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Peter A Bron, Barbara Marcelli, Joyce Mulder, Simon van der Els, Luiza P Morawska, Oscar P Kuipers, Jan Kok, Michiel Kleerebezem
The ever-expanding genomic insight in natural diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has revived the industrial interest in traditional and natural genetic mobilization methodologies. Here, we review recent advances in horizontal gene transfer processes in LAB, including natural competence, conjugation, and phage transduction. In addition, we envision the possibilities for industrial strain improvement arising from the recent discoveries of molecular exchanges between bacteria through nanotubes and extracellular vesicles, as well as the constantly expanding genome editing possibilities using the CRISPR-Cas technology...
October 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Yuji Aso, Mikikazu Tsubaki, Bui Hoang Dang Long, Ryo Murakami, Keisuke Nagata, Hirohisa Okano, Ngo Thi Phuong Dung, Hitomi Ohara
The present study demonstrates continuous production of d-lactic acid from cellobiose in a cell recycle fermentation with a hollow fiber membrane using recombinant Escherichia coli constructed by deleting its pyruvate formate-lyase activating enzyme gene pflA and expressing a heterologous β-glucosidase on its cell surface. The β-glucosidase gene bglC from Thermobifida fusca YX was cloned into a cell surface display vector pGV3, resulting in pGV3-bglC. Recombinant E. coli JM109 harboring the pGV3-bglC showed β-glucosidase activity (18...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Ana Paula Mörschbächer, Anja Dullius, Carlos Henrique Dullius, Cassiano Ricardo Bandt, Daniel Kuhn, Débora Tairini Brietzke, Fernando José Malmann Kuffel, Henrique Pretto Etgeton, Taciélen Altmayer, Tamara Engelmann Gonçalves, Ytan Andreine Schweizer, Eliézer Quadro Oreste, Anderson Schwingel Ribeiro, Daniel Neutzling Lehn, Claucia Fernanda Volken de Souza, Lucélia Hoehne
Selenium is an essential micronutrient for living beings, as it helps to maintain the normal physiological functions of the organism. The numerous discoveries involving the importance of this element to the health of human beings have fostered interest in research to develop enriched and functional foods. The present study evaluated the potential for bacterial strains of Enterococcus faecalis (CH121 and CH124), Lactobacillus parabuchneri (ML4), Lactobacillus paracasei (ML13, ML33, CH135, and CH139), and Lactobacillus plantarum (CH131) to bioaccumulate Se in their biomass by adding different concentrations of sodium selenite (30 to 200 mg/L) to the culture medium...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Milard, F Laugerette, S Bugeat, P Plaisancié, M Létisse, E Meugnier, E Loizon, A Durand, C Buisson, A Géloën, S Serieye, M-C Michalski
Additives stabilize or improve the organoleptic or functional properties (or both) of many dairy products including whipping cream. Their influence on the metabolic effect of dairy cream is scarcely known. We tested the hypothesis that added emulsifier (lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides; MAG/DAG), thickener (carrageenan, CGN), or both, could modify the metabolic effect, notably in the intestine and liver. Nine-week-old male C57Bl/6J mice were fed UHT cream (indirect treatment) mixed with nonlipidic powder (final: 13% milkfat) for 1 or 4 wk...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Yingfeng Wang, Wenting Sun, Jilin Zheng, Can Xu, Xia Wang, Tianyi Li, Yida Tang, Zhongfeng Li
This urinary metabonomic study aimed to identify the potential metabolic biomarkers in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) was used to analyze the urine samples from ACS patients and healthy controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied to characterizing the endogenous metabolites and potential biomarker, respectively. Among twenty biomarkers that functioned in nine metabolic pathways, nine biomarkers were found up-regulated significantly, including of isobutyryl‑l‑carnitine, 3‑methylglutarylcarnitine, cinnavalininate, l‑tryptophan, 3‑methyldioxyindole, palmitic acid, N4‑acetylaminobutanal, 3‑sulfino‑l‑alanine and S‑adenosyl‑l‑homocysteine...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Augustine Lalloz, Marie-Alexandrine Bolzinger, Jimmy Faivre, Pierre-Luc Latreille, Araceli Garcia Ac, Cyrielle Rakotovao, Jean-Michel Rabanel, Patrice Hildgen, Xavier Banquy, Stéphanie Briançon
We investigated the influence of nanoparticle (NP) surface composition on different aspects of skin delivery of a lipophilic drug: chemical stability, release and skin penetration. Cholecalciferol was chosen as a labile model drug. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based NPs without surface coating, with a non-ionic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coating, or with a zwitterionic poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC) coating were prepared using flash nanoprecipitation. Process was optimized to obtain similar hydrodynamic diameters...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Yuzhe Huang, Jian Guo, Shuangying Gui
The current treatments used in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapy have significant side effects. Thus, it is very necessary to position and release TNF-α siRNA in inflamed tissues. Here, we demonstrate that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) can pack TNF-α siRNA efficiently into nanoparticles (NPs), and galactosylated chitosan (GC) can be grafted onto the NP surface, improving the RAW 264.7 macrophage-targeting kinetics of the NPs in vitro. Next, we orally administered GC-modified NPs loaded with TNF-α siRNA to C57BL/6 mice treated with 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to investigate their use in the treatment of colitis...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Ke Ding, Chunjie Zhang, Jing Li, Songbiao Chen, Chengshui Liao, Xiangchao Cheng, Chuang Yu, Zuhua Yu, Yanyan Jia
We studied the role of glycolysis in the mechanism of cAMP receptor protein-induced macrophage cell death of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). Cell apoptosis, caspase-3, -8, -9 enzyme activity, and pyruvic acid, lactic acid, ATP, and hexokinase (HK) contents were determined after infection of macrophages with S. Typhimurium SL1344 wild-type and a cAMP receptor protein mutant strain. While cell apoptosis, caspase-3, -8, -9 enzyme activity, lactic acid, hexokinase, and ATP levels significantly changed by infection with crp mutants compared to the wild-type strain (P < 0...
October 12, 2018: Current Microbiology
Matthew M Schaefers, Biyan Duan, Boaz Mizrahi, Roger Lu, Gally Reznor, Daniel S Kohane, Gregory P Priebe
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system protein PopB and its chaperon protein PcrH, when co-administered with the adjuvant curdlan, elicit Th17 responses after intranasal immunization of mice. These PopB/PcrH-curdlan vaccines protect mice against acute lethal pneumonia in an IL-17-dependent fashion involving CD4 helper T cells secreting IL-17 (Th17 cells). In this study, we tested whether encapsulation of PopB/PcrH in poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles could elicit Th17 responses to PopB...
October 9, 2018: Vaccine
Iozzino Valentina, Askanian Haroutioun, Leroux Fabrice, Verney Vincent, Pantani Roberto
In the field of biodegradable polymers such as poly(Lactic Acid) (PLA), it is quite well known that their kinetics of hydrolysis strongly depend on the pH of the hydrolyzing medium. The idea explored during this study focused on PLA, is the addition of additives that are able to control the pH of water when it diffuses inside the polymer. For instance, acids (i.e. succinic acid, also used as food additive) are bio- and eco- friendly additives that are able to play this role. In order to control the release of these molecules and their dispersion inside the polymer, their intercalation in biocompatible nanofillers like layered double hydroxides (LDH) is here considered...
October 11, 2018: Materials
Ede Bodoki, Oliviu Vostinaru, Ovidiu Samoila, Elena Dinte, Andreea E Bodoki, Sean Swetledge, Carlos E Astete, Cristina M Sabliov
Cataracts are responsible for half of the world blindness, surgery being the only viable treatment. Lutein, a naturally occurring carotenoid in the eye, has the potential to prevent cataract progression. Its low stability and limited ocular bioavailability upon systemic administration prevented its medical use. To restore the eye's natural line of defense against photo-oxidative stress, a formulation was developed using zein and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in an optimized bioadhesive thermosensitive gel for the delivery of lutein via topical application...
October 9, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Luke Masha, Shareez Peerbhai, David Boone, Fisayomi Shobayo, Aman Ghotra, Bindu Akkanti, Yelin Zhao, Igor Banjac, Igor D Gregoric, Biswajit Kar
Abnormalities in markers of liver injury after venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) initiation are of unclear distribution and clinical significance. This study included all consecutive adult patients from a single institution who underwent VA-ECMO cannulation between May 2012 and September 2016 and had liver function panels drawn during their admission (n = 223). Data points include: age, sex, body mass index, diagnosis, duration of ECMO cannulation, duration of hospitalization, pre-ECMO cardiac arrest, central nervous system (CNS) injury, the presence of chronic kidney disease or acute renal failure, renal replacement therapy utilization, lactate levels, duration of pre-ECMO intubation, admission and peak bilirubin/aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT)/alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels, and time to peak bilirubin/AST/ALT/ALP in relation to cannulation...
October 9, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Olfa Ben Braïek, Slim Smaoui, Yannick Fleury, Stefano Morandi, Khaled Hani, Taoufik Ghrairi
Lactic acid bacteria produce various antibacterial peptides such as bacteriocins that are active against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. Very little attention has been paid to the production of lysozyme as an antimicrobial enzyme. The present work represents one of the few studies reporting lysozyme production by enterococci. Indeed, this study was first conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Enterococcus lactis Q1, an enterocin P-producing strain previously isolated from fresh shrimp (Penaeus vannamei), against multidrug-resistant clinical isolates...
October 12, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ran Wei, Limin Mao, Ping Xu, Xinghai Zheng, Robert M Hackman, Gerardo G Mackenzie, Yuefei Wang
Numerous studies propose that epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an abundant polyphenol in green tea, has anti-cancer properties. However, its mechanism of action in breast cancer remains unclear. This study investigated the capacity of EGCG to suppress breast cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo, characterizing the underlying mechanisms, focusing on the effect of EGCG on glucose metabolism. EGCG reduced breast cancer 4T1 cell growth in a concentration- (10-320 μM) and time- (12-48 h) dependent manner. EGCG induced breast cancer apoptotic cell death at 24 h, as evidenced by annexin V/PI, caspase 3, caspase 8 and caspase 9 activation...
October 12, 2018: Food & Function
Lara Corsini, Remedios Castro, Carmelo G Barroso, Enrique Durán-Guerrero
Odour-active compounds in three traditional balsamic vinegars from Modena (TB) and seven balsamic vinegars from Modena (PGI) were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) using frequency of detection methodology (modified frequency, MF, %). The main odour compounds (mean MF > 60%) were 2,3-butanedione (75%), acetic acid (70%), furan-2-carbaldehyde (62%), 1-(furan-2-yl)ethanone (62%), 2-methylpropanoic acid (66%), butanoic acid (78%), 3-methylbutanoic acid (83%), 2-phenylethyl acetate (65%), 2-hydroxy-3-methylcyclopent-2-en-1-one (61%), 2-phenylethan-1-ol (84%), 3-hydroxy-2-methylpyran-4-one (60%), (5-formylfuran-2-yl)methyl acetate (68%), 2-phenylacetic acid (69%) and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (86%)...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Blandine N Cretin, Pierre Waffo-Teguo, Denis Dubourdieu, Axel Marchal
This work aimed at improving knowledge about sweetness in dry wines. Following on from the empirical observations of winegrowers, we assessed the contribution of grape seeds to wine sensory properties. An inductive fractionation method guided by gustatometry was used to isolate and characterize sweet-tasting compounds from grapes. Fractionation of grape seed macerates was achieved by liquid-liquid extraction, centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) and preparative HPLC. Then, the structures of the purified compounds were elucidated by use of FTMS and NMR...
January 30, 2019: Food Chemistry
Xiaoming Wang, Zhou Yuan, Qihong Chen, Jiangquan Yu, Ruiqiang Zheng
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of 0.9% NaCl solution, Ringer solution, and acetate sodium potassium magnesium calcium glucose solution (ASPMCG solution) on internal environment in patients with septic shock receiving early fluid resuscitation. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted. From June 2016 to January 2018, a total of 280 patients with septic shock admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital were enrolled...
September 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Narayanasamy Badrinath, Young Il Jeong, Hyung Young Woo, Seo Young Bang, Chan Kim, Jeong Heo, Dae Hwan Kang, So Young Yoo
Local delivery of viruses via nanomaterials has been demonstrated in the treatment of colon cancer. A cancer-favoring oncolytic vaccinia virus (CVV), which is an evolutionary cancer-favoring engineered vaccinia virus carrying the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene, has antitumor efficacy in drug-resistant colon cancer and metastatic liver cells. Here, we present the antitumor efficacy of a CVV coated a poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanofiber for local drug delivery in theranostic approaches. In vitro- and in vivo-based analyses using mouse colon carcinoma models confirmed the therapeutic efficacy of CVV-PLGA nanofibers through diagnostic localization of the tumors and reduced tumor burden as a result of enhanced apoptosis...
October 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Emmanuel Alepu Odey, Bodjui Olivier Abo, Zifu Li, Xiaoqin Zhou
Food waste generation and disposal have led to several environmental problems, especially in developing countries. This phenomenon is partly because most cities rapidly urbanize, which results in population increase, urban settlement and waste generation. Improper management of waste has continued to create environmental problems. These problems have indeed interfered with the inadequate measures in managing other organic waste such as food waste. Food waste can be fermented and used for pathogen inactivation in fecal sludge (FS)...
October 11, 2018: Reviews on Environmental Health
Nancy E Ramia, Sara M El Kheir, Samir Taha, Cécile Mangavel, Anne-Marie Revol-Junelles, Frédéric Borges
AIMS: Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is a species of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) of technological interest in the field of dairy ripening and food bioprotection and is Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) in the USA. As it is associated with fish infections, the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) did not include this species in the Qualified Presumption Safety (QPS) list of microorganisms. This implies that the risk assessment for the species has to be performed at the strain level. METHODS AND RESULTS: Multilocus Sequence Typing is a tool that i) potentially allows to discriminate strains isolated from diseased fish from apathogenic strains and ii) to assess the genetic relatedness between both groups of strains...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
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