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Disability support

Douglas P Beall, M R Chambers, Sam Thomas, John Amburgy, James R Webb, Bradly S Goodman, Devin K Datta, Richard W Easton, Douglas Linville, Sanjay Talati, John B Tillman
BACKGROUND: Osteoporotic and neoplastic vertebral compression fractures (VCF) are common and painful, threatening quality of life and increasing risk of morbidity and mortality. Balloon kyphoplasty is a percutaneous option for treating painful cancer- and osteoporosis-related VCFs, supported by 2 randomized trials demonstrating efficacy benefits of BKP over nonsurgical care. OBJECTIVE: To investigate 12-mo disability, quality of life, and safety outcomes specifically in a Medicare-eligible population, representing characteristic patients seen in routine clinical practice...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Matthew J Murray, Nicholas E Peters, Matthew B Reeves
The host cell represents a hostile environment that viruses must counter in order to establish infection. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is no different and encodes a multitude of functions aimed at disabling, re-directing or hijacking cellular functions to promulgate infection. However, during the very early stages of infection the virus relies on the outcome of interactions between virion components, cell surface receptors and host signalling pathways to promote an environment that supports infection. In the context of latent infection-where the virus establishes an infection in an absence of many gene products specific for lytic infection-these initial interactions are crucial events...
March 16, 2018: Pathogens
Mikael Tiger, Katarina Varnäs, Yoshiro Okubo, Johan Lundberg
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the leading cause of disability worldwide. The serotonin hypothesis may be the model of MDD pathophysiology with the most support. The majority of antidepressants enhance synaptic serotonin levels quickly, while it usually takes weeks to discern MDD treatment effect. It has been hypothesized that the time lag between serotonin increase and reduction of MDD symptoms is due to downregulation of inhibitory receptors such as the serotonin 1B receptor (5-HT1BR). The research on 5-HT1BR has previously been hampered by a lack of selective ligands for the receptor...
March 15, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Qingqing Wei, Ruiqi Li, Liang Zhong, Haiyuan Mu, Shaopeng Zhang, Liang Yue, Jinzhu Xiang, Enhong Li, Minglei Zhi, Suying Cao, Jianyong Han
After zygotic genome activation and lineage specification, zygotes develop into late blastocysts comprising three distinct cell types. The molecular mechanisms underlying this progress are largely unknown in pigs. Here, we intended to analyze an extensive set of regulators at the single-cell level to define the events involved in the development of the porcine blastocysts. Using a quantitative microfluidics approach in single cells, we detected mRNA levels of 96 genes known to function in early embryonic development and maintenance of stem cell pluripotency simultaneously in 480 individual cells derived from porcine preimplantation embryos...
March 13, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Edward W Gregg, Ji Lin, Barbara Bardenheier, Haiying Chen, W Jack Rejeski, Xiaohui Zhuo, Andrea L Hergenroeder, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Anne L Peters, Lynne E Wagenknecht, Edward H Ip, Mark A Espeland
OBJECTIVE: The impact of weight loss intervention on disability-free life expectancy in adults with diabetes is unknown. We examined the impact of a long-term weight loss intervention on years spent with and without physical disability. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Overweight or obese adults with type 2 diabetes age 45-76 years ( n = 5,145) were randomly assigned to a 10-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or diabetes support and education (DSE). Physical function was assessed annually for 12 years using the SF-36...
March 15, 2018: Diabetes Care
Adam Whitworth
BACKGROUND: Health-related unemployment is a major issue across advanced economies. Modified versions of well-evidenced Individual Placement and Support (IPS) models of employment support for health cohorts offer considerable potential. A significant gap currently however is the lack of evidence around their financial return on investment. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: To provide robust financial return on investment estimates for analytically derived alternative specifications of modified IPS services for the first time in the literature, sensitivity tested across various levels of performance...
March 9, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
Taiki Sugimoto, Takashi Sakurai, Rei Ono, Ai Kimura, Naoki Saji, Shumpei Niida, Kenji Toba, Liang-Kung Chen, Hidenori Arai
Since the operational definition of "cognitive frailty" was first proposed in 2013 by the International Academy of Nutrition and Aging and the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics, several studies have been carried out using this cognitive frailty model. In this review, we examined the available clinical and epidemiological evidence for cognitive frailty. Despite its low prevalence (1.0-1.8%) in the community setting, cognitive frailty has been associated with a high risk of disability, poor quality of life, and death; while cognitive frailty appears to be associated with a high risk of dementia, there is no clear evidence for this association...
March 12, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
William J McIlvane, Joanne B Kledaras, Christophe J Gerard, Lorin Wilde, David Smelson
A few noteworthy exceptions notwithstanding, quantitative analyses of relational learning are most often simple descriptive measures of study outcomes. For example, studies of stimulus equivalence have made much progress using measures such as percentage consistent with equivalence relations, discrimination ratio, and response latency. Although procedures may have ad hoc variations, they remain fairly similar across studies. Comparison studies of training variables that lead to different outcomes are few. Yet to be developed are tools designed specifically for dynamic and/or parametric analyses of relational learning processes...
March 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
David S Jevotovsky, Allyson R Alfonso, Thomas A Einhorn, Ernest S Chiu
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a leading cause of disability in the world. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been studied to treat OA. This review was performed to systematically assess the quality of literature and compare the procedural specifics surrounding MSC therapy for osteoarthritis. DESIGN: PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies using MSCs for OA treatment (final search December 2017). Outcomes of interest included study evidence level, patient demographics, MSC protocol, treatment results and adverse events...
March 12, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Jesper Dammeyer, Madeleine Chapman
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to quantify levels of violence and discrimination among people with disabilities and analyze the effects of gender and the type and degree of disability. METHODS: The study analyzed data on self-reported violence and discrimination from a Danish national survey of 18,019 citizens, of whom 4519 reported a physical disability and 1398 reported a mental disability. RESULTS: Individuals with disabilities reported significantly higher levels of violence than those without...
March 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
G Fenu, L Lorefice, L Loi, V Sechi, F Contu, G Coghe, J Frau, G Spinicci, M A Barracciu, M G Marrosu, E Cocco
BACKGROUND: Paediatric onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) is associated with reduced brain and deep grey matter volume in comparison with that in healthy controls and individuals with adult onset multiple sclerosis (AOMS). The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of POMS on adult brain volume with adjustment for other parameters, such as disease duration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 20 POMS and 40 AOMS patients and 20 healthy controls matched for age and sex...
March 6, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Cathy McKay, Jung Yeon Park, Martin Block
The purpose of this study was to address contact theory as the theoretical basis of the Paralympic School Day (PSD) disability awareness program using a newly created fidelity of implementation instrument (fidelity criteria) to measure a single construct (contact theory), seeking to control and explain the manner in which PSD satisfied the four components of contact theory. Participants were 145 sixth-grade students who took part in PSD. Results determined that the PSD intervention supported the four theoretical components of contact theory, with statistically significant differences in student responses across all four indicators (p < ...
March 15, 2018: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
JongEun Yim, Jerrold Petrofsky, Haneul Lee
Ankle and foot injuries are common among athletes and physically active individuals. The most common residual disability, ankle sprain, is characterized by instability along with postural sway. If the supporting structures around a joint become lax, posture stability and balance are also affected. Previous studies have examined muscle stiffness and elasticity and postural sway separately; however, the relationship between these factors is yet unknown. It is well known that the levels of sex hormones, especially estrogen, change in women over the phase of the menstrual cycle...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Jovana Kovacevic, Gregoire Maroteaux, Desiree Schut, Maarten Loos, Mohit Dubey, Julika Pitsch, Esther Remmelink, Bastijn Koopmans, James Crowley, L Niels Cornelisse, Patrick F Sullivan, Susanne Schoch, Ruud F Toonen, Oliver Stiedl, Matthijs Verhage
De novo heterozygous mutations in STXBP1/Munc18-1 cause early infantile epileptic encephalopathies (EIEE4, OMIM #612164) characterized by infantile epilepsy, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and can include autistic features. We characterized the cellular deficits for an allelic series of seven STXBP1 mutations and developed four mouse models that recapitulate the abnormal EEG activity and cognitive aspects of human STXBP1-encephalopathy. Disease-causing STXBP1 variants supported synaptic transmission to a variable extent on a null background, but had no effect when overexpressed on a heterozygous background...
March 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Courtney A Polenick, Helen C Kales, Kira S Birditt
Background: Greater feelings of purpose in life are associated with better health and may reduce the negative impact of chronic stress. Yet little is known about how purpose in life may buffer the negative effects of caregiving, a common chronic stressor in middle and later life. Methods: This cross-sectional study utilized a U.S. sample of 315 spousal caregivers and their partners with functional disability drawn from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study and National Study of Caregiving to examine how both parties' perceptions of purpose in life are associated with caregivers' emotional and physical caregiving difficulties...
January 5, 2018: Annals of Behavioral Medicine: a Publication of the Society of Behavioral Medicine
Michael Jones, John Morris, Frank Deruyter
Significant health disparities exist between the general population and people with disabilities, particularly with respect to chronic health conditions. Mobile healthcare-the delivery of healthcare via mobile communication devices-is witnessing tremendous growth and has been touted as an important new approach for management of chronic health conditions. At present, little is known about the current state of mobile healthcare for people with disabilities. Early evidence suggests they are not well represented in the growth of mobile healthcare, and particularly the proliferation of mobile health software applications (mHealth apps) for smartphones...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hannah Kuper, Tracey Smythe, Antony Duttine
Universal health coverage (UHC) has been adopted by many countries as a national target for 2030. People with disabilities need to be included within efforts towards UHC, as they are a large group making up 15% of the world's population and are more vulnerable to poor health. UHC focuses both on covering the whole population as well as providing all the services needed and must include an emphasis on health promotion, as well as disease treatment and cure. Health promotion often focusses on tackling individual behaviours, such as encouraging exercise or good nutrition...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alberto Raggi, Licia Grazzi, Stefania Bianchi Marzoli, Paola Ciasca, Luisa Chiapparini, Alessandra Erbetta, Giuseppe Faragò, Matilde Leonardi, Domenico D'Amico
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is associated with obesity, and weight loss is important to reduce intracranial pressure and improve visual function. A 38-year-old woman with IIH followed an extreme diet, which resulted in 30% weight loss (BMI moved from 34.9 to 24.6). Weight loss resulted in a significant reduction of papilloedema, normalization of intracranial pressure and improvement in headache pattern, but also induced a state of initial malnutrition, relevant depression and disability. She was discharged with the indication to start a controlled diet and improve physical activity: clinical situation get back to stability, with the patient loosing further weight (BMI=21...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
Eli T Newcomb, Louis P Hagopian
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disabilities (ID) present with problem behaviour at rates disproportionately higher than their typically-developing peers. Problem behaviour, such as self-injury, aggression, pica, disruption, and elopement result in a diminished quality-of-life for the individual and family. Applied behaviour analysis has a well-established research base, detailing a number of assessment and treatment methods designed to address behaviour problems in children with ASD and ID...
March 14, 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
Goris Nazari, Pavlos Bobos, Evdokia Billis, Joy C MacDermid
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neck pain is the fourth leading cause of disability in the United States and exerts an important socio-economic burden around the world. The aims of this study were to determine the effectiveness of deep and superficial flexor muscle training in addition to home-based exercises in reducing chronic neck pain and anxiety/depression levels. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study. Patients between 18 and 65 years old with chronic neck pain were eligible to participate if they had disability levels at least 5 out of 50 on the Neck Disability Index...
March 14, 2018: Physiotherapy Research International: the Journal for Researchers and Clinicians in Physical Therapy
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