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Vitamin D Brain

Oleg A Levada, Alexandra S Troyan
Poststroke depression (PSD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder after stroke, which is independently correlated with negative clinical outcome. The identification of specific biomarkers could help to increase the sensitivity of PSD diagnosis and elucidate its pathophysiological mechanisms. The aim of current study was to review and summarize literature exploring potential biomarkers for PSD diagnosis. The PubMed database was searched for papers published in English from October 1977 to December 2017, 90 of which met inclusion criteria for clinical studies related to PSD biomarkers...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Nafisa M Jadavji, Joshua T Emmerson, Ushananthini Shanmugalingam, Amanda J MacFarlane, William G Willmore, Patrice D Smith
Stroke is a leading cause of disability and death world-wide and nutrition is a modifiable risk factor for stroke. Metheylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of folic acid, a B-vitamin. In humans, a polymorphism in MTHFR (677C→T) is linked to increased risk of stroke, but the mechanisms remain unknown. The Mthfr+/- mice mimic a phenotype described in humans at bp677. Using this mouse model, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of MTHFR deficiency on stroke outcome...
July 25, 2018: Experimental Neurology
I Zofkova
The skeleton shows an unconventional role in the physiology and pathophysiology of the human organism, not only as the target tissue for a number of systemic hormones, but also as endocrine tissue modulating some skeletal and extraskeletal systems. From this point of view, the principal cells in the skeleton are osteocytes. These cells primarily work as mechano-sensors and modulate bone remodeling. Mechanically unloaded osteocytes synthetize sclerostin, the strong inhibitor of bone formation and RANKL, the strong activator of bone resorption...
July 25, 2018: Physiological Research
D Sangamithirai, S Munusamy, V Narayanan, A Stephen
Dopamine (DA) and Folic acid (FA) are co-existing compounds in biological fluids that plays a vital role in central nervous system and human metabolism. DA is an important neurotransmitter in the brain's neural circuits and its diminution often results in Parkinson's disease. Folate is another form of folic acid, which is known as one of the B vitamins. It is utilized as an additive by women during pregnancy in order to prevent the neural tube defects. The present study reports on the fabrication of electrochemical sensor for the simultaneous determination of DA and FA using poly(o-methoxyaniline)-gold (POMA-Au) nanocomposite...
October 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Paola Bukuroshi, Hiroshi Saitoh, Lilia Magomedova, Carolyn L Cummins, Edwin C Chow, Albert P Li, K Sandy Pang
In vitro cell-based assays are common screening tools used for the identification of new VDR ligands. For 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3 ] and 1α-hydroxyvitamin D3 [1α(OH)D3 ], protein expressions of CYP2R1 and CYP27B1, respectively, that form the active 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2 D3 ] ligand were detected in human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells expressing the GAL4-hVDR, the human brain microvessel endothelial (hCMEC/D3) and adenocarcinoma colonic (Caco-2) cells. The impact of bioactivation enzymes was shown upon the addition of ketoconazole (10 μM KTZ), a pan-CYP inhibitor, which reduced the apparent potency of 25(OH)D3 and increased the EC50 from 272 to 608 nM in HEK293 cells...
July 17, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Tiril P Gurholt, Kåre Osnes, Mari Nerhus, Kjetil N Jørgensen, Vera Lonning, Akiah O Berg, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle, Ingrid Agartz
Vitamin D and folate deficiency are considered risk factors for schizophrenia and bipolar disorders, but it is unknown how vitamin D and folate influence the growing brain, cranium or the clinical phenotype. Serum vitamin D and folate levels are in part genetically regulated. We investigated whether adult vitamin D and folate levels are associated with the intracranial volume (ICV) under the hypothesis that developmental vitamin D or folate levels influence neurodevelopment and that current levels are associated with ICV...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Andrew Clegg, Zaki Hassan-Smith
Frailty is a condition characterised by loss of biological reserves, failure of homoeostatic mechanisms, and vulnerability to adverse outcomes. The endocrine system is considered particularly important in frailty, because of its complex inter-relationships with the brain, immune system, and skeletal muscle. This Review summarises evidence indicating a key role for the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the pathogenesis of frailty through aberrant regulation of glucocorticoid secretion, insulin-like growth factor signalling, and androgen production...
July 12, 2018: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Marya S Sabir, Mark R Haussler, Sanchita Mallick, Ichiro Kaneko, Daniel A Lucas, Carol A Haussler, G Kerr Whitfield, Peter W Jurutka
Background: Diminished brain levels of two neurohormones, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D; active vitamin D metabolite), are proposed to play a role in the atypical social behaviors associated with psychological conditions including autism spectrum disorders and depression. We reported previously that 1,25D induces expression of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway to 5-HT, in cultured rat serotonergic neuronal cells...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Caroline Chung, Andrew Bryant, Paul D Brown
BACKGROUND: Brain radionecrosis (tissue death caused by radiation) can occur following high-dose radiotherapy to brain tissue and can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life (QoL) and function. The underlying pathophysiological mechanism remains unclear for this condition, which makes establishing effective treatments challenging. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of interventions used for the treatment of brain radionecrosis in adults over 18 years old...
July 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Maren Leifheit-Nestler, Beatrice Richter, Melis Basaran, Julia Nespor, Isabel Vogt, Ioana Alesutan, Jakob Voelkl, Florian Lang, Joerg Heineke, Stefanie Krick, Dieter Haffner
Clinical and experimental studies indicate a possible link between high serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), phosphate, and parathyroid hormone (PTH), deficiency of active vitamin D (1,25D) and klotho with the development of pathological cardiac remodeling, i.e., left ventricular hypertrophy and myocardial fibrosis, but a causal link has not been established so far. Here, we investigated the cardiac phenotype in klotho hypomorphic ( kl/kl ) mice and Hyp mice, two mouse models of elevated FGF23 levels and klotho deficiency, but differing in parameters of mineral metabolism, by using histology, quantitative real-time PCR, immunoblot analysis, and serum and urine biochemistry...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Stine Normann Hansen, Anne Marie V Schou-Pedersen, Jens Lykkesfeldt, Pernille Tveden-Nyborg
Vitamin C (vitC) is important in the developing brain, acting both as an essential antioxidant and as co-factor in the synthesis and metabolism of monoaminergic neurotransmitters. In guinea pigs, vitC deficiency results in increased oxidative stress, reduced hippocampal volume and neuronal numbers, and deficits in spatial memory. This study investigated the effects of 8 weeks of either sufficient (923 mg vitC/kg feed) or deficient (100 mg vitC/kg feed) levels of dietary vitC on hippocampal monoaminergic neurotransmitters and markers of synapse formation in young guinea pigs with spatial memory deficits...
June 29, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
Keizo Kaneko, Maud Soty, Carine Zitoun, Adeline Duchampt, Marine Silva, Erwann Philippe, Amandine Gautier-Stein, Fabienne Rajas, Gilles Mithieux
OBJECTIVE: The respective contributions to endogenous glucose production (EGP) of the liver, kidney and intestine vary during fasting. We previously reported that the deficiency in either hepatic or intestinal gluconeogenesis modulates the repartition of EGP via glucagon secretion (humoral factor) and gut-brain-liver axis (neural factor), respectively. Considering renal gluconeogenesis reportedly accounted for approximately 50% of EGP during fasting, we examined whether a reduction in renal gluconeogenesis could promote alterations in the repartition of EGP in this situation...
June 18, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Gina A Montoya Parra, Rani H Singh, Aysun Cetinyurek-Yavuz, Mirjam Kuhn, Anita MacDonald
BACKGROUND: Despite early and ongoing dietary management with a phe-restricted diet, suboptimal neuropsychological function has been observed in PKU. The restrictive nature of the PKU diet may expose patients to sub-optimal nutritional intake and deficiencies which may impact normal brain function. A systematic review of the published literature was carried out, where possible with meta-analysis, to compare the status of nutrients (Nutrients: DHA, EPA phospholipids, selenium, vitamins B6 , B12 , E, C, A, D, folic acid, choline, uridine, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, iodine and cholesterol) known to be important for brain development and functioning between individuals with PKU and healthy controls...
June 26, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Annemarie Goltz, Deborah Janowitz, Anke Hannemann, Matthias Nauck, Johanna Hoffmann, Tom Seyfart, Henry Völzke, Jan Terock, Hans Jörgen Grabe
BACKGROUND: Depression and obesity are widespread and closely linked. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and vitamin D are both assumed to be associated with depression and obesity. Little is known about the interplay between vitamin D and BDNF. We explored the putative associations and interactions between serum BDNF and vitamin D levels with depressive symptoms and abdominal obesity in a large population-based cohort. METHODS: Data were obtained from the population-based Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP)-Trend (n = 3,926)...
June 19, 2018: Neuropsychobiology
Małgorzata Wrzosek, Ada Sawicka, Marek Tałałaj, Marcin Wojnar, Grażyna Nowicka
BACKGROUND: Obesity is recognized as a major health problem. Vitamin D is involved in maintaining energy metabolism by regulation of glucose transporters, uncoupling proteins, and normal brain function. We aimed to explore a relationship between impulsivity, eating behaviors, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in a sample of 322 bariatric surgery candidates. METHODS: Participants completed a questionnaire on their health, eating habits and The Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q)...
February 5, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Amanda Soares Alves, Mayari Eika Ishimura, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira Duarte, Valquiria Bueno
Aim: The increased number of individuals older than 80 years, centenarians, and supercentenarians is not a synonym for healthy aging, since severe infections, hospitalization, and disability are frequently observed. In this context, a possible strategy is to preserve the main characteristics/functions of the immune system with the aim to cause less damage to the organism during the aging process. Vitamin D acts on bone marrow, brain, breast, malignant cells, and immune system and has been recommended as a supplement...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Shan-Yuan Tsai, Vibeke S Catts, Janice M Fullerton, Susan M Corley, Stuart G Fillman, Cynthia Shannon Weickert
Introduction: Several nuclear receptor family members have been associated with schizophrenia and inflammation. Vitamins A and D exert anti-inflammatory actions, but their receptors (mainly nuclear receptors) have not been extensively studied in either schizophrenia brains or in association with neuroinflammation. We examined the expression of vitamin A (RARs and RXRs) and vitamin D and protein disulphide-isomerase A3 (PDIA3) receptors, as well as nuclear orphan receptors (NR4As), in the context of elevated cytokine expression in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
May 2018: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Dafina Petrova, María Asunción Bernabeu Litrán, Eduardo García-Mármol, Maria Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Belén Cueto-Martín, Eduardo López-Huertas, Andrés Catena, Juristo Fonollá
BACKGROUND: Micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals and long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential for children's brain development and cognitive functions. The current study investigated whether milk fortified with micronutrients and PUFA can result in improved cognitive function in mainstream school children. METHODS: One-hundred-and-nineteen children (age 8-14, 58 boys) were randomly allocated to a fortified milk group or a regular full milk control group...
June 7, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Lana M Pollock, Jing Xie, Brent A Bell, Bela Anand-Apte
The predominant function of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) is to maintain retinal homeostasis by regulating the influx and efflux between the blood and retina. Breakdown of the BRB occurs in a number of ocular diseases that result in vision loss. Understanding the molecular and cellular pathways involved in the development and maintenance of the BRB is critical to developing therapeutics for these conditions. To visualize the BRB in vivo, we used the transgenic Tg(l-fabp:DBP-EGFP:flk1:mCherry) zebrafish model that expresses vitamin D binding protein (a member of the albumin gene family) tagged to green fluorescent protein...
June 6, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Milica Velimirović, Gordana Jevtić Dožudić, Vesna Selaković, Tihomir Stojković, Nela Puškaš, Ivan Zaletel, Milica Živković, Vesna Dragutinović, Tatjana Nikolić, Ankica Jelenković, Djordje Djorović, Aleksandar Mirčić, Nataša D Petronijević
Decreased blood flow in the brain leads to a rapid increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS). NADPH oxidase (NOX) is an enzyme family that has the physiological function to produce ROS. NOX2 and NOX4 overexpression is associated with aggravated ischemic injury, while NOX2/4-deficient mice had reduced stroke size. Dysregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) contributes to tissue damage. The active form of vitamin D3 expresses neuroprotective, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory effects in the CNS. The present study examines the effects of the vitamin D3 pretreatment on the oxidative stress parameters and the expression of NOX subunits, MMP9, microglial marker Iba1, and vitamin D receptor (VDR), in the cortex and hippocampus of Mongolian gerbils subjected to ten minutes of global cerebral ischemia, followed by 24 hours of reperfusion...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
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