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Neeraj Kumar, Martijn van Faassen, Ido Kema, Manfred Gahr, Ton G G Groothuis
Vertebrate embryos are exposed to maternal hormones that can profoundly affect their later phenotype. Although it is known that the embryo can metabolize these maternal hormones, the metabolic outcomes, their quantitative dynamics and timing are poorly understood. Moreover, it is unknown whether embryos can adjust their metabolic activity to, for example, hormones or other maternal signals. We studied the dynamics of maternal steroids in fertilized and unfertilized rock pigeon eggs during early incubation. Embryos of this species are naturally exposed to different amounts of maternal steroids in the egg according to their laying position, which provides a natural context to study differential embryonic regulation of the maternal signals...
August 12, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Chaoyong Shen, Zhongke Feng, Daoqin Zhou
Paddy rice is one of the most important cereal crops worldwide, so it is very important to accurately monitor its growth status and photosynthetic efficiency. The nitrogen (N) level is a key factor closely related to crop growth. In this study, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology combined with multi-variate analysis was applied to investigate the effect of paddy rice variety on N fertilizer level monitoring. Principal components analysis was conducted to extract the variables of the main fluorescence characteristics to identify N levels...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Tânia Carvalho, Sandra Trindade, Sílvia Pimenta, Ana B Santos, Filipa Rijo-Ferreira, Luísa M Figueiredo
African trypanosomiasis is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, transmitted between mammals by the bite of a tsetse. It has been recently shown that parasites accumulate in large numbers in various organs and tissues, including the mouse testis. Whether parasites are protected from the immune system in the male reproductive organ or can be transmitted through sexual route remains unknown. Here we show that parasites can be detected by fine needle aspiration cytology of the male reproductive system in mice, and histopathological analysis revealed that T...
August 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Laura D Tamayo, Felipe Guhl, Gustavo A Vallejo, Juan David Ramírez
The increase in the global land temperature, expected under predictions of climate change, can directly affect the transmission of some infectious diseases, including Chagas disease, an anthropozoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by arthropod vectors of the subfamily Triatominae. This work seeks to study the effects of temperature on the development of the life cycle, fertility and fecundity of the insect vector Rhodnius prolixus and on the metacyclogenesis of T. cruzi. All of the variables were subjected to 3 temperatures: 26°C, 28°C and 30°C...
August 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Benjamin P Towler, Sarah F Newbury
The process of RNA degradation is a critical level of regulation contributing to the control of gene expression. In the last two decades a number of studies have shown the specific and targeted nature of RNA decay and its importance in maintaining homeostasis. The key players within the pathways of RNA decay are well conserved with their mutation or disruption resulting in distinct phenotypes as well as human disease. Model organisms including Drosophila melanogaster have played a substantial role in elucidating the mechanisms conferring control over RNA stability...
August 15, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
F M Rezende, G O Dietsch, F Peñagaricano
The service sire has been recognized as an important factor affecting herd fertility in dairy cattle. Recent studies suggest that genetic factors explain part of the difference in fertility among Holstein sires. The main objective of this study was to dissect the genetic architecture of sire fertility in US Jersey cattle. The dataset included 1.5 K Jersey bulls with sire conception rate (SCR) records and 96 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers spanning the whole genome. The analysis included whole-genome scans for both additive and non-additive effects and subsequent functional enrichment analyses using KEGG Pathway, Gene Ontology (GO) and Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) databases...
August 14, 2018: Animal Genetics
Thierry Almont, Fadila Farsi, Ivan Krakowski, Rabih El Osta, Pierre Bondil, Éric Huyghe
PURPOSE: To assess, focusing on population of healthcare professionals providing oncosexology care to men with cancer, clinical practice, attitudes, knowledge, communication, and professional interaction. METHODS: We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study with an online self-administered e-questionnaire addressed to all medical, paramedical, or administrative professionals attending the 4th "Cancer, Sexuality and Fertility" Meeting in Toulouse, France...
August 14, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Neelima Panth, Adam Gavarkovs, Martha Tamez, Josiemer Mattei
Despite growing evidence of the impact of diet on human fertility, few studies have examined the public health implications of this association in the United States (U.S.). This narrative review summarizes current scientific evidence on associations between dietary intake and fertility, discusses challenges in the public health landscape surrounding infertility, and proposes evidence-based recommendations to address these issues. Diets high in unsaturated fats, whole grains, vegetables, and fish have been associated with improved fertility in both women and men...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Chenyang Huang, Haixiang Sun, Zhilong Wang, Yang Liu, Xi Cheng, Jingyu Liu, Ruiwei Jiang, Xindong Zhang, Xin Zhen, Jidong Zhou, Linjun Chen, Lijun Ding, Guijun Yan, Yue Jiang
Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) caused by various etiological factors remains a challenge for fertility clinicians using assisted reproductive technology (ART) worldwide. Dysregulation of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in the endometria of women with RIF is involved in impaired endometrial receptivity and embryo adhesion. However, the mechanism through which LIF expression is regulated in women with RIF is still poorly understood. Our previous study noted that the abnormally increased endometrial Krüppel-like factor 12 (KLF12) in RIF women led to impaired decidualization and embryo implantation...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Guohui Li, Qiuqian Hu, Yange Shi, Kehui Cui, Lixiao Nie, Jianliang Huang, Shaobing Peng
More than 4 billion inhabitants in Asia depend on rice for 35-60% of the calories consumed in their diets, but new rice cultivars frequently do not reach expected yields because of poor rice grain filling. Here, we quantified the activities of enzymes involved in starch metabolization in rice to investigate the mechanisms regulating the accumulation and translocation of stem non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) under different levels of nitrogen fertilizer application. A pot experiment was conducted using two rice cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu (LYPJ) and Shanyou63 (SY63), under high and low nitrogen applications...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Marie Simonin, Benjamin P Colman, Weiyi Tang, Jonathan D Judy, Steven M Anderson, Christina M Bergemann, Jennifer D Rocca, Jason M Unrine, Nicolas Cassar, Emily S Bernhardt
The environmental fate and potential impacts of nanopesticides on agroecosystems under realistic agricultural conditions are poorly understood. As a result, the benefits and risks of these novel formulations compared to the conventional products are currently unclear. Here, we examined the effects of repeated realistic exposures of the Cu(OH)2 nanopesticide, Kocide 3000, on simulated agricultural pastureland in an outdoor mesocosm experiment over 1 year. The Kocide applications were performed alongside three different mineral fertilization levels (Ambient, Low, and High) to assess the environmental impacts of this nanopesticide under low-input or conventional farming scenarios...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Adnane Bargaz, Karim Lyamlouli, Mohamed Chtouki, Youssef Zeroual, Driss Dhiba
Tomorrow's agriculture, challenged by increasing global demand for food, scarcity of arable lands, and resources alongside multiple environment pressures, needs to be managed smartly through sustainable and eco-efficient approaches. Modern agriculture has to be more productive, sustainable, and environmentally friendly. While macronutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sulfur (S) supplied by mineral fertilizers are vital to crop production, agriculturally beneficial microorganisms may also contribute directly (i...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ines Jedidi, Mouna Ouchari, Qinan Yin
Human infertility, defined as the inability to conceive after 1 year of unprotected intercourse, is a healthcare problem that has a worldwide impact. Genetic causes of human infertility are manifold. In addition to the chromosomal aneuploidies and rearrangements, single-gene defects can interfere with human fertility. This paper provides a review of the most common autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant single-gene disorders involved in human infertility. The genes reviewed are CFTR , SPATA16 , AURKC , CATSPER1 , GNRHR , MTHFR , SYCP3 , SOX9 , WT1 and NR5A1 genes...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
F Cuadro, P C Dos Santos-Neto, A Pinczak, N Barrera, M Crispo, A Menchaca
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of serum progesterone concentrations during the superstimulatory treatment of the first follicular wave on fertilization rate and embryo development in sheep. A total of 71 Merino ewes received a superstimulatory FSH treatment during Wave 1 of ovarian follicular development (Day 0 Protocol), which was administrated under low progesterone concentrations typical of the early luteal phase (control group, n = 33) or under high progesterone concentrations induced by the administration of an intravaginal device from Day 0 to Day 3 containing 0...
August 9, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Nikole K Bonacorsi, Andrew B Leslie
Background and Aims: Structures that simultaneously perform many functional roles are likely to show a variety of morphological solutions to these demands, and thus probably exhibit high morphological disparity. In contrast, specialization for a few simple functions should result in a more limited suite of morphologies. We explore this idea using lycopsid reproductive structures, which, throughout their history, have performed a limited set of functional roles compared with the reproductive structures of other plant groups such as seed plants...
August 10, 2018: Annals of Botany
Aleksander Nikolaevich Nikitin, Ihar Anatoljevich Cheshyk, Galina Zenonovna Gutseva, Elena Aleksandrovna Tankevich, Masaki Shintani, Shuichi Okumoto
Soil microorganisms play an important role in determining the physical and chemical properties of soils. Soil microorganisms have both direct and indirect effects on the physical and chemical states of radionuclides and their availability for uptake by plant roots. Controlling the soil microorganisms to immobilize radionuclides is a promising strategy to reduce the content of radionuclides in the food chain. In this study, we evaluated the impact of effective microorganisms (EM) comprising lactic-acid bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria, and yeast on the transfer of 137 Cs into the aboveground biomass of barley and lettuce...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Hong Truong, Corey Savard, Robert B Den, James Ryan Mark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2018: Urology
Awais Shakoor, Yunlian Xu, Qiang Wang, Ningyi Chen, Fei He, Huaifeng Zuo, Hanxun Yin, Xiaoyuan Yan, Youhua Ma, Shuyun Yang
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG) with agricultural soils representing its largest anthropogenic source. However, the mechanisms involved in the N2O emission and factors affecting N2O emission fluxes in response to various nitrogenous fertilizer applications remain uncertain. We conducted a four-year (2012-2015) field experiment to assess how fertilization scheme impacts N2O emissions from a rice-wheat cropping system in eastern China. The fertilizer treatments included Control (CK), Conventional fertilizer (CF), CF with shallow-irrigation (CF+SI), CF with deep-irrigation system (CF+DI), Optimized fertilizer (OF), OF with Urease inhibitor (OF+UI), OF with conservation tillage (OF+CT) and Slow-release fertilizer (SRF)...
2018: PloS One
Jianfeng Ning, Shaoying Ai, Lihua Cui
Dicyandiamide (DCD) and thiosulfates are two type of nitrification inhibitors (NIs) that have been widely used in agriculture to improve nitrogen (N) fertilizer use efficiency and mitigate negative effect of N on environment. Little information is available concerning the comparison of the efficacy of DCD and thiosulfate on N transformations in soil. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of DCD and thiosulfate (K2S2O3) on changes of NH4+-N, nitrification inhibition and N recovery in a latosolic red soil...
2018: PloS One
Sunday A Adelakun, Victor O Ukwenya, Babatunde S Ogunlade, Julius A, Ayooluwa G
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of walnut oil on nitrite-induced testicular toxicity in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Available evidence suggests that walnut oil contains high levels of important unsaturated fatty acids including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and omega-3; nitrite is a reproductive toxicant that causes the loss of germ cells in the seminiferous tubules and generates oxidative stress in the testes, thus reducing sperm counts and affecting sperm morphology. METHODS: This study included 24 male and 24 female adult SD rats...
August 14, 2018: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
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