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Rais Obongo, Nicolas Bon-Mardion, Celia Duclos, Vladimir Strunski, Nicolas Guerout, Jean-Paul Marie
INTRODUCTION: With a view to simplifying surgical techniques for selective laryngeal reinnervation, we addressed the question of whether it is feasible to receive additional innervation by a partially denervated muscle using an infra hyoid muscle model. METHODS: In 90 rats (six groups of 15), phrenic nerve transfer was used to reinnervate the sternothyroid muscle. In some cases, residual innervation by the original nerve was present. Three months later, we performed EMG studies, contraction strength measurements, histological assessments, and retrograde labeling...
August 18, 2018: Muscle & Nerve
J Mira, S J Aboodarda, M Floreani, R Jaswal, S J Moon, K Amery, T Rupp, Guillaume Y Millet
PURPOSE: The adaptations induced by endurance training on the neuromuscular function remain under investigation and, for methodological reasons, unclear. This study investigates the effects of cycling training on neuromuscular fatigue and its peripheral contribution measured during and immediately after cycling exercise. METHODS: Fourteen healthy men performed a fatigue test before a 9-week cycling program (PRE) and two tests after training: at the same absolute power output as PRE (POSTABS ) and based on the post-training maximal aerobic power (POSTREL )...
August 18, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Yoshihisa Matsukawa, Shun Takai, Tsuyoshi Majima, Yasuhito Funahashi, Naoto Sassa, Masashi Kato, Tokunori Yamamoto, Momokazu Gotoh
PURPOSE: To investigate the 1-year effects of tadalafil on storage and voiding function in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) suggestive of benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) based on a urodynamic study. METHODS: In a one-armed, prospective study, 105 untreated outpatients with LUTS/BPH received 5 mg tadalafil every day for 12 months. Subjective symptoms and objective findings on voiding and storage functions, obtained through urodynamic studies that included cystometry and pressure flow study, were evaluated before, at 3 months, and at 12 months of treatment...
August 18, 2018: World Journal of Urology
May A Massoud, Arine Kazarian, Ibrahim Alameddine, Mahmoud Al-Hindi
The reuse of treated wastewater, whether direct or indirect, can raise public concerns as a result of the overall risk perception. As such, community acceptance plays a significant role in the implementation of alternative water systems. Public attitudes towards water reuse are highly influenced by perceived health risk, religious prohibition, political issues, and the degree of human contact with recycled water. In most of the Mediterranean countries, wastewater is reused to different extents either within planned or unplanned schemes...
August 18, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Philipp E Bartko, Henrike Arfsten, Gregor Heitzinger, Noemi Pavo, Guido Strunk, Marianne Gwechenberger, Christian Hengstenberg, Thomas Binder, Martin Hülsmann, Georg Goliasch
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to define interpapillary muscle dyssynchrony as a major contributing factor in functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) and prove the reversibility of FMR by interpapillary muscle resynchronization. BACKGROUND: Mechanistic features of FMR include papillary muscle displacement due to left ventricular remodeling. Intraventricular conduction delay might further augment this condition by introducing interpapillary muscle dyssynchrony. METHODS: We enrolled 269 chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction patients with conduction delay and comprehensively assessed dyssynchrony by complementary echocardiographic techniques covering the entire spectrum of dyssynchrony...
August 6, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
K Lalrinzuali, M Vabeiryureilai, Ganesh Chandra Jagetia
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The Oroxylum indicum is used traditionally to treat fever, colic, stomach ulcers, constipation, indigestion, intestinal worms, strangury, asthma, cough, hiccough, diarrhea, dysentery and wounds by the herbal healers of Mizoram and it is also part of Ayurvedic formulations. AIMS OF THE STUDY: The wound healing activity of Oroxylum indicum has not been investigated therefore the present study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of different concentrations of ethanol extract of stem bark of Oroxylum indicum in the deep dermal excision wounds of mice...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Daniel M Hirai, Trenton D Colburn, Jesse C Craig, Kazuki Hotta, Yutaka Kano, Timothy I Musch, David C Poole
The oxygen transport pathway from air to mitochondria involves a series of transfer steps within closely integrated systems (pulmonary, cardiovascular and tissue metabolic). Small and finite O2 stores in most mammalian species require exquisitely controlled changes in O2 flux rates to support elevated ATP turnover. This is especially true for the contracting skeletal muscle where O2 requirements may increase two orders of magnitude above rest. This brief review focuses on the mechanistic bases for increased microvascular blood-myocyte O2 flux (V̇O2 ) from rest-to-contractions...
August 18, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Hazem Akkad, Nicola Cacciani, Monica Llano-Diez, Rebeca Corpeno Kalamgi, Tamara Tchkonia, James L Kirkland, Lars Larsson
AIM: Critical illness myopathy (CIM) is a consequence of modern critical care, leading to skeletal muscle atrophy/paralysis with negative consequences for mortality/morbidity and health care costs. Glucocorticoids (GCs) have been proposed to trigger CIM. Here, we compare outcomes of two GCs, the commonly used prednisolone and the newly developed dissociative vamorolone in response to the intensive care unit (ICU) condition for 5 days, i.e., sedation, immobilization, and mechanical ventilation...
August 18, 2018: Acta Physiologica
Andreas Keßler, Dalia Kaisarly, Reinhard Hickel, Karl-Heinz Kunzelmann
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the effects of fiber incorporation on the contraction stress (CS), time to gelation (TG), and temperature rise (TR) features of two experimental resin-based composites (RBCs) in comparison to those of bulk-fill RBCs and conventional RBCs in simulated, clinically relevant cavities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CS over 300 s, TG and TR were assessed by a stress-strain analyzer (SSA T80) in two cavity configurations (2 × 4 × 4 mm3 /4 × 4 × 4 mm3 /configuration value [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]) for two experimental RBCs, eight bulk-fill RBCs (EverX Posterior, Filtek Bulk Fill, SDR, SonicFill, Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, Venus Bulk Fill, X-tra base, and X-tra Fill) and one RBC (Filtek Supreme XTE) by light curing (1200 mW/cm2 ) (n = 10)...
August 17, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Philip J Bart, Matthew DeCesare, Brad E Rosenheim, Wojceich Majewski, Austin McGlannan
Recent thinning and loss of Antarctic ice shelves has been followed by near synchronous acceleration of ice flow that may eventually lead to sustained deflation and significant contraction in the extent of grounded and floating ice. Here, we present radiocarbon dates from foraminifera that constrain the time elapsed between a previously described paleo-ice-shelf collapse and the subsequent major grounding-line retreat in the Whales Deep Basin (WDB) of eastern Ross Sea. The dates indicate that West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) grounding-line retreat from the continental shelf edge was underway prior to 14...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alf H Øien, Helge Wiig
A theoretical understanding of hydrostatic pressure-fluid volume relationships, or equations of state, of interstitial fluid in skin and skeletal muscle through mathematical/physical modeling is lacking. Here, we investigate at the microscopic level forces that seem to underlie and determine the movements of fluid and solid tissue elements on the microscopic as well as on the macroscopic level. Effects that occur during variation of hydration due to interaction between expanding glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and the collagen interstitial matrix of tissue seem to be of major importance...
August 4, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Adam Cuker, Joseph E Marturano, Maria E Carinato, Thomas J Lowery, Douglas B Cines
There is a clinical need for pragmatic approaches to measure integrated hemostatic reactions in whole blood rapidly, using small volumes of blood. The authors have applied T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR) to assess coagulation reactions based on partitioning of red blood cells and proteins that occurs during fibrin formation and platelet-mediated clot contraction. T2MR is amenable to measuring clotting times, individual coagulation factors, and platelet function. T2MR also revealed a novel "hypercoagulable" signature characterized by fibrin clots almost insusceptible to fibrinolysis that surround tessellated arrays of polyhedral erythrocytes ("third peak")...
August 17, 2018: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Peyvand Amini, Rachel Wilson, William Koeblitz, Junye Wang, Huiqing Tan, Lijuan Yi, Zachary Stanfield, Andrea Romani, Charles Malemud, Sam Mesiano
Progesterone (P4) acting through the P4 receptor (PR) isoforms, PR-A and PR-B, promotes uterine quiescence for most of pregnancy, in part, by inhibiting the response of myometrial cells to pro-labor inflammatory stimuli. This anti-inflammatory effect is inhibited by phosphorylation of PR-A at serine-344 and -345 (pSer344/345 -PRA). Activation of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway also promotes uterine quiescence and myometrial relaxation. This study examined the cross-talk between P4/PR and cAMP signaling to exert anti-inflammatory actions and control pSer344/345 -PRA generation in myometrial cells...
August 14, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Kevin D Mangum, Sunita J Ferns
The authors report for the first time a novel mutation in the FLNC gene associated with cardiac arrhythmias in two half-siblings. The FLNC gene on chromosome 7q32 encodes filamin C, which stabilizes the actin network within the cardiomyocyte. The proband is an 8-year-old asymptomatic patient with frequent premature ventricular contractions noted on serial monitoring. Interestingly, the proband and his half-brother harbored a heterozygous 13 base pair deletion that resulted in a frameshift mutation and introduction of a premature stop codon...
August 10, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
Reena Disawal, Tameshwer Nath, Shashi Prakash, I A Palani
Electrically actuated shape memory alloys (SMAs) find widespread applications in engineering and science. Such materials are known to retain/remember their state. In the stressed/deformed state, when activated by the application of a suitable excitation mechanism, such as the use of heat or potential, they return to their original unstressed state. To test their reliability, it is a standard procedure to undertake a life cycle analysis. In this paper, the life cycle analysis of a SMA spring using the Talbot interferometric technique is reported...
July 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Rong Zhang, Yi Xu, Huifang Niu, Ting Tao, Tao Ban, Linyao Zheng, Jing Ai
MicroRNA-1 (miR-1) stands out as the most prominent microRNA (miRNA) in regulating cardiac function and has been perceived as a new potential therapeutic target. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are major active constituents of the traditional Chinese medicine based on L. barbarum. The purpose of this study was to exploit the cardioprotective effect and molecular mechanism of LBPs underlying heart failure. We found that LBPs significantly reduced the expression of myocardial miR-1. LBPs improved the abnormal ECG and indexes of cardiac functions in P-V loop detection in transgenic (Tg) mice with miR-1 overexpression...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Paurush Ambesh, Aditya Kapoor
The sinoatrial (SA) node is the dominant pacemaker of the heart which initiates the process of impulse generation in the cardiac tissue, thereby defining the rate and rhythm of cardiac contraction. The automaticity of the conduction cells in the SA node is due to ion channels which are inter-linked by molecular, histological and electrophysiological mechanisms causing spontaneous diastolic depolarization and generation of an impulse. The SA nodal action potentials are then transmitted to the ventricles by electrical coupling of the myocytes in different areas of the heart...
November 2017: National Medical Journal of India
Mark Lubinsky
Common human reproductive inefficiencies have multiple etiologies. Going against chance, many effects, such as polycystic ovaries, endometriosis, and folate metabolic issues, have genetic components, while aneuploid losses arise from diverse mitotic and meiotic errors at different stages, some transitory. This can be advantageous, since greater overall survival with fewer offspring can increase reproductive success. Benefits primarily accrue to mothers, who bear most child related costs, and for whom early losses are less costly than late...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Zafer İşcan, Aaron Schurger, Marine Vernet, Jacobo D Sitt, Antoni Valero-Cabré
There has been a growing interest in the role of pre-stimulus oscillations on cortical excitability in visual and motor systems. Prior studies focused on the relationship between pre-stimulus neuronal activity and TMS-evoked motor evoked potentials (MEPs) have reported heterogeneous results. We aimed to assess the role of pre-stimulus neural activity on the latency of MEPs, which might enhance our understanding of the variability of MEP signals, and potentially provide information on the role played by cortical activity fluctuations in the excitability of corticospinal pathways...
August 16, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Bratati Patra, Sebastian Sobottka, Sruti Mondal, Biprajit Sarkar, Sanjib Kar
A remarkable rearrangement of a diferrocenylporphyrin to give a silver(iii) corrole has been discovered. Compared to the previously reported porphyrin to corrole ring conversions (extremely rare and poor reaction yields), our methodology delivers near quantitative yield for this ring contraction.
August 17, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
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