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Yu Cheng, Srinivasa Rao Avula, Wei-Wei Gao, Dinesh Addla, Vijai Kumar Reddy Tangadanchu, Ling Zhang, Jian-Mei Lin, Cheng-He Zhou
A series of new potentially multi-targeting antimicrobial 2-aminothiazolyl quinolones were designed, synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR, MS and HRMS spectra. Bioactive assay manifested that some of the prepared compounds showed moderate to good antibacterial and antifungal activities. Noticeably, compound 10f could effectively inhibit the growth of B. typhi and MRSA with MIC values of 1 and 8 μg/mL, respectively. Experimental results revealed that compound 10f was membrane-active and had the ability to rapidly kill the tested strains and effectively prevent the development of bacterial resistance...
October 7, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Jayasundara Mudiyanselage Kanchana Ganga Kumari Jayasundara, Stephen William Walkden-Brown, Magaret Elizabeth Katz, A F M Fakhrul Islam, Katrin Gondola Renz, Jody McNally, Peter Hunt
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is endemic to most poultry-producing countries worldwide. Immunosuppressive classical and variant IBDV strains endemic to Australia are genetically distinct from other international strains. We report the results of infection experiments with Australian classical strain 06/95 and variant strain 02/95 in specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens. We tested the effects of strain and age of infection on bursal atrophy, viral RNA (vRNA) load in bursa of Fabricius (bursa), spleen, thymus, caecal tonsils, faeces, litter and exhaust dust as determined by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
October 21, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Tina M Mitre, Anmar Khadra, Massimo Pietropaolo
The expression level of tissue-restricted autoantigens (TSA) in the thymus is crucial for the negative selection of autoreactive T cells during central tolerance. The autoimmune regulator factor (AIRE) plays an important role in the positive regulation of these TSA in medullary thymic epithelial cells and, consequently, in the negative selection of high-avidity autoreactive T cells. Recent studies, however, revealed that thymic islet cell autoantigen (ICA69) expression level in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, prone to developing type 1 diabetes (T1D), is reduced due to an increase in the binding affinity of AIRE to the Ica1-promoter region, which regulates ICA69 protein synthesis...
October 17, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences
K Bień, S Lewicki, R Zdanowski, E Skopinska-Różewska, M Krzyżowska
Plants belonging to Rhodiola kirilowii species, members of Rhodiola genus and Crassulaceae family, grow wildly in Tibet, Mongolia and China mountains and are traditionally used as adaptogens, antidepressants and anti-inflammatory remedies. Nowadays, R. kirilowii is cultivated in some countries, also in Poland. In our previous papers we reported immuno- and angio-modulatory effects of aqueous and hydro-alcoholic extracts of radix and rhizome of this plant in non-pregnant and pregnant mice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of feeding pregnant and further lactating mice these extracts on selected thymus function parameters in adult progeny...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Nahid Shahabadi, Mehdi Pourfoulad, Neda Hosseinpour Moghadam
DNA-binding properties of an antiviral drug, valganciclovir (valcyte) was studied by using emission, absorption, circular dichroism, viscosity, differential pulse voltammetry, fluorescence techniques, and computational studies. The drug bound to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) in a groove-binding mode. The calculated binding constant of UV-vis, Ka, is comparable to groove-binding drugs. Competitive fluorimetric studies with Hoechst 33258 showed that valcyte could displace the DNA-bound Hoechst 33258. The drug could not displace intercalated methylene blue from DNA double helix...
October 19, 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
Nahid Shahabadi, Monireh Falsafi, Maryam Maghsudi
The interaction of anticancer drug cytarabine with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions by multispectroscopic techniques and molecular modeling study. The fluorescence spectroscopy and UV absorption spectroscopy indicated drug interacted with CT-DNA in a groove-binding mode, while the binding constant of UV-vis and the number of binding sites were 4.0 ± 0.2 × 10(4) L mol(-1) and 1.39, respectively. The fluorimetric studies showed that the reaction between the drugs with CT-DNA is exothermic...
October 19, 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
Afshin Shirkani, Mohammad Shahrooei, Gholamreza Azizi, Hassan Rokni-Zadeh, Hassan Abolhassani, Shokrollah Farrokhi, Glynis Frans, Xavier Bossuyt, Asghar Aghamohammadi
ZAP-70 deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive form of combined immunodeficiency (CID) characterized by selective absence of circulating CD8 T cells with low, normal, or increased CD4 T cells in peripheral blood. Up to now, 14 unique mutations in the ZAP70 gene have been identified in patients with ZAP-70-related CID. We present a 3-year-old boy with a history of recurrent bacterial infections and autoimmunity. Initial laboratory findings showed a normal total lymphocyte count, but low levels of CD8 and CD4 T cells and an abnormal lymphocyte proliferation response...
October 19, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Bachir Benarba
BACKGROUND/AIM: This study aimed to document and analyzes the local knowledge of medicinal plants' use by traditional healers in South-west Algeria. METHODS: The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in two Saharian regions of South-west of Algeria: Adrar and Bechar. In total, 22 local traditional healers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaire and open questions. Use value (UV), fidelity level (FL), and informant consensus factor (FIC) were used to analyze the obtained data...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Elpis-Athina Vlachopapadopoulou, Marina Vakaki, Fotini-Eleni Karachaliou, Irene Kaloumenou, Kleanthi Kalogerakou, Christina Gali, Stefanos Michalacos
BACKGROUND: During gestation, the primordial thymus migrates from the pharynx to the anterior mediastinum, thus thymic tissue can remain at any point along this path. Intrathyroidal thymic remnants are rare, and their sonographic patterns have only recently been described. This retrospective study presents the sonographic appearance of ectopic intrathyroidal thymus and emphasizes the role of sonography in order to avoid misdiagnosis. METHODS: The population consisted of 42 children, 3...
October 19, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Alberto M Marchevsky, Ann E Walts
The checkpoint protein programmed cell death ligand-1 protein (PD-L1) binds to its receptor (PD-1) activating the PD-L1/PD-1 pathway, an important therapeutic target. There is limited information regarding PD-L1 and PD-1 expression in thymic lesions. Sections from non-neoplastic thymi (n=20), thymomas WHO types A, AB, B1, B2 and B3 (n=38) and thymic squamous cell carcinoma (n=8) were stained for PD-L1 (clone SP142 Spring BioScience), PD-1 (MRQ22 Cell Marque), CD4 (clone SPO32 Cell Marque) and CD8 (JCB117 Ventana)...
October 13, 2016: Human Pathology
Pervez Ahmed Khoso, Tingru Pan, Na Wan, Zijiang Yang, Ci Liu, Shu Li
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) deficiency on autophagy-related genes and on ultrastructural changes in the spleen, bursa of Fabricius, and thymus of chickens. The Se deficiency group was fed a basal diet containing Se at 0.033 mg/kg and the control group was fed the same basal diet containing Se at 0.15 mg/kg. The messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of the autophagy genes microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-I, LC3-II, Beclin 1, dynein, autophagy associated gene 5 (ATG5), and target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) were assessed using real-time qPCR...
October 15, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
A K S Salama, S J Moschos
BACKGROUND: Cancers escape immune surveillance via distinct mechanisms that involve central (negative selection within the thymus) or peripheral (lack of costimulation, receipt of death/anergic signals by tumor, immunoregulatory cell populations) immune tolerance. During the 1990s, moderate clinical benefit was seen using several cytokine therapies for a limited number of cancers. Over the past 20 years, extensive research has been performed to understand the role of various components of peripheral immune tolerance, with the co-inhibitory immune checkpoint molecules cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4), programmed death 1 (PD-1), and its ligand (PD-L1) being the most well characterized at preclinical and clinical levels...
October 13, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Francesca T Cannizzo, Sara Pegolo, Paola Pregel, Elisabetta Manuali, Sonia Salamida, Sara Divari, Frine E Scaglione, Enrico Bollo, Bartolomeo Biolatti, Luca Bargelloni
In livestock production corticosteroids are licensed only for therapy, nevertheless they are often illegally used as growth promoters. The aim of this study was to identify morphological or biomolecular alterations induced by prednisolone (PDN) in experimentally treated beef cattle, since PDN and its metabolites are no longer detectable by LC-MS/MS methods in biological fluids. Moreover, PDN do not induce any histological alterations in thymus, differently from Dexamethasone treatments. Therefore, a marker of illicit treatment for this growth promoter could be useful...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Brandon Coder, Weikan Wang, Liefeng Wang, Zhongdao Wu, Qichuan Zhuge, Dong-Ming Su
The interaction between T cells and the central nervous system (CNS) in homeostasis and injury has been recognized being both pathogenic (CD4+ T-helper 1 - Th1, Th17 and γδT) and ameliorative (Th2 and regulatory T cells - Tregs). However, in-depth studies aimed to elucidate the precise in the aged microenvironment and the dichotomous role of Tregs have just begun and many aspects remain unclear. This is due, not only to a mutual dependency and reciprocal causation of alterations and diseases between the nervous and T cell immune systems, but also to an inconsistent aging of the two systems, which dynamically changes with CNS injury/recovery and/or aging process...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Thiago Alves da Costa, Rosária Di Gangi, Rodolfo Thomé, Marina Barreto Felisbino, Amanda Pires Bonfanti, Larissa Lumi Watanabe Ishikawa, Alexandrina Sartori, Eva Burger, Liana Verinaud
T cell maturation takes place within the thymus, a primary lymphoid organ that is commonly targeted during infections. Previous studies showed that acute infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (Pb), the causative agent of paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), promotes thymic atrophy that is associated with the presence of yeast cells in the organ. However, as human PCM is a chronic infection, it is imperative to investigate the consequences of Pb infection over the thymic structure and function in chronic infection...
2016: PloS One
Amelia Virginia González-Porto, Tomás Martín Arroyo, Carmen Bartolomé Esteban
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The objective of this work was to determine the influence of the soil substrate on the characteristics and properties of a specific type of honey. As such, we analysed the features of a typical single-flower honey, thyme honey, produced in a specific Mediterranean region. Thymus is a genus of aromatic perennial plants that are native to Europe, North Africa and Asia. METHODS: A total of 70 honey samples from hives situated on limestone (38 samples) or gypsum soils (32 samples) were studied...
2016: SpringerPlus
Ai-Ling Chen, Xi Sun, Wei Wang, Jin-Feng Liu, Xin Zeng, Jing-Fan Qiu, Xin-Jian Liu, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Immunosuppression has been described as a consequence of brain injury and infection by different mechanisms. Angiostrongylus cantonensis can cause injury to the central nervous system and eosinophilic meningitis to human. Both T cell and B cell immunity play an essential role in the resistance of the infection. However, whether brain injury caused by A. cantonensis infection can lead to immunosuppression is not clear. Therefore, the present study sought to observe the alteration of immune responses in mice infected with A...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Ping Zhan, Xiao Chen, Xiao-Yuan Wu, Zhi-Bo Hou, Qian Qian, Yu Zhang, Jue Zou, Yuan-Qing Zhang, Ming-Yue Wan, Jian-Dong Wang, Li-Ke Yu, Hai-Yan Xie
INTRODUCTION: For thymic carcinoma (TC), which is a rare epithelial neoplasm of the thymus gland, median survival with current treatments is only 2 years. OBJECTIVES: Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene or its downstream effectors may cause constitutive activation that leads to cell proliferation and metastases. Thus, molecular profiling is essential for selecting TC patients who may respond to anti-EGFR therapies. METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from 61 histological samples of TCs...
October 12, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
- Alamgeer, Muhammad Naveed Mushtaq, Sajid Bashir, Ikram Ullah, Sabeha Karim, Muhammad Rashid, Muhammad Nasir Hayat Malik, Haroonur Rashid
The aim of present study was to evaluate and compare the hypoglycemic activity of different solvents extracts of Thymus serpyllum in rabbits. Diabetes was induced with single intravenous injection of alloxan monohydrate (150mg/kg). Glibenclamide and acarbose were used as standard drugs. The crude powder of Thymus serpyllum (500 mg/kg b.w) significantly reduced blood glucose level in both normal and diabetic rabbits. Various extracts of Thymus serpyllum were compared for their hypoglycemic activity in diabetic rabbits...
September 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Asako Tajima, Isha Pradhan, Xuehui Geng, Massimo Trucco, Yong Fan
One of the hallmarks of modern medicine is the development of therapeutics that can modulate immune responses, especially the adaptive arm of immunity, for disease intervention and prevention. While tremendous progress has been made in the past decades, manipulating the thymus, the primary lymphoid organ responsible for the development and education of T lymphocytes, remains a challenge. One of the major obstacles is the difficulty to reproduce its unique extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment that is essential for maintaining the function and survival of thymic epithelial cells (TECs), the predominant population of cells in the thymic stroma...
October 12, 2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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