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Vitamin D Brain

D Intiso, A Fontana, M Copetti, F Di Rienzo
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D may be important for the development and function of the nervous system. Low serum vitamin D levels have been detected in several neurological diseases. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the relationship between 25(OH)D serum level and disability in subjects with severe acquired brain injury (sABI). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study Methods: Consecutive subjects with sABI admitted to neuro-rehabilitation were enrolled. A sample of subjects from the neurological ward was considered the control group...
October 19, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Linping Wang
Aluminum, as a known neurotoxicant, contributes to cognitive dysfunction and may contribute to Alzheimer's disease. The important reason is that aluminum can enter and be deposited in the brain. There have been three routes by which aluminum could enter the brain from systemic circulation or the site of absorption. Aluminum fluxes into brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the choroid plexuses and the nasal cavity. Some factors, such as the increasing of the blood-brain barrier permeability, citric acid and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and vitamin D, can promote aluminum to enter the brain...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mamun Al-Amin, DanaKai Bradford, Robert K P Sullivan, Nyoman D Kurniawan, Yeonsil Moon, Seol-Heui Han, Andrew Zalesky, Thomas H J Burne
Vitamin D deficiency may exacerbate adverse neurocognitive outcomes in the progression of diseases such as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and other dementias. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is prodromal for these neurocognitive disorders and neuroimaging studies suggest that, in the elderly, this cognitive impairment is associated with a reduction in hippocampal volume and white matter structural integrity. To test whether vitamin D is associated with neuroanatomical correlates of MCI, we analyzed an existing structural and diffusion MRI dataset of elderly patients with MCI...
September 25, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Bo Wu, Yunting Du, Yonghui Feng, Qinghui Wang, Wei Pang, Zanmei Qi, Jichun Wang, Dan Yang, Yang Liu, Yaming Cao
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a serious and fatal malaria-associated syndrome caused by the development of an overwhelming proinflammatory response. Vitamin D (Vit.D; cholecalciferol) has regulatory functions associated with both innate and adaptive immune responses. Prevention is better than cure, in this experiment, we evaluated prophylactic oral Vit.D as a means of preventing CM presentation before infection of C57BL/6 mice with Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA) by modulating the host proinflammatory response. Mice that were supplemented with oral Vit...
September 19, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Anna Walentukiewicz, Anna Lysak-Radomska, Joanna Jaworska, Krzysztof Prusik, Katarzyna Prusik, Jakub Antoni Kortas, Marcin Lipiński, Anna Babinska, Jedrzej Antosiewicz, Ewa Ziemann
The aim of the study was to verify if coupling 12 weeks of vitamin D supplementation and Nordic walking training favoured lowering the homocysteine (Hcy) level. Ninety-four elderly women were divided into three groups: Nordic walking (NW), supplemented (SG) and control (CG). The NW and SG groups received a weekly dose of 28,000 IU of vitamin D3. A blood analysis was performed at baseline, 1h after the first training session and at the end of the experiment. The amino acid profile (methionine and cysteine) and homocysteine concentration were determined...
September 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Marielle Margier, Xavier Collet, Cédric le May, Charles Desmarchelier, François André, Chantal Lebrun, Catherine Defoort, Alice Bluteau, Patrick Borel, Anne Lespine, Emmanuelle Reboul
Efficient intestinal absorption of dietary vitamin D is required in most people to ensure an adequate status. Thus, we investigated the involvement of ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 1 (ABCB1) in vitamin D intestinal efflux. Both cholecalciferol (D3 ) and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3 ] apical effluxes were decreased by chemical inhibition of ABCB1 in Caco-2 cells and increased by ABCB1 overexpression in Griptites or Madin-Darby canine kidney type II cells. Mice deficient for the 2 murine ABCB1s encoded by Abcb1a and Abcb1b genes ( Abcb1-/- ) displayed an accumulation of 25(OH)D3 in plasma, intestine, brain, liver, and kidneys, together with an increased D3 postprandial response after gavage compared with controls...
September 17, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Ibrar Anjum, Syeda S Jaffery, Muniba Fayyaz, Zarak Samoo, Sheraz Anjum
Vitamin D is vital for our body as it regulates calcium homeostasis and maintains bone integrity. In this article, we will discuss how vitamin D aids in the function of neuronal and glial tissue and the many health consequences in a person with vitamin D deficiency. Some of the effects of vitamin D deficiency that will be discussed include the development of dementia caused by the increase of cerebral soluble and insoluble amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and a decrease of its anti-inflammatory/antioxidant properties, the link to depression by a reduction of the buffering of increased calcium in the brain, and vitamin D deficiency in expecting mothers linking to the development of autism and schizophrenic-like disorders, hypoxic brain injury, and other mental illnesses...
July 10, 2018: Curēus
Yude Liu, Lian Rao, Hongguan Zhang, Yanyou Cen, Kaili Cheng
Herb borneol is usually used in clinics for the treatment of central nervous system illness, for its ability of blood-brain barrier permeability, although its poor water solubility and poor bioavailability limit its clinical application to some degree. In this study, we developed a novel nanoparticle combining the benefits of vitamin E d-ɑ-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol) succinate (E-TPGS) (or TPGS) and guar gum to get TPGS-g-guar gum as a drug delivery system to carry borneol, which could improve the solubility of borneol and increase the drug-loading capacity efficiently...
October 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Jinjiao Wang, Cathy A Maxwell, Fang Yu
The objectives of this literature review were to (1) synthesize biological processes linked to frailty and their corresponding biomarkers and (2) identify potential associations among these processes and biomarkers. In September 2016, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched. Studies examining biological processes related to frailty in older adults (≥60 years) were included. Studies were excluded if they did not employ specific measures of frailty, did not report the association between biomarkers and frailty, or focused on nonelderly samples (average age < 60)...
September 9, 2018: Biological Research for Nursing
Cassiana Siebert, Carolina Gessinger Bertó, Fernanda Silva Ferreira, Daniella de S Moreira, Tiago Marcon Dos Santos, Angela T S Wyse
The aim of this study was to verify the effects of ovariectomy (OVX) and/or vitamin D supplementation (VIT D) on inflammatory and cholinergic parameters in hippocampus, as well as on serum estradiol and VIT D levels of rats. Ninety-day-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: SHAM, OVX, VIT D or OVX + VIT D. Thirty days after OVX, VIT D (500 IU/kg/day) was supplemented by gavage, for 30 days. Approximately 12 h after the last VIT D administration, rats were euthanized and hippocampus and serum were obtained for further analyses...
August 30, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Elaine K McCarthy, Deirdre M Murray, Lucio Malvisi, Louise C Kenny, Jonathan O'B Hourihane, Alan D Irvine, Mairead E Kiely
Background: Although animal studies show evidence for a role of vitamin D during brain development, data from human studies show conflicting signals. Objective: We aimed to explore associations between maternal and neonatal vitamin D status with childhood neurodevelopmental outcomes. Methods: Comprehensive clinical, demographic, and lifestyle data were collected prospectively in 734 maternal-infant dyads from the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Daniela C Popescu, He Huang, Naveen K Singhal, Leah Shriver, Jennifer McDonough, Robert J Clements, Ernest J Freeman
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating neurological disease, which is characterized by multifocal demyelinating lesions in the central nervous system. The most abundant myelin lipids are galactosylceramides and their sulfated form, sulfatides, which together account for about 27% of the total dry weight of myelin. In this study we investigated the role of vitamin K in remyelination, by using an animal model for MS, the cuprizone model. Demyelination was induced in C57Bl6/J mice, by feeding them a special diet containing 0...
2018: PloS One
Katayoun Sedaghat, Zahra Yousefian, Abbas Ali Vafaei, Ali Rashidy-Pour, Houman Parsaei, Ali Khaleghian, Sara Choobdar
Depression, a common mood disorder, involves anhedonia and defects in reward circuits and mesolimbic dopamine transmission in the striatum and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Active vitamin-D, (1,25-(OH)2 vitamin-D3), exerts protective and regulatory effects on the brain dopamine system. In this study, key depression-like symptoms were induced in rats by chronic mild-stress (CMS) and the comparative effect of treatment with 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin-D3 (5, 10 μg/kg, or vehicle; i.p., twice weekly) or fluoxetine (5 mg/kg or vehicle, i...
January 1, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
M C Sanchez Vega, S Chong, T H J Burne
There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and exposure to low levels of ethanol in pregnant women. However, there are a paucity of studies that have addressed the impact of both vitamin D deficiency and ethanol exposure on the offspring's vulnerability to neurodevelopmental disorders later in life. The aim of this study was to examine whether the absence of vitamin D during gestation in mice would alter the effects of prenatal exposure to low dose ethanol on the behaviour and dopaminergic gene expression patterns of juvenile mice...
January 1, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Akiah Ottesen Berg, Kjetil N Jørgensen, Mari Nerhus, Lavinia Athanasiu, Alice B Popejoy, Francesco Bettella, Linn Christin Bonaventure Norbom, Tiril P Gurholt, Sandra R Dahl, Ole A Andreassen, Srdjan Djurovic, Ingrid Agartz, Ingrid Melle
BACKGROUND: Lower vitamin D levels are found in people with schizophrenia and depressive disorders, and also associated with neuroimaging abnormalities such as reduced brain volume in both animals and humans. Reduced whole brain and increased ventricular volume are also systematically reported in schizophrenia. Even though vitamin D deficiency has been proposed as a risk mechanism for schizophrenia there exist no studies to date of the association between vitamin D levels and brain volume in this population...
2018: PloS One
Jung Won Kim, Ji Yeon Hong, Seung Min Bae
Autism spectrum disorder is a rapidly increasing heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome, remarked by persistent deficit in social communication, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior and interest. Lately, maternal immune activation and micgroglial dysfunction in the developing brain have been gaining mounting evidence and leading to studies of various novel agents as potential treatment options. A few immunomodulatory treatment options-luteolin, minocycline, suramin, vitamin D, gut microbiota-are discussed in the current article, regarding the current understanding of their mechanisms and evidence for potential clinical use...
August 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Oleg A Levada, Alexandra S Troyan
Poststroke depression (PSD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder after stroke, which is independently correlated with negative clinical outcome. The identification of specific biomarkers could help to increase the sensitivity of PSD diagnosis and elucidate its pathophysiological mechanisms. The aim of current study was to review and summarize literature exploring potential biomarkers for PSD diagnosis. The PubMed database was searched for papers published in English from October 1977 to December 2017, 90 of which met inclusion criteria for clinical studies related to PSD biomarkers...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Nafisa M Jadavji, Joshua T Emmerson, Ushananthini Shanmugalingam, Amanda J MacFarlane, William G Willmore, Patrice D Smith
Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death world-wide and nutrition is a modifiable risk factor for stroke. Metheylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of folic acid, a B-vitamin. In humans, a polymorphism in MTHFR (677C→T) is linked to increased risk of stroke, but the mechanisms remain unknown. The Mthfr+/- mice mimic a phenotype described in humans at bp677. Using this mouse model, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of MTHFR deficiency on stroke outcome...
November 2018: Experimental Neurology
I Zofkova
The skeleton shows an unconventional role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the human organism, not only as the target tissue for a number of systemic hormones, but also as endocrine tissue modulating some skeletal and extraskeletal systems. From this point of view, the principal cells in the skeleton are osteocytes. These cells primarily work as mechano-sensors and modulate bone remodeling. Mechanically unloaded osteocytes synthetize sclerostin, the strong inhibitor of bone formation and RANKL, the strong activator of bone resorption...
July 25, 2018: Physiological Research
D Sangamithirai, S Munusamy, V Narayanan, A Stephen
Dopamine (DA) and Folic acid (FA) are co-existing compounds in biological fluids that plays a vital role in central nervous system and human metabolism. DA is an important neurotransmitter in the brain's neural circuits and its diminution often results in Parkinson's disease. Folate is another form of folic acid, which is known as one of the B vitamins. It is utilized as an additive by women during pregnancy in order to prevent the neural tube defects. The present study reports on the fabrication of electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of DA and FA using poly(o-methoxyaniline)-gold (POMA-Au) nanocomposite...
October 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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