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Kristin Robin Ko, Meng-Chiao Tsai, John P Frampton
Extracellular matrix-based hydrogels such as Matrigel are easy-to-use, commercially available, and offer environments for three-dimensional (3D) cell culture that mimic native tissue. However, manipulating small volumes of these materials to produce thin-layer 3D culture systems suitable for analysis is difficult due to air-liquid-substrate interfacial tension effects and evaporation. Here, we demonstrate two simple techniques that use standard liquid-handling tools and non-treated 96-well plates to produce uniform, thin-layer constructs for 3D culture of cells in Matrigel...
October 13, 2018: Biotechnology Progress
Rachel J Jerrell, Mitchell J Leih, Aron Parekh
During the dermal wound healing process, the mechanical rigidity of the newly deposited extracellular matrix and transforming growth factor-β1 promote the transition of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Myofibroblasts generate large cellular forces that contract and remodel the extracellular matrix leading to scar formation. In contrast, myofibroblasts are not detected in fetal dermal wounds which are more compliant and contain less transforming growth factor-β1 than adult wounds. Instead, fetal fibroblasts orchestrate scarless healing of dermal wounds resulting in healed tissues that resemble uninjured dermis...
October 13, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Takuzo Aida, Zhifang Sun, Yoshihiro Yamauchi, Fumito Araoka, Youn Soo Kim, Julian Bergueiro, Yasuhiro Ishida, Yasuo Ebina, Takayoshi Sasaki, Takaaki Hikima
Peristaltic crawling, which is the moving mechanism of earthworm-like limbless creatures in narrow spaces, is a challenging target to mimic by using soft materials. Here we report an unprecedented hydrogel actuator that enables not only a peristaltic crawling motion but also reversing its direction. Our cylindrically processed hydrogel contains gold nanoparticles for photothermal conversion, a thermoresponsive polymer network for switching the electrical permittivity of the gel interior, and cofacially oriented 2D electrolytes (titanate nanosheets; TiNSs) to synchronously change their anisotropic electrostatic repulsion...
October 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Ting Gong, Chi Zhang, Jing Kang, J J Lamb, Jack J Jiang
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Vocal fold scarring remains a major treatment challenge, and scar prevention without residual lesions remains a dilemma. Cryotherapy has shown cosmetic outcomes on skin lesions with minimal scarring. The aim of this study was to clarify the beneficial effects of cryotherapy for the prevention and the treatment of vocal fold scarring. STUDY DESIGN: In vitro. METHODS: Primary cultures of human vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs) were used in this study...
October 12, 2018: Laryngoscope
Kristina Hubbard, Min Wang, David R Smith
Canine brucellosis is an emerging disease and compatible with a One Health management approach. Previous research has found higher prevalence of Brucella canis in stray dog populations than in owned animals, and shelter dogs may represent a zoonotic risk to pet owners. Dogs may also contract other Brucella spp., including Brucella suis, which is carried by some feral swine in the United States and poses a public health risk. Diagnostic tests for Brucella spp. are imperfect. Misclassification of disease status can result in serious repercussions for canine and human health including the unnecessary euthanasia of false positive dogs or failure to identify and remove false negative dogs from susceptible populations...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Anna Irene Vedel Sørensen, Vibeke Frøkjær Jensen, Anette Boklund, Tariq Halasa, Hanne Christensen, Nils Toft
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) is widespread in many European countries including Denmark, where 88% of randomly selected production herds tested positive in 2016. In the present study, we investigated herd-level risk factors for farms being classified as LA-MRSA positive (study 1), in addition to herd-level risk factors for farms changing status from LA-MRSA negative to LA-MRSA positive during a 2-year period (study 2). Risk factors previously identified in other studies were confirmed in study 1: large herd size, herd type (lower risk in herds with sows) and number of pig suppliers...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Natalie Hohmann, Richard Hansen, Kimberly B Garza, Ilene Harris, Zippora Kiptanui, Jingjing Qian
BACKGROUND: Increasing generic drug use, due to potential for cost savings and drug access, is a viable consideration for Medicare prescription drug plans to achieve high star ratings and improve quality of plan offerings for Medicare beneficiaries. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between contract-level proportion of generic drugs dispensed (pGDD) and Medicare Part D star ratings. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of linked 2011 Medicare Part D star rating data with contract-level pGDD data...
October 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Magalla Bastian Chalitha Lakmal Somarathne, Yasanthi Illika Nilmini Silva Gunawardene, Naduvilath Vishvanath Chandrasekharan, Arjuna Nisantha Bandara Ellepola, Ranil Samantha Dassanayake
BACKGROUND: Functional analysis of animal parasitic nematode genes is often quite challenging due to the unavailability of standardised in vitro culture conditions and lack of adequate tools to manipulate these genes. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the suitability of Culex quinquefasciatus, as an in vivo culture platform for Setaria digitata larvae and RNA interference (RNAi), as a post-transcriptional gene silencing tool to study the roles of a vital gene that encodes a novel parasitic nematode-specific protein (SDNP)...
October 10, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Andrei V Grischenko, Dennis P Gordon, Viacheslav P Melnik
This work describes Bryozoa of the orders Cyclostomata and Ctenostomata found associated with polymetallic nodules collected by box-coring in the eastern part of the Russian exploration area of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCFZ) under contract to Yuzhmorgeologiya. Scanning electron microscopic study of 358 cyclostome colonies and 14 ctenostome colonies from 4510-5280 m depth has resulted in the recognition of two new species of Ctenostomata, and 14 new species, nine new genera and two new families of Cyclostomata; three additional species of Cyclostomata are left in open nomenclature pending the discovery of missing reproductive characters...
September 25, 2018: Zootaxa
Angus Lindsay, Preston M McCourt, Peter Karachunski, Dawn A Lowe, James M Ervasti
Generation of superoxide by xanthine oxidase can be stimulated under ischemic and aberrant calcium homeostasis. Because patients and mice with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) suffer from ischemia and excessive calcium influx, we tested the hypothesis that xanthine oxidase activity is elevated and contributes to disease pathology. Xanthine oxidase activity was measured by urinary isoxanthopterin in DMD patients at rest and in response to exercise. Urinary isoxanthopterin/creatinine was elevated compared to age-matched controls and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) patients...
October 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jeanette E Villanueva, Ling Gao, Hong C Chew, Mark Hicks, Aoife Doyle, Min Ru Qui, Kumud K Dhital, Peter S Macdonald, Andrew Jabbour
The ryanodine receptor antagonist dantrolene inhibits calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and reduces cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in global warm ischaemia models however the cardioprotective potential of dantrolene under hypothermic conditions is unknown. This study addresses whether the addition of dantrolene during cardioplegia and hypothermic storage of the donor heart can improve functional recovery and reduce IRI. Using an ex vivo isolated working heart model, Wistar rat (3 month and 12 month) hearts were perfused to acquire baseline haemodynamic measurements of aortic flow, coronary flow, cardiac output, pulse pressure and heart rate...
2018: PloS One
Renan S Guerra, Thiago T Goya, Rosyvaldo F Silva, Marta F Lima, Eline R F Barbosa, Maria Janieire de N N Alves, Amanda G Rodrigues, Geraldo Lorenzi-Filho, Carlos Eduardo Negrão, Linda M Ueno-Pardi
We demonstrated that patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have reduced muscle metaboreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Additionally, exercise training increased muscle metaboreflex control in heart failure patients. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that exercise training would increase muscle metaboreflex control of MSNA in patients with OSA. METHODS: Forty-one patients with OSA were randomized into the following two groups: (1) nontrained (OSANT, n=21) and (2) trained (OSAT, n=20)...
October 11, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ashley K Boyle, Sara F Rinaldi, Adriano G Rossi, Philippa T K Saunders, Jane E Norman
Preterm birth (PTB), the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, urgently requires novel therapeutic agents. Spontaneous PTB, resulting from preterm labor, is commonly caused by intrauterine infection/inflammation. Statins are well-established, cholesterol-lowering drugs that can reduce inflammation and inhibit vascular smooth muscle contraction. We show that simvastatin reduced the incidence of PTB in a validated intrauterine LPS-induced PTB mouse model, decreased uterine proinflammatory mRNA concentrations (IL-6, Cxcl1, and Ccl2), and reduced serum IL-6 concentration...
October 12, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
A Wayne Vogl, Julian A Guttman
The actin cytoskeleton has long been recognized as a crucial sub-cellular filament system that is responsible for governing fundamental events ranging from cell division and muscle contraction to whole cell motility and the maintenance of tissue integrity. Consequently, it is not surprising that this network is the focus of over 100,000 different manuscripts. Alterations in the actin cytoskeleton lead to an assortment of diseases and serve as a target for a variety of pathogens. Here we have brought together a collection of primary research articles and reviews that underscore the broad influence this filament system has on organisms...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Nosta Glaser, Ramesh Iyer, William F Gilly, Clara Franzini-Armstrong
Muscles of the mesopelagic copepod Gaussia princeps (Arthropoda, Crustacea, Calanoida) are responsible for repetitive movements of feeding and swimming appendages that are too fast to be followed by eye. This paper provides a comparative functional and ultrastructural description of five muscles that have different contraction speeds and are located within different anatomical sites. All are very fast, as indicated by a thick:thin filament ratio of 3:1 and sarcomere lengths that vary between 1 and 3 μm. Measured lengths of thin and thick filaments indicate classification of the muscles into three distinct groups (short, medium and long) and predict a difference in speed of up to threefold between fibers with the shortest and longest sarcomeres...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Matthew Gurley, Philip Motta
Vertebrates utilize six extraocular muscles that attach to a tough, protective sclera to rotate the eye. The goal of the study was to describe the maximum tetanic forces, as well as the torques produced by the six extraocular muscles of the piked dogfish Squalus acanthias in order to understand the forces exerted on the eye. The lateral rectus extraocular muscle of Squalus acanthias was determined to be parallel fibered with the muscle fibers bundled into discrete fascicles. The extraocular muscles attach to the sclera by muscular insertions...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Alexis Rodriguez, Anna Kashina
Actin is one of the most abundant intracellular proteins, essential in every eukaryotic cell type. Actin plays key roles in tissue morphogenesis, cell adhesion, muscle contraction, and developmental reprogramming. Most actin studies have focused on its regulation at the protein level, either directly or through differential interactions with over a hundred intracellular binding partners. However, numerous studies emerging in recent years demonstrate specific types of nucleotide-level regulation that strongly affect non-muscle actins during cell migration and adhesion and are potentially applicable to other members of the actin family...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Corina DeKraker, Eric Boucher, Craig A Mandato
Cytokinesis and single-cell wound repair both involve contractile assemblies of filamentous actin (F-actin) and myosin II organized into characteristic ring-like arrays. The assembly of these actomyosin contractile rings (CRs) is specified spatially and temporally by small Rho GTPases, which trigger local actin polymerization and myosin II contractility via a variety of downstream effectors. We now have a much clearer view of the Rho GTPase signalling cascade that leads to the formation of CRs, but some factors involved in CR positioning, assembly, and function remain poorly understood...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Tomoaki Sugaya, Takashi Fujihara, Takashi Naka, Takao Furubayashi, Akiyuki Matsushita, Hiroaki Isago, Akira Nagasawa
For the first time, the spin-crossover (SCO) phenomenon was observed in an FeII-S6 system in a tris(chelate)-type iron(II) complex with a zwitterionic sulfur donor bidentate, bis(N,N-diethylamino)carbeniumdithiocarboxylate (EtL), [FeII(EtL)3](PF6)2, (1), as synthesized by the reaction of a precursor complex [FeII(CH3CN)6](PF6)2 with EtL. In the solid state, the high-spin d6 (HS) state at ambient temperature and the low-spin d6 (LS) state at temperatures lower than ~240 K were evidenced by magnetic measurements with SQUID and Mössbauer spectra in the temperature range 4-280 K...
October 12, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Ajay Kevat, Rosemary Carzino, John Massie, Jo Harrison, Amanda L Griffiths
INTRODUCTION: In this cohort study spanning an 18-year period, we evaluated the prevalence and associated mortality rate of epidemic strains of pseudomonas aeruginosa (PsA), especially Australian Epidemic Strain Type 1 (AES1), in a pediatric cystic fibrosis center practicing cohort segregation and early PsA eradication. METHODS: Cohort segregation was introduced in January 2000. PsA clonal strain was determined by pulse-field-gel-electrophoresis (PFGE) at the time of routine collection of airway specimens...
October 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
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