed using the Roche 454 platform...
August 30, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Jun Sun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review is to summarize the recent progress of vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) and microbiome in intestinal homeostasis, airway function, and other organs. RECENT FINDINGS: Microbiome is considered as a newly discovered human organ. It is critical in the synthesis of vitamins and harvest of otherwise inaccessible nutrients, metabolism of xenobiotics, body fat storage, renewal of gut epithelial cells, and mature of immune system. Vitamin D and VDR are known to regulate microbiome in health and disease...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Jung Won Kim, Ji Yeon Hong, Seung Min Bae
Autism spectrum disorder is a rapidly increasing heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome, remarked by persistent deficit in social communication, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior and interest. Lately, maternal immune activation and micgroglial dysfunction in the developing brain have been gaining mounting evidence and leading to studies of various novel agents as potential treatment options. A few immunomodulatory treatment options-luteolin, minocycline, suramin, vitamin D, gut microbiota-are discussed in the current article, regarding the current understanding of their mechanisms and evidence for potential clinical use...
August 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Mingyang Song, Andrew T Chan
The substantial burden of colorectal cancer and increasing trend in young adults highlight the importance of lifestyle modification as a complement to screening for colorectal cancer prevention. Several dietary and lifestyle factors have been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer, possibly through the intricate metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms. Likewise, as a key metabolic and immune regulator, the gut microbiota has been recognized to play an important role in colorectal tumorigenesis. Increasing data support that environmental factors are crucial determinants for the gut microbial composition and function, whose alterations induce changes in the host gene expression, metabolic regulation, and local and systemic immune response, thereby influencing cancer development...
July 18, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Gemma Ferrer-Mayorga, María Jesús Larriba, Piero Crespo, Alberto Muñoz
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the neoplasia that is most frequently associated with vitamin D deficiency in epidemiological and observational studies in terms of incidence and mortality. Many mechanistic studies show that the active vitamin D metabolite (1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or calcitriol) inhibits proliferation and promotes epithelial differentiation of human colon carcinoma cell lines that express vitamin D receptor (VDR) via the regulation of a high number of genes. A key action underlining this effect is the multilevel inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, whose abnormal activation in colon epithelial cells initiates and promotes CRC...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Thomas O Onchuru, Adam J Martinez, Martin Kaltenpoth
The evolutionary and ecological success of many insects is attributed to mutualistic partnerships with bacteria that confer hosts with novel traits including food digestion, nutrient supplementation, detoxification of harmful compounds and defence against natural enemies. Dysdercus fasciatus firebugs (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae), commonly known as cotton stainers, possess a simple but distinctive gut bacterial community including B vitamin-supplementing Coriobacteriaceae symbionts. In addition, their guts are often infested with the intestinal trypanosomatid parasite Leptomonas pyrrhocoris (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae)...
July 4, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Keizo Kaneko, Maud Soty, Carine Zitoun, Adeline Duchampt, Marine Silva, Erwann Philippe, Amandine Gautier-Stein, Fabienne Rajas, Gilles Mithieux
OBJECTIVE: The respective contributions to endogenous glucose production (EGP) of the liver, kidney and intestine vary during fasting. We previously reported that the deficiency in either hepatic or intestinal gluconeogenesis modulates the repartition of EGP via glucagon secretion (humoral factor) and gut-brain-liver axis (neural factor), respectively. Considering renal gluconeogenesis reportedly accounted for approximately 50% of EGP during fasting, we examined whether a reduction in renal gluconeogenesis could promote alterations in the repartition of EGP in this situation...
October 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Takashi Yamaguchi, Atsuhito Saiki, Ichiro Tatsuno
While bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for severe obesity, these procedures may have unfavorable effects on bone and mineral metabolism. The most pronounced abnormalities are disorders of calcium/vitamin D metabolism, bone loss, as well as increased risk of bone fracture. These changes that occur after surgery vary by procedure type. Proposed mechanisms include skeletal unloading, malabsorption, secondary hyperparathyroidism and changes in gut hormones. This review explores bone response to bariatric surgery, potential mechanisms for these changes...
2018: Clinical Calcium
Julia Maruani, George Anderson, Bruno Etain, Michel Lejoyeux, Frank Bellivier, Pierre A Geoffroy
Bipolar disorders (BDs) are severe and common psychiatric disorders. BD pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and relapses are associated with numerous circadian rhythm abnormalities. In addition, infradian fluctuations of mood, social activity, weight and sleep patterns are very frequent in BD. Disease course with a seasonal pattern (SP) occurs in approximately 25% of depressive and 15% of manic episodes, which is coupled to a more severe disease symptomatology. The pathophysiological mechanisms of seasonal effects in BD await clarification, with likely important clinical consequences...
September 2018: Chronobiology International
X L Chang, Y Shang, Y J Liu, P Li, Y Y Wang, A M Liang, K M Qi
Objective: To investigate the effects of calcium supplementation during the pregnancy and early infancy stage on body mass index (BMI) and gut microbiota in the infants. Methods: A total of 1 752 healthy pregnant women and their infants (breast feeding) in two maternal and child health care hospitals of Beijing were chosen as the subjects in this study from May to October 2016. Questionnaires were used to obtain the general information and supplementation of calcium and vitamin D in mothers and their infants...
June 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
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