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"less is more"

Kyle W Riggs, David Ls Morales
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Amir Kugelman, Liron Borenstein-Levin, Huda Jubran, Gil Dinur, Shlomit Ben-David, Elena Segal, Julie Haddad, Fanny Timstut, Iris Stein, Imad R Makhoul, Ori Hochwald
Iatrogenesis is more common in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) because the infants are vulnerable and exposed to prolonged intensive care. Sixty percent of extremely low-birth-weight infants are exposed to iatrogenesis. The risk factors for iatrogenesis in NICUs include prematurity, mechanical or non-invasive ventilation, central lines, and prolonged length of stay. This led to the notion that "less is more." In the delivery room delayed cord clamping is recommended for term and preterm infants, and suction for the airways in newborns with meconium-stained fluid is not performed anymore...
July 30, 2018: Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal
Baldwin P M Yeung, Carol Craig, John Morris, Andrew Christie, Ram Kasthuri, Wesley Stuart, Adrian J Stanley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Frontline Gastroenterology
Dee Mangin, Gülistan Bahat, Beatrice A Golomb, Laurie Herzig Mallery, Paige Moorhouse, Graziano Onder, Mirko Petrovic, Doron Garfinkel
Globally, the number of drug prescriptions is increasing causing more adverse drug events, which is now a significant cause of mortality, morbidity, and disability that has reached epidemic proportions. The risk of adverse drug events is correlated to very old age, multiple co-morbidities, dementia, frailty, and limited life expectancy, with the major contributor being polypharmacy. Each characteristic alters the risk-benefit balance of medications, typically reducing anticipated benefits and amplifying risk...
July 14, 2018: Drugs & Aging
Mónica Lopes-Marques, André M Machado, Susana Barbosa, Miguel M Fonseca, Raquel Ruivo, L Filipe C Castro
The Cetacea infraorder comprises a very unique group within the mammalian lineage. While sharing common ancestors with terrestrial mammals, their exclusive dependence on aquatic environments makes them attractive models to explore the landscape of molecular shifts in radical habitat transitions. Among their diverse anatomical and physiological solutions, we find detectable genetic remodeling of the immune system. In agreement, here we show that the gene sequence of interleukin-20 (IL20) displays unambiguous signs of inactivation with several disruptive mutations, including stop codons, insertions, and a conserved trans-species mutation abolishing a canonical splice site, in nine analyzed cetacean genomes...
July 12, 2018: Immunogenetics
Colleen Chen
This article evaluates whether the National Health Security Act 2007 Cth can effectively accommodate public health and national security policy objectives under one Act to meet the biosecurity challenges of the 21st century. The formation of the Act, its substantive parts, and its subsequent amendments are described before the Act is assessed under the Rule of Law analysis proposed by Professor David Fidler and Professor Lawrence Gostin. This article finds that whereas the public health objective of the Act was to simplify the reporting process surrounding public health incidents under the International Health Regulations, the amendments made to the Act in response to national security needs have had the contrary effect of complicating public health reporting with marginal gains for national security...
April 2018: Journal of Law and Medicine
Johannes Prager, Joachim I Krueger, Klaus Fiedler
Impression formation is a basic module of fundamental research in social cognition, with broad implications for applied research on interpersonal relations, social attitudes, employee selection, and person judgments in legal and political context. Drawing on a pool of 28 predominantly positive traits used in Solomon Asch's (1946) seminal impression studies, two research teams have investigated the impact of the number of person traits sampled randomly from the pool on the evaluative impression of the target person...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Alessandro Fichera
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Axel Bex, John Haanen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
Justin S Smith, Ben Nebgen, Nicholas Lubbers, Olexandr Isayev, Adrian E Roitberg
The development of accurate and transferable machine learning (ML) potentials for predicting molecular energetics is a challenging task. The process of data generation to train such ML potentials is a task neither well understood nor researched in detail. In this work, we present a fully automated approach for the generation of datasets with the intent of training universal ML potentials. It is based on the concept of active learning (AL) via Query by Committee (QBC), which uses the disagreement between an ensemble of ML potentials to infer the reliability of the ensemble's prediction...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Alexandra M Mellis, Liqa N Athamneh, Jeffrey S Stein, Yan Yan Sze, Leonard H Epstein, Warren K Bickel
Negative income shock, or the rapid reduction in financial stability, has previously been shown to increase impulsive choice for money and demand for fast food. The interplay of these conditions for obesity is called reinforcer pathology. The present work examines the impact of negative income shock on monetary and fast food discounting using a cross-commodity delay discounting task and on purchasing of fast food and an alternative commodity. An obese sample (n = 120) was recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk and assigned to read one of two narratives: negative income shock (n = 60) or control (n = 60)...
October 1, 2018: Appetite
Ashish Verma, Muhammad Hassaan Shahid, Laura Youngblood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 19, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Vera Vine, Emily E Bernstein, Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
Previous research suggests that labelling emotions, or describing affective states using emotion words, facilitates emotion regulation. But how much labelling promotes emotion regulation? And which emotion regulation strategies does emotion labelling promote? Drawing on cognitive theories of emotion, we predicted that labelling emotions using fewer words would be less confusing and would facilitate forms of emotion regulation requiring more cognitively demanding processing of context. Participants (N = 82) mentally immersed themselves in an emotional vignette, were randomly assigned to an exhaustive or minimal emotion labelling manipulation, and then completed an emotion regulation strategy planning task...
June 18, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Jonathan L Mezrich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Alexandra M Martelli, David S Chester, Kirk Warren Brown, Naomi I Eisenberger, C Nathan DeWall
Social rejection is a distressing and painful event that many people must cope with on a frequent basis. Mindfulness-defined here as a mental state of receptive attentiveness to internal and external stimuli as they arise, moment-to-moment-may buffer such social distress. However, little research indicates whether mindful individuals adaptively regulate the distress of rejection-or the neural mechanisms underlying this potential capacity. To fill these gaps in the literature, participants reported their trait mindfulness and then completed a social rejection paradigm (Cyberball) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging...
June 1, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Spencer C H Kuo, Jui-Pin Lai, Ching-Hua Hsieh, Tzu-Ying Chen, Yu-Jen Chang, Faye Huang
PURPOSE: To investigate the clinical effects of preoperative nasoalveolar molding (NAM) and nasal conformer use in patients with unilateral incomplete cleft lip on the basis of their medical records and images. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data and images of 16 patients born with unilateral incomplete cleft lip who were hospitalized between January 2015 and August 2017 were retrieved from the medical records. The primary outcome was the extent of improvement in columella height (CH) before cheiloplasty...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Susan Niermeyer, Jeffrey M Perlman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: Neonatology
Koen Deloose, Joren Callaert
Although evidence supports that the performance of drug coated balloons seems to be lesion complexity independent, it is quite clear that in long lesions, severe calcified lesions and chronic total occlusions, the bail out stent ratio is very high and that the "leaving nothing behind" strategy remains a dream in a lot of our daily cases. On the other side of the spectrum, "full metal jackets" of nitinol stents are creating even more problems. Stent fractures, intimal hyperplasia and reintervention difficulties complicate the recurrent vascular disease treatment...
August 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Neena Natt, Stephanie R Starr, Darcy A Reed, Yoon Soo Park, Liselotte N Dyrbye, Andrea N Leep Hunderfund
INTRODUCTION: Training in high-value, cost-conscious care (HVCCC) is increasingly being incorporated into medical school curricula, but students may have limited opportunities to engage patients in HVCCC conversations. The aim of this study was to develop two standardized patient scenarios with associated checklists, hypothesizing that resulting scores would allow for valid formative assessments of HVCCC communication skills. METHODS: Scenarios were designed to generate a less-is-more conversation (in response to a patient requesting an unnecessary test) and a shared decision-making conversation (in response to a patient choosing between multiple effective treatment options)...
May 15, 2018: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
Jiafang Zhu, Wenxin Yu, Tianyou Wang, Yijie Chen, Dongze Lyu, Lei Chang, Gang Ma, Xiaoxi Lin
Port-wine stains (PWS) affect 0.3 to 0.5% of newborns and pulsed dye laser (PDL) remains the treatment of choice. However, no reliable study regarding the benefits of more frequent has been conducted. We designed the present study to evaluate whether more frequent PDL treatments in infantile patients would achieve further lightening of erythema. We prospectively investigated 20 infants with PWS. Two adjacent sites were both treated for a 12-week duration and randomly allocated to be treated for seven sessions at 2-week intervals or three sessions at 6-week intervals...
May 10, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
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