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Simone Tassani, Josep M Font-Llagunes, Miguel Ángel González Ballester, Jérôme Noailly
BACKGROUND: Muscular co-contraction is a strategy commonly used by elders with the aim to increase stability. However, co-contraction leads to stiffness which in turns reduces stability. Some literature seems to suggest an opposite approach and to point out relaxation as a way to improve stability. Teaching relaxation is therefore becoming the aim of many studies letting unclear whether tension or relaxation are the most effective muscular strategy to improve stability. Relaxation is a misleading concept in our society...
November 28, 2018: Gait & Posture
Lamia Al Saikhan, Alun D Hughes, Wing-See Chung, Maryam Alsharqi, Petros Nihoyannopoulos
Aims: Heart failure (HF) with mid-range ejection fraction (HFmrEF) shares similar diagnostic criteria to HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Whether left atrial (LA) function differs between HFmrEF and HFpEF is unknown. We, therefore, used 2D-speckle-tracking echocardiography (2D-STE) to assess LA phasic function in patients with HFpEF and HFmrEF. Methods and results: Consecutive outpatients diagnosed with HF according to current European recommendations were prospectively enrolled...
December 4, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
William H Seligman, Matthew Salt, Alethse De la Torre Rosas, Zofia Das-Gupta
As health systems around the world increasingly look to record and improve the value of care that they provide to patients, being able to measure the outcomes that matter most to patients is vital. Clinicians today gather more data than ever before, but what is measured often has little relationship to the results of care that matter most to patients. Through its working groups of global experts in particular diseases, the International Consortium for Health Outcomes Measurement (ICHOM) aims to define minimum Standard Sets of outcomes, along with case-mix factors to support risk-adjustment and meaningful comparison...
December 4, 2018: European Heart Journal. Quality of Care & Clinical Outcomes
Claudia Calquín Donoso, Jennifer Cerda Guinez, Cristopher Yáñez-Urbina
This article presents the results of a study aimed at identifying and analyzing the discursive construction of the fetus as a subject of rights on the part of medical-religious institutions in the discussion of the decriminalization of abortion due to three causes in Chile during the 2013-2016 period. To this end, a triangulation was carried out based on an analysis of thematic content and an analysis of certain discursive strategies from the critical discourse analysis perspective using a textual corpus composed of 16 documents...
July 2018: Salud Colectiva
Jacqueline Macedo Dos Santos, Juliana Ávila Baptista, Cíntia Nasi, Marcio Wagner Camatta
OBJECTIVE: Analyze the degree of accountability and participation of user under treatment at the Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and Drug Users (CAPS-ad) from the harm reduction policy perspective. METHODS: It is a qualitative approach study, case study type, with 12 users and four professionals from CAPS-ad in a county of Minas Gerais state. Data were collected from April to September 2017, by means of semi-structured interview, participant observation and documental analysis...
November 29, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Chang Yung Chia, Andréia Dantas Medeiros, André de Menezes Silva Corraes, José Eduardo Ferreira Manso, César Silveira Claudio da Silva, Christina Maeda Takiya, Ricardo Luís Vanz
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects and mechanisms of andiroba-based emulsion (ABE) topical treatment on full-thickness cutaneous wounds in rats. METHODS: The wounds were harvested on days 3, 7, 15, and 20 post-surgery. Wound contraction rate, quantitative immunohistochemistry [macrophages, myofibroblasts, capillaries, collagens (col) I and III, transforming growth factor β3β (TGFβ3)], and tensile strength were assessed. RESULTS: Treated wounds were smaller, contracted earlier and had increased angiogenesis, fewer CD68+ and M2 macrophages on days 7 and 15, but higher on day 20...
November 2018: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
Eric Leroux, Stéphanie Leroux, Frédéric Maton, Xavier Ravalec, Olivier Sorel
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to assess the influence of dental occlusion on body posture and the competitive performance of young elite rowers. METHOD: Dental occlusion disturbance devices were used to simulate dental malocclusions. We assessed the influence of malocclusion on the body balance, paravertebral muscle contraction symmetry, and muscular power of young elite rowers. A nonparametric permutation test for repeated measures ANOVA, a Cochran's Q test for paired data and a paired Student's t-test were used in order to statistically evaluate the influence of artificial occlusal disturbance on each factor...
November 29, 2018: Clinics
Shouryadipta Ghosh, Kenneth Tran, Lea M D Delbridge, Anthony J R Hickey, Eric Hanssen, Edmund J Crampin, Vijay Rajagopal
Recent electron microscopy data have revealed that cardiac mitochondria are not arranged in crystalline columns but are organised with several mitochondria aggregated into columns of varying sizes often spanning the cell cross-section. This raises the question-how does the mitochondrial arrangement affect the metabolite distributions within cardiomyocytes and their impact on force dynamics? Here we employed finite element modelling of cardiac bioenergetics, using computational meshes derived from electron microscope images, to address this question...
December 5, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Yakup Ergül, Senem Özgür, Sertaç Hanedan Onan, Volkan Tuzcu
Andersen-Tawil syndrome (ATS) is a disorder that causes episodes of muscle weakness (periodic paralysis), changes in heart rhythm, and developmental abnormalities. QT prolongation and ventricular arrhythmias, including bidirectional ventricular tachycardia (VT) and polymorphic VT, may occur. About 60% of all cases of the disorder arecaused by mutations in the KCNJ2 gene. A 13-year-old female patient was referred for frequent premature ventricular contractions. Suspicion of ATS due to dysmorphic findings, electrocardiogram changes, and periodic muscle weakness was genetically confirmed...
December 2018: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneği Arşivi: Türk Kardiyoloji Derneğinin Yayın Organıdır
Nicolas Clementy, Yann Ancedy, Arnaud Bisson, Clémentine Andre, Bertrand Pierre, Laurent Fauchier, Dominique Babuty
INTRODUCTION: Ablation of premature ventricular contractions has emerged as a safe and effective treatment in patients experiencing a high premature ventricular contractions burden. Mapping of premature ventricular contractions origin may sometimes be challenging. We sought to evaluate the accuracy of a new electrophysiological criterion, the Distal-to-Proximal Delay, at localizing the optimal site for ablation of ventricular ectopic foci. METHODS AND RESULTS: Consecutive patients with ablation attempts of symptomatic premature ventricular contractions were included...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Alexander W Caulk, Jay Humphrey, Sae-Il Murtada
Vascular smooth muscle cells can regulate arterial mechanics via contractile activity in response to changing mechanical and chemical signals. Contractility is traditionally evaluated via uniaxial isometric testing of isolated rings despite the in vivo environment being very different. Most blood vessels maintain a locally preferred value of in vivo axial stretch while subjected to changes in distending pressure, but both of these phenomena are obscured in uniaxial isometric testing. Few studies have rigorously analyzed the role of in vivo loading conditions in smooth muscle function...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Anthony Idowu Ajayi, Abdulazeez Olumide Abioye, Oladele Vincent Adeniyi, Wilson Akpan
Worldwide, adolescents and young adults (aged 15-25 years) account for the highest proportion of new HIV infections, yet the uptake of HIV testing among this cohort is sub-optimal. Understanding factors that predict the uptake of HIV testing among adolescents and young adults is critical for designing effective and relevant interventions to increase testing. Drawing from the psychosocial constructs of the Health Belief Model, the study examined the effects of HIV risk perception, discussion of HIV with partners and knowing partners' HIV status on HIV testing uptake among adolescents and young adults in two Nigerian universities...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
Heather Taffet Gold, Raj J Karia, Alissa Link, Rachel Lebwohl, Joseph D Zuckerman, Thomas J Errico, James D Slover, Aaron J Buckland, Devin M Mann, Michael N Cantor
We integrated and optimized patient-reported outcome measures into the electronic health record to provide quantitative, objective data regarding patients' health status, which is important for patient care, payer contracts, and research. With a multidisciplinary team from information technology, clinical informatics, population health, and physician champions, we used formal human-computer interaction techniques and user-centered design to integrate several technology platforms and computerized adaptive testing for the National Institutes of Health Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System...
December 5, 2018: Health Informatics Journal
Ian T Hoffecker, Sijie Chen, Andreas Gådin, Alessandro Bosco, Ana I Teixeira, Björn Högberg
Self-assembled DNA origami nanostructures have a high degree of programmable spatial control that enables nanoscale molecular manipulations. A surface-tethered, flexible DNA nanomesh is reported herein which spontaneously undergoes sharp, dynamic conformational transitions under physiological conditions. The transitions occur between two major macrostates: a spread state dominated by the interaction between the DNA nanomesh and the BSA/streptavidin surface and a surface-avoiding contracted state. Due to a slow rate of stochastic transition events on the order of tens of minutes, the dynamic conformations of individual structures can be detected in situ with DNA PAINT microscopy...
December 5, 2018: Small
D Mistry, S D Connell, S L Mickthwaite, P B Morgan, J H Clamp, H F Gleeson
Auxetic materials have negative Poisson's ratios and so expand rather than contract in one or several direction(s) perpendicular to applied extensions. The auxetics community has long sought synthetic molecular auxetics - non-porous, inherently auxetic materials which are simple to fabricate and avoid porosity-related weakening. Here, we report, synthetic molecular auxeticity for a non-porous liquid crystal elastomer. For strains above ~0.8 applied perpendicular to the liquid crystal director, the liquid crystal elastomer becomes auxetic with the maximum negative Poisson's ratio measured to date being -0...
December 4, 2018: Nature Communications
Yuxing Yao, James T Waters, Anna V Shneidman, Jiaxi Cui, Xiaoguang Wang, Nikolaj K Mandsberg, Shucong Li, Anna C Balazs, Joanna Aizenberg
Dynamic functions of biological organisms often rely on arrays of actively deformable microstructures undergoing a nearly unlimited repertoire of predetermined and self-regulated reconfigurations and motions, most of which are difficult or not yet possible to achieve in synthetic systems. Here, we introduce stimuli-responsive microstructures based on liquid-crystalline elastomers (LCEs) that display a broad range of hierarchical, even mechanically unfavored deformation behaviors. By polymerizing molded prepolymer in patterned magnetic fields, we encode any desired uniform mesogen orientation into the resulting LCE microstructures, which is then read out upon heating above the nematic-isotropic transition temperature (TN-I ) as a specific prescribed deformation, such as twisting, in- and out-of-plane tilting, stretching, or contraction...
December 4, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Fabrizio Bert, Maria Rosaria Gualano, Robin Thomas, Guglielmo Vergnano, Gianluca Voglino, Roberta Siliquini
OBJECTIVE: Socio-economical changes in Europe are leading to the rise of new issues regarding the labour market and health of young workers. Job insecurity is a widely studied phenomenon that involves an increasing number of young workers. We investigated its association with mental health and hazardous behaviours. METHOD: In this pilot study, 504 subjects aged between 18 and 40 were interviewed. STROBE guidelines were used. Socio-economic factors were evaluated...
December 1, 2018: Gaceta Sanitaria
Zhibin Zhang, Jim M Dunwell, Yuan-Ming Zhang
BACKGROUND: Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds are rich in both protein and oil, which are major sources of biofuels and nutrition. Although the difference in seed oil content between soybean (~ 20%) and rapeseed (~ 40%) exists, little is known about its underlying molecular mechanism. RESULTS: An integrated omics analysis was performed in soybean, rapeseed, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L. Heynh), and sesame (Sesamum indicum L...
December 4, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Milan Hodošček, Nadia Elghobashi-Meinhardt
A combination of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and computational analyses uncovers structural features that may influence substrate passage and exposure to the active sites within the proteolytic chamber of the 20S proteasome core particle (CP). MD simulations of the CP reveal relaxation dynamics in which the CP slowly contracts over the 54 ns sampling period. MD simulations of the SyringolinA (SylA) inhibitor within the proteolytic B 1 ring chamber of the CP indicate that favorable van der Waals and electrostatic interactions account for the predominant association of the inhibitor with the walls of the proteolytic chamber...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Olivier J Wouters, Dale M Sandberg, Anban Pillay, Panos G Kanavos
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the South African tendering system for medicines to (a) evaluate its impact on prices and market concentration over a 14-year period and (b) analyze the accuracy of government forecasts of drug demand. METHODS: We calculated Herfindahl-Hirschman indexes to measure market concentration levels based on all pharmaceutical tender contracts issued by the South African government between 2003 and 2016 (n = 8701). We estimated price indexes to track changes in medicine costs over this period...
November 23, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
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