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"less is more"

Rachel E Simpson, Nathan J Cockerill, Michele T Yip-Schneider, Eugene P Ceppa, Michael G House, Nicholas J Zyromski, Attila Nakeeb, Mohammad A Al-Haddad, C M Schmidt
BACKGROUND: For pancreatic cysts with negative cytology, Integrated Molecular Pathology (IMP) is a malignancy risk score integrating clinical criteria with pancreatic cyst fluid DNA profiling. Aside from main pancreatic duct (MPD) diameter, integrated clinical criteria are not International Consensus Guidelines High-Risk Stigmata. We predicted exclusion of clinical criteria except MPD diameter could simplify the IMP and better distinguish invasive/malignant disease. METHODS: Records of >1100 patients with IPMN were reviewed retrospectively...
October 4, 2018: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
Fenna H Poletiek, Christopher M Conway, Michelle R Ellefson, Jun Lai, Bruno R Bocanegra, Morten H Christiansen
It has been suggested that external and/or internal limitations paradoxically may lead to superior learning, that is, the concepts of starting small and less is more (Elman, ; Newport, ). In this paper, we explore the type of incremental ordering during training that might help learning, and what mechanism explains this facilitation. We report four artificial grammar learning experiments with human participants. In Experiments 1a and 1b we found a beneficial effect of starting small using two types of simple recursive grammars: right-branching and center-embedding, with recursive embedded clauses in fixed positions and fixed length...
September 27, 2018: Cognitive Science
Jubilee Brown, Lane Drury, Erin K Crane, William E Anderson, David L Tait, Robert V Higgins, R Wendel Naumann
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes of advanced ovarian cancer patients who had minimally invasive surgery (MIS) with outcomes of advanced ovarian cancer patients who had laparotomy for interval cytoreduction after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). DESIGN: IRB-approved retrospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2) SETTING: : One large teaching hospital with a tertiary referral function for gynecologic oncology and minimally invasive surgery PATIENTS: : All consecutive patients with stage III-IV epithelial ovarian, tubal, or peritoneal cancer who underwent MIS or laparotomy for interval cytoreduction following ≥ 1 NACT cycle from 2006-2017 at one institution...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Daniela Anker, Brigitte Santos-Eggimann, Valérie Santschi, Cinzia Del Giovane, Christina Wolfson, Sven Streit, Nicolas Rodondi, Arnaud Chiolero
Screening and treatment of hypertension is a cornerstone of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention. Hypertension causes a large proportion of cases of stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and associated disability and is highly prevalent especially among older adults. On the one hand, there is robust evidence that screening and treatment of hypertension prevents CVD and decreases mortality in the middle-aged population. On the other hand, among older adults, observational studies have shown either positive, negative, or no correlation between blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular outcomes...
2018: Public Health Reviews
John K Erban
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Gland Surgery
S Schlichtemeier, S Tou, R Parks, A Engel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
Kyle W Riggs, David Ls Morales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Amir Kugelman, Liron Borenstein-Levin, Huda Jubran, Gil Dinur, Shlomit Ben-David, Elena Segal, Julie Haddad, Fanny Timstut, Iris Stein, Imad R Makhoul, Ori Hochwald
Iatrogenesis is more common in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) because the infants are vulnerable and exposed to prolonged intensive care. Sixty percent of extremely low-birth-weight infants are exposed to iatrogenesis. The risk factors for iatrogenesis in NICUs include prematurity, mechanical or non-invasive ventilation, central lines, and prolonged length of stay. This led to the notion that "less is more." In the delivery room delayed cord clamping is recommended for term and preterm infants, and suction for the airways in newborns with meconium-stained fluid is not performed anymore...
July 30, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Baldwin P M Yeung, Carol Craig, John Morris, Andrew Christie, Ram Kasthuri, Wesley Stuart, Adrian J Stanley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Frontline Gastroenterology
Dee Mangin, Gülistan Bahat, Beatrice A Golomb, Laurie Herzig Mallery, Paige Moorhouse, Graziano Onder, Mirko Petrovic, Doron Garfinkel
Globally, the number of drug prescriptions is increasing causing more adverse drug events, which is now a significant cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability that has reached epidemic proportions. The risk of adverse drug events is correlated to very old age, multiple co-morbidities, dementia, frailty, and limited life expectancy, with the major contributor being polypharmacy. Each characteristic alters the risk-benefit balance of medications, typically reducing anticipated benefits and amplifying risk...
July 14, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Mónica Lopes-Marques, André M Machado, Susana Barbosa, Miguel M Fonseca, Raquel Ruivo, L Filipe C Castro
The Cetacea infraorder comprises a very unique group within the mammalian lineage. While sharing common ancestors with terrestrial mammals, their exclusive dependence on aquatic environments makes them attractive models to explore the landscape of molecular shifts in radical habitat transitions. Among their diverse anatomical and physiological solutions, we find detectable genetic remodeling of the immune system. In agreement, here we show that the gene sequence of interleukin-20 (IL20) displays unambiguous signs of inactivation with several disruptive mutations, including stop codons, insertions, and a conserved trans-species mutation abolishing a canonical splice site, in nine analyzed cetacean genomes...
July 12, 2018: Immunogenetics
Colleen Chen
This article evaluates whether the National Health Security Act 2007 Cth can effectively accommodate public health and national security policy objectives under one Act to meet the biosecurity challenges of the 21st century. The formation of the Act, its substantive parts, and its subsequent amendments are described before the Act is assessed under the Rule of Law analysis proposed by Professor David Fidler and Professor Lawrence Gostin. This article finds that whereas the public health objective of the Act was to simplify the reporting process surrounding public health incidents under the International Health Regulations, the amendments made to the Act in response to national security needs have had the contrary effect of complicating public health reporting with marginal gains for national security...
April 2018: Journal of Law and Medicine
Johannes Prager, Joachim I Krueger, Klaus Fiedler
Impression formation is a basic module of fundamental research in social cognition, with broad implications for applied research on interpersonal relations, social attitudes, employee selection, and person judgments in legal and political context. Drawing on a pool of 28 predominantly positive traits used in Solomon Asch's (1946) seminal impression studies, two research teams have investigated the impact of the number of person traits sampled randomly from the pool on the evaluative impression of the target person...
September 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Alessandro Fichera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Axel Bex, John Haanen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
Justin S Smith, Ben Nebgen, Nicholas Lubbers, Olexandr Isayev, Adrian E Roitberg
The development of accurate and transferable machine learning (ML) potentials for predicting molecular energetics is a challenging task. The process of data generation to train such ML potentials is a task neither well understood nor researched in detail. In this work, we present a fully automated approach for the generation of datasets with the intent of training universal ML potentials. It is based on the concept of active learning (AL) via Query by Committee (QBC), which uses the disagreement between an ensemble of ML potentials to infer the reliability of the ensemble's prediction...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Alexandra M Mellis, Liqa N Athamneh, Jeffrey S Stein, Yan Yan Sze, Leonard H Epstein, Warren K Bickel
Negative income shock, or the rapid reduction in financial stability, has previously been shown to increase impulsive choice for money and demand for fast food. The interplay of these conditions for obesity is called reinforcer pathology. The present work examines the impact of negative income shock on monetary and fast food discounting using a cross-commodity delay discounting task and on purchasing of fast food and an alternative commodity. An obese sample (n = 120) was recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk and assigned to read one of two narratives: negative income shock (n = 60) or control (n = 60)...
October 1, 2018: Appetite
Ashish Verma, Muhammad Hassaan Shahid, Laura Youngblood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Vera Vine, Emily E Bernstein, Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
Previous research suggests that labelling emotions, or describing affective states using emotion words, facilitates emotion regulation. But how much labelling promotes emotion regulation? And which emotion regulation strategies does emotion labelling promote? Drawing on cognitive theories of emotion, we predicted that labelling emotions using fewer words would be less confusing and would facilitate forms of emotion regulation requiring more cognitively demanding processing of context. Participants (N = 82) mentally immersed themselves in an emotional vignette, were randomly assigned to an exhaustive or minimal emotion labelling manipulation, and then completed an emotion regulation strategy planning task...
June 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Jonathan L Mezrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2018: Clinical Imaging
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