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Muscle force

Renan Felipe Hartmann Nunes, Rob Duffield, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, Ewertton de Souza Bezerra, Raphael Luiz Sakugawa, Irineu Loturco, Franciane Bobinski, Daniel Fernandes Martins, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci Guglielmo
We investigated the effect of post-match cold-water immersion (CWI) on markers of muscle damage, neuromuscular fatigue and perceptual responses within 72 h after a Rugby match. Twenty-two professional male Rugby players were randomized into CWI (10°C/10min; n=11) or Control (CON:30min seated; n=11) groups. Activity profile from Global Positioning Satellite systems and post-match rating of perceived exertion were measured to determined match load. Biochemical (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-6 [IL-6]), neuromuscular performance (squat and countermovement jump [SJ; CMJ], peak power output [PPO], rate of force development [RFD], stiffness, 10- and 30-m sprint time and perceptual markers (soreness, perceived recovery) were obtained at pre, post, 30 min, 24, 48 and 72 h post-match...
October 15, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Dominic S Carreira, Matthew C Kruchten, Brendan R Emmons, Ashley N Startzman, RobRoy L Martin
Background: There is a paucity of prospectively collected data as they relate to nerve injuries after hip arthroscopic surgery. Studies describing the relationship of neurological injuries to portal placement and the duration and magnitude of traction force with regular and standardized patient follow-up protocols are limited. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to characterize nerve deficits in a series of patients undergoing hip arthroscopic surgery as these deficits relate to axial traction and portal placement...
September 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Whitney P Mantooth, Ranjana K Mehta, Joohyun Rhee, Lora A Cavuoto
The purpose of this study was to examine task and sex differences in forearm muscle oxygenation, measured using near infrared spectroscopy, during sustained submaximal handgrip exercises. Forty-eight adults (50% males) performed fatiguing handgrip exercises at 20, 40, 60 and 80% of their maximum handgrip strength. While males and females exhibited similar levels of relative fatigability, forearm oxygenation was found to be task (i.e. contraction intensity and phase of fatigue development) and sex dependent...
October 14, 2018: Ergonomics
Yuta Takanashi, Yu Chinen, Shigeo Hatakeyama
BACKGROUND: Physical strength improvements have been observed with whole-body vibration training (WBVT); however, the appropriate load and duration have not been determined. Furthermore, studies on WBVT in throwing athletes, for whom power training is important, are lacking. Therefore, we examined the effectiveness of lower limb training by WBVT in male throwing athletes. METHODS: Fourteen male throwing athletes were enrolled. Lower limbs training (squat, single-leg squat, forward lunge, and side lunge) was performed with WBVT (n=7) or without WBVT (n=7)...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Jian Wang, Chengchuang Song, Xiukai Cao, Hui Li, Hanfang Cai, Yilei Ma, Yongzhen Huang, Xianyong Lan, Chuzhao Lei, Yun Ma, Yueyu Bai, Fengpeng Lin, Hong Chen
Skeletal muscle is the most abundant tissue in the body. The development of skeletal muscle cell is complex and affected by many factors. A sea of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as critical regulators of myogenesis. MiR-208b, a muscle-specific miRNA, was reported to have a connection with fiber type determination. However, whether miR-208b has effect on proliferation of muscle cell was under ascertained. In our study, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (CDKN1A), which participates in cell cycle regulation, was predicted and then validated as one target gene of miR-208b...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ana Carla A Souza, Fabíula F Abreu, Lúcio R L Diniz, Renata Grespan, Josimari M DeSantana, Lucindo J Quintans-Júnior, Paula P Menezes, Adriano A S Araújo, Cristiane B Correa, Simone A Teixeira, Marcelo N Muscará, Soraia K P Costa, Enilton A Camargo
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle inflammation is strongly associated with pain and may impair regeneration and functional recovery after injury. Since anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects have been described for the inclusion complex of carvacrol and β-cyclodextrin (βCD-carvacrol), this study investigated the effects of βCD-carvacrol in a model of acute skeletal muscle inflammation. METHODS: Muscle injury was induced in male Wistar rats by injection of 3% carrageenan in the gastrocnemius muscle...
October 11, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Simon Thibault, François Hug, Thibault Deschamps
This study explored whether reduction of the maximal voluntary force of finger flexor muscles affects response inhibition processing while performing the flanker "inhibitory reaction time" task. Sixteen participants completed two experimental sessions: each consisted of either a fatiguing exercise (fatigue session) or a control task (control session) followed by a flanker task. When responding to 32 compatible and 32 incompatible trials, the participants were asked to respond to a right-facing arrow by pressing a button beneath their middle finger, and to a left-facing arrow by pressing a button beneath their index finger...
October 11, 2018: Neuroscience Research
Ada J Klinkhamer, Heinrich Mallison, Stephen F Poropat, Trish Sloan, Stephen Wroe
The evolution of extraordinarily large size among Sauropoda was associated with a number of biomechanical adaptations. Changes in muscle moment arms undoubtedly accompanied these adaptations, but since muscles rarely fossilise, our ability to understand them has been restricted. Here, we use three-dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal modelling to reconstruct and quantitatively assess leverage of forelimb muscles in the transition from the narrow-gauge stance of basal sauropods to a wide-gauge stance in titanosaurs...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Ying-Xin Qi, Yue Han, Zong-Lai Jiang
Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) are constantly exposed to hemodynamic forces in vivo, including flow shear stress and cyclic stretch caused by the blood flow. Numerous researches revealed that during various cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and vein graft, abnormal (pathological) mechanical forces play crucial roles in the dysfunction of ECs and VSMCs, which is the fundamental process during both vascular homeostasis and remodeling. Hemodynamic forces trigger several membrane molecules and structures, such as integrin, ion channel, primary cilia, etc...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Woo Jong Kim, Hong Seop Lee, Sung Hun Won, Yong Cheol Hong, Dhong Won Lee, Ji-Hye Lee, Chang Hyun Kim
RATIONALE: The Morel-Lavallée lesion (MLL) is a closed degloving injury developing when shear force acts between the muscle fascia and the subcutaneous layer. MLLs develop principally in the trochanteric area or the pelvis; lesions in the proximal calf are rare. Acute lesions can be treated conservatively, but chronic lesions are best treated surgically because of a high rate of recurrence. To the best of our knowledge, this is a rare case of successful treatment of an MLL in the proximal calf associated with tibio-fibular shaft fracture...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Angus Lindsay, Preston M McCourt, Peter Karachunski, Dawn A Lowe, James M Ervasti
Generation of superoxide by xanthine oxidase can be stimulated under ischemic and aberrant calcium homeostasis. Because patients and mice with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) suffer from ischemia and excessive calcium influx, we tested the hypothesis that xanthine oxidase activity is elevated and contributes to disease pathology. Xanthine oxidase activity was measured by urinary isoxanthopterin in DMD patients at rest and in response to exercise. Urinary isoxanthopterin/creatinine was elevated compared to age-matched controls and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) patients...
October 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Christine M Harper, Adam D Sylvester
Larger terrestrial mammals have generally been found to use more extended limb postures, a mechanism which maintains muscular requirements at larger sizes by improving the effective mechanical advantage (EMA) of limb musculature. Felids, however, have been documented to maintain joint angles across body sizes. If felid morphology scales isometrically, it would mean larger felids have relatively weaker muscles, compromising locomotor activities. Here we examine the allometric relationships between the EMA of the elbow and knee extensors and body mass, finding that the EMA of the triceps brachii and quadriceps muscles scale with positive allometry...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Keitaro Seki, Heikki Kyröläinen, Naoki Numazu, Keigo Ohyama-Byun, Yasushi Enomoto
PURPOSE: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of lower limb joint kinetics on energy cost during jumping. METHODS: Eight male middle and long-distance runners volunteered for the study. The subjects were asked to repeat vertical jumps at a frequency of 2 Hz for 3-min on a force platform in three different surface inclination conditions: Incline (+8°), Level (0°), and Decline (-8°). Sagittal plane kinematics were obtained using a high-speed video camera...
October 11, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jessica Ryvlin, Stephanie E Lindsey, Jonathan T Butcher
Early outflow morphogenesis is a critical event in cardiac development. Understanding the mechanical and molecular based morphogenetic relationships at early stages of cardiogenesis is essential for the advancement of cardiovascular technology related to congenital heart defects. In this study, we pair molecular changes in pharyngeal arch artery (PAA) vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and hemodynamic changes throughout development. We focus on Hamburger Hamilton stage 24 to 36 chick embryos, using both Doppler ultrasound and histological sections to phenotype PAA VSMCs, and establish a relationship between hemodynamics and PAA composition...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Matthew Gurley, Philip Motta
Vertebrates utilize six extraocular muscles that attach to a tough, protective sclera to rotate the eye. The goal of the study was to describe the maximum tetanic forces, as well as the torques produced by the six extraocular muscles of the piked dogfish Squalus acanthias in order to understand the forces exerted on the eye. The lateral rectus extraocular muscle of Squalus acanthias was determined to be parallel fibered with the muscle fibers bundled into discrete fascicles. The extraocular muscles attach to the sclera by muscular insertions...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Tadeusz Mikołajczyk, Adam Kłodowski, Emilia Mikołajewska, Paweł Walkowiak, Pedro Berjano, Jorge Hugo Villafañe, Francesco Aggogeri, Alberto Borboni, Davide Fausti, Gianluigi Petrogalli
BACKGROUND: The use of an exoskeleton elbow is considered an effective treatment in several pathologies, including post-stroke complications, traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI), as well as in patients with neurodegenerative disorders. The effectiveness of rehabilitation is closely linked to a suitably chosen therapy. The treatment can be performed only by specialized personnel, significantly supported by the use of automated devices. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to present a novel exoskeleton for elbow rehabilitation without a complicated control system...
October 12, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Laura J Wilson, Lygeri Dimitriou, Frank A Hills, Marcela B Gondek, Emma Cockburn
PURPOSE: The use of cryotherapy as a recovery intervention is prevalent amongst athletes. Performance of high volume, heavy load resistance exercise is known to result in disturbances of muscle function, perceptual responses and blood borne parameters. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of cold water immersion (CWI), whole body cryotherapy (WBC) or a placebo (PL) intervention on markers of recovery following an acute resistance training session. METHODS: 24 resistance trained males were matched into a CWI (10 min at 10 °C), WBC (3- and 4 min at - 85 °C) or PL group before completing a lower body resistance training session...
October 11, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Shahaf Armon, Matthew Storm Bull, Andres Aranda-Diaz, Manu Prakash
By definition of multicellularity, all animals need to keep their cells attached and intact, despite internal and external forces. Cohesion between epithelial cells provides this key feature. To better understand fundamental limits of this cohesion, we study the epithelium mechanics of an ultrathin (∼25 μm) primitive marine animal Trichoplax adhaerens , composed essentially of two flat epithelial layers. With no known extracellular matrix and no nerves or muscles, T. adhaerens has been claimed to be the "simplest known living animal," yet is still capable of coordinated locomotion and behavior...
October 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Mir S Ali, Nandini Deb, Xinmei Wang, Minhazur Rahman, Gordon F Christopher, Carla M R Lacerda
Valvular interstitial cells (VICs) constitute the major cell population in heart valves. Quiescent fibroblastic VICs are seen in adult healthy valves. They become activated myofibroblastic VICs during development, in diseased valves and in vitro. 2D substrate stiffness within a 5-15 kPa range along with high passage numbers promote VIC activation in vitro. In this study, we characterize VIC quiescence and activation across a 1-21 kPa range of substrate stiffness and passages. We define a cell morphology characterization system for VICs as they transform...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Meghan E Vidt, Anthony C Santago, Anthony P Marsh, Eric J Hegedus, Christopher J Tuohy, Gary G Poehling, Michael T Freehill, Michael E Miller, Katherine R Saul
BACKGROUND: Rotator cuff tears in older individuals may result in decreased muscle forces and changes to force distribution across the glenohumeral joint. Reduced muscle forces may impact functional task performance, altering glenohumeral joint contact forces, potentially contributing to instability or joint damage risk. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of rotator cuff muscle force distribution on glenohumeral joint contact force during functional pull and axilla wash tasks using individualized computational models...
October 4, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
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