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Vitamin D Brain

Christopher E Zwilling, Tanveer Talukdar, Marta K Zamroziewicz, Aron K Barbey
A central aim of research in the psychological and brain sciences is to establish therapeutic interventions to promote healthy brain aging. Accumulating evidence indicates that diet and the many bioactive substances present in food are reasonable interventions to examine for dementia prevention. However, interdisciplinary research that applies methods from nutritional epidemiology and network neuroscience to investigate the role of nutrition in shaping functional brain network efficiency remains to be conducted...
December 7, 2018: NeuroImage
João D Mattos, Monique O Campos, Marcos P Rocha, Daniel E Mansur, Helena N M Rocha, Vinicius P Garcia, Gabriel Batista, Thiago S Alvares, Gustavo V Oliveira, Mônica V Souza, Rogério L R Videira, Natalia G Rocha, Niels H Secher, Antonio C L Nóbrega, Igor A Fernandes
KEY POINTS: It is unknown whether excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production drives the isocapnic hyperoxia (IH)-induced decline in human cerebral blood flow (CBF) via reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and leads to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or neural-parenchymal damage. We then simultaneously quantified CBF, metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2 ) and transcerebral exchanges of NO-end products, oxidant, antioxidant, and neural-parenchymal damage markers under IH with intravenous saline and vitamin C infusion...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Iqbal Sayeed, Nefize Turan, Donald G Stein, Bushra Wali
Because vitamin D hormone deficiency (VDHdef ) can worsen severity and outcome for ischemic stroke, we examined the role of VDH in maintaining blood-brain-barrier (BBB integrity) in a rat model of stroke. In most types of stroke, the BBB is markedly compromised, potentially leading to a cascade of injury processes and functional deficits, so we examined a number of biomarkers associated with BBB disruption to determine whether VDH deficiency would further compromise the BBB following a stroke. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of two diet cohorts, VDH-sufficient (VDHsuf ) and VDHdef ...
November 28, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Sherifa A Hamed
Uremic syndrome of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a term used to describe clinical, metabolic and hormonal abnormalities associated with progressive kidney failure. It is a rapidly growing public health problem worldwide. Nervous system complications occur in every patient with uremic syndrome of CKD. Areas covered: This review summarized central and peripheral nervous system complications of uremic syndrome of CKD and their pathogenic mechanisms. They include cognitive deterioration, encephalopathy, seizures, asterixis, myoclonus, restless leg syndrome, central pontine myelinosis, stroke, extrapyramidal movement disorders, neuropathies and myopathy...
December 2, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Duygu Gezen-Ak, Erdinç Dursun
Vitamin D, a secosteroid hormone, has, over the years, mainly been known for its classic role in the maintenance of calcium homeostasis of the human body. However, there is increasing understanding that vitamin D contributes to the regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, especially via voltage-gated calcium channels, in another major organ that uses calcium, the brain. Almost 30 years ago, the role of dysregulation in the aging brain and in Alzheimer's disease (AD) gave rise to the Ca2+ hypothesis of brain aging and dementia...
November 27, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Erdinç Dursun, Duygu Gezen-Ak
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder seen mostly in the elderly population. While to date AD research has focused on either neurochemical disruptions, genetic studies, or the pathological hallmarks, little has been done to establish a novel approach that would encompass all three aspects, one that would overcome the current barriers in AD research and determine the cause of AD and, eventually, discover a treatment. Meanwhile, there have been strong indications in recent years that vitamin D, a secosteroid hormone, and its receptors are fundamentally involved in neurodegenerative mechanisms...
November 27, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Amy Elizabeth Howell, Jie Zheng, Philip C Haycock, Alexandra McAleenan, Caroline Relton, Richard M Martin, Kathreena M Kurian
Gliomas are a group of primary brain tumors, the most common and aggressive subtype of which is glioblastoma. Glioblastoma has a median survival of just 15 months after diagnosis. Only previous exposure to ionizing radiation and particular inherited genetic syndromes are accepted risk factors for glioma; the vast majority of cases are thought to occur spontaneously. Previous observational studies have described associations between several risk factors and glioma, but studies are often conflicting and whether these associations reflect true casual relationships is unclear because observational studies may be susceptible to confounding, measurement error and reverse causation...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Xiaoyue Luo, Ruwei Ou, Rajib Dutta, Yuan Tian, Hai Xiong, Huifang Shang
Background: Vitamin D is an important secosteroid which is involved the development and regulation of brain activity. Several studies have focused on exploring the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and Parkinson's disease (PD), but the conclusion remains ambiguous. Methods: We searched observational studies that explored the association between serum vitamin D levels and PD based on PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane library from inception through to January 2018. The quality of included studies was evaluated by using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Yong-Chao Deng, Xi-Chun Tang, Yuan-Hong Yuan, Cai-Zhi Huang, Li-Ya Mo
OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation of dynamic change in serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] level with the disease severity and related laboratory markers in infants/toddlers with severe pneumonia. METHODS: A total of 132 infants/toddlers with severe pneumonia who were hospitalized between March 2017 and March 2018 were enrolled as the severe pneumonia group. According to the disease severity on admission and after one week of treatment, they were further divided into non-critical group (41 children on admission and 78 after one week of treatment), critical group (59 children on admission and 35 after one week of treatment), and extremely critical group (32 children on admission and 19 after one week of treatment)...
November 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
Vibha Singhal, Kathryn E Ackerman, Amita Bose, Landy Paola Torre Flores, Hang Lee, Madhusmita Misra
Objective: Transdermal, but not oral, estrogen replacement improves bone mineral density (BMD) in athletes with oligo-amenorrhea (OA). Our objective was to determine mechanisms that may explain the impact of route of estrogen administration on bone outcomes. Methods: 73 OA between 14-25 years old received (i) a 17β-estradiol transdermal patch continuously with cyclic oral micronized progesterone (PATCH), (ii) a combined ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel pill (PILL), or (iii) no estrogen/progesterone (NONE) for 12-months...
November 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sevcan Tug Bozdogan, Meryem Ozlem Kutuk, Evren Tufan, Zuhal Altıntaş, Gülhan Orekici Temel, Fevziye Toros
Objective: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairment in social skills and communication with repetitive behaviors. Etiology is still unclear although it is thought to develop with interaction of genes and environmental factors. Oxytocin has extensive effects on intrauterine brain development. Vitamin D, affects neural development and differentiation and contributes to the regulation of around 900 genes including oxytocin receptor gene...
November 30, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Yu Qian, Jing Zhang, Xianrong Zhou, Ruokun Yi, Jianfei Mu, Xingyao Long, Yanni Pan, Xin Zhao, Weiwei Liu
Chinese pickled cabbage is a traditional fermented food that contains abundant microbes produced during the process of fermentation. In this work, an in vivo animal study was conducted to investigate the effects of a newly isolated lactic acid bacterium ( Lactobacillus plantarum CQPC11, LP-CQPC11) on d-galactose-induced oxidation and aging in mice. Analysis of the serum and tissue samples of these mice using molecular biology approaches showed that LP-CQPC11 suppressed the decrease in thymus, brain, heart, liver, spleen, and kidney indices caused by oxidation and aging...
November 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Morgane Perrotte, Aurélie Le Page, Marianne Fournet, Mélanie Le Sayec, Éric Rassart, Tamas Fulop, Charles Ramassamy
Oxidative stress plays a pivotal and early role in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is convincing evidence that oxidative alterations in AD and in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients are not limited to the brain but are extended to the blood compartment. However, the pattern of oxidative in plasma is still inconclusive. Moreover, their potential association with the clinical scores MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination) and MoCA (Montreal Cognitive Assessment) is poorly investigated...
November 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Ellen M Mowry, Christina J Azevedo, Charles E McCulloch, Darin T Okuda, Robin R Lincoln, Emmanuelle Waubant, Stephen L Hauser, Daniel Pelletier
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether body mass index (BMI) or vitamin D status is associated with MRI measures of neurodegeneration in a cohort of individuals with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) or clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). METHODS: Expression, Proteomics, Imaging, Clinical (EPIC) is a longitudinal multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort study at the University of California, San Francisco. Participants had clinical evaluations, brain MRI, and blood draws annually...
November 14, 2018: Neurology
Sharmi Biswas, Bushra Kanwal, Charan Jeet, Robert S Seminara
The role of vitamin D in the development of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is of intensified interest in medical science in recent years. Vitamin D has a significant role in neurogenesis, neuroprotection, and neurodevelopment. Due to the close association of vitamin D with the brain, it has been found that in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism plays a significant role. In this review article, we looked for a relation between VDR polymorphism and ASD...
August 29, 2018: Curēus
Hyo-Jung Kim, Ha-Neul Choi, Jung-Eun Yim
This study aimed to determine meal-related factors affecting nutritional status, dietary intake, and body composition of children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study was conducted on 16 children with and 16 children without CP, aged 4 to 12 years, through a survey on general characteristics, body composition, eating habits, and nutrient intake. In the case of children with CP, comparisons were made according to classification into types of paralysis (hemiplegia, paraplegia, and quadriplegia). With respect to stature, the percentile of those surveyed was within normal range; however, children with CP were in a significantly lower percentile (p < 0...
October 2018: Clinical Nutrition Research
Hope K Lima, Xi Lin, Sheila K Jacobi, Caolai Man, Jeffrey Sommer, William Flowers, Anthony Blikslager, Liara Gonzalez, Jack Odle
Background: Like many species, pregnant swine mobilize and repartition body nutrient stores during extreme malnutrition to support fetal development. Objective: The objective of this study was to model chronic human maternal malnutrition and measure effects of methylating-vitamins (MVs, containing choline, folate, B-6, B-12, and riboflavin) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on fetal growth and development. Methods: Pregnant gilts ( n  = 24) were either fully nourished (2...
March 2018: Current developments in nutrition
Rosa María Martínez García, Ana Isabel Jiménez Ortega, Ana M López Sobaler, Rosa M Ortega
Cognitive capacity can be influenced by components of the diet. Low glycemic index foods seem to improve attention, memory and functional capacity, while those rich in simple sugars are associated with difficulty in concentration and attention. The brain needs a continuous supply of amino acids for the synthesis of neurotransmitters, especially serotonin and catecholamines. Low levels of serotonin have been linked to decreased learning, reasoning and memory. The quality and type of dietary fat can also affect intellectual and mental capacity...
September 7, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
D Intiso, A Fontana, M Copetti, F Di Rienzo
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D may be important for the development and function of the nervous system. Low serum vitamin D levels have been detected in several neurological diseases. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the relationship between 25(OH)D serum level and disability in subjects with severe acquired brain injury (sABI). DESIGN: Prospective cross-sectional study Methods: Consecutive subjects with sABI admitted to neuro-rehabilitation were enrolled. A sample of subjects from the neurological ward was considered the control group...
October 19, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Linping Wang
Aluminum, as a known neurotoxicant, contributes to cognitive dysfunction and may contribute to Alzheimer's disease. The important reason is that aluminum can enter and be deposited in the brain. There have been three routes by which aluminum could enter the brain from systemic circulation or the site of absorption. Aluminum fluxes into brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), the choroid plexuses and the nasal cavity. Some factors, such as the increasing of the blood-brain barrier permeability, citric acid and parathyroid hormone (PTH), and vitamin D, can promote aluminum to enter the brain...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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