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Thymus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101024/bazex-syndrome-in-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma-high-expression-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-lesional-keratinocytes-with-th2-immune-shift
#1
Maki Amano, Takaaki Hanafusa, Sakiko Chikazawa, Makiko Ueno, Takeshi Namiki, Ken Igawa, Keiko Miura, Hiroo Yokozeki
An 82-year-old Japanese man was referred for detailed examination of hyperkeratotic erythematous plaques on his palms and soles for 6 months. Two weeks before his first visit, he had undergone lung lobectomy for right lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Laboratory findings showed elevations of eosinophil counts, serum IgE, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine, SCC antigen, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels. Histological results of a skin biopsy involving the left palm showed psoriasiform dermatitis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100409/effect-of-thymectomy-for-thymic-atrophy-in-myasthenia-gravis-a-retrospective-study-on-93-patients
#2
Keiichi Nakahara, Shunya Nakane, Makoto Nakajima, Satoshi Yamashita, Takeshi Mori, Yukio Ando
To clarify the efficacy of thymectomy among myasthenia gravis (MG) patients with and without thymoma. We classified MG patients who underwent thymectomy into 3 groups, such as thymic atrophy group, thymic follicular hyperplasia (TFH) group and thymoma group. We compared the data of clinical features and postoperative prognosis at very short-term, short-term, and medium-term. The clinical course of MG patients with atrophic thymus after thymectomy was even better than those of TFH or thymoma, in this retrospective study...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099999/high-level-intrathymic-thyrotropin-receptor-expression-in-thyroiditis-prone-mice-protects-against-the-spontaneous-generation-of-pathogenic-thyrotropin-receptor-autoantibodies
#3
Sandra M McLachlan, Holly A Aliesky, Bianca Banuelos, Sylvie Lesage, Roxanne Collin, Basil Rapoport B
The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) A-subunit is the autoantigen targeted by pathogenic autoantibodies that cause Graves' hyperthyroidism, a common autoimmune disease in humans. Previously, we reported that pathogenic TSHR antibodies develop spontaneously in thyroiditis-susceptible NOD.H2(h4) mice bearing a human TSHR A-subunit transgene which is expressed at low levels in both the thyroid and thymus (Lo-expressor transgene). The present study tested recent evidence that high intrathymic TSHR expression protects against the development of pathogenic TSHR antibodies in humans...
January 18, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099866/effector-regulatory-t-cell-differentiation-and-immune-homeostasis-depend-on-the-transcription-factor-myb
#4
Sheila Dias, Angela D'Amico, Erika Cretney, Yang Liao, Julie Tellier, Christine Bruggeman, Francisca F Almeida, Jamie Leahy, Gabrielle T Belz, Gordon K Smyth, Wei Shi, Stephen L Nutt
FoxP3-expressing regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for maintaining immune homeostasis. Activated Treg cells undergo further differentiation into an effector state that highly expresses genes critical for Treg cell function, although how this process is coordinated on a transcriptional level is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that mice lacking the transcription factor Myb in Treg cells succumbed to a multi-organ inflammatory disease. Myb was specifically expressed in, and required for the differentiation of, thymus-derived effector Treg cells...
January 17, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098787/pathological-impairment-cell-cycle-arrest-and-apoptosis-of-thymus-and-bursa-of-fabricius-induced-by-aflatoxin-contaminated-corn-in-broilers
#5
Xi Peng, Shiping Bai, Xuemei Ding, Keying Zhang
This study aimed to evaluate the comparative effects of aflatoxin-contaminated corn on the thymus and bursa of Fabricius (BF) in chickens by detecting histopathological lesions, cell cycle phase distribution and apoptosis. A total of 900 COBB500 male broilers were randomly allocated into five groups. The experiment lasted for six weeks and the five dietary treatments consisted of uncontaminated corn (control), 25% contaminated corn, 50% contaminated corn, 75% contaminated corn and 100% contaminated corn groups...
January 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097460/synthesis-spectral-characterization-dna-protein-binding-dna-cleavage-cytotoxicity-antioxidative-and-molecular-docking-studies-of-cu-ii-complexes-containing-schiff-base-bpy-phen-ligands
#6
Berelli Anupama, Airva Aruna, Vijjulatha Manga, Sreekanth Sivan, Madamsetty Vijay Sagar, Ravula Chandrashekar
Ternary Cu(II) complexes [Cu(II)(L)(bpy)Cl] 1, [Cu(II)(L)(Phen)Cl] 2 [L = 2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-4(2 hydroxy-5-methyl benzylideneamino)-pyrazol-5-one, bpy = 2,2(') bipyridine, phen =1,10 phenanthroline) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, UV-Visible, FT-IR, ESR, Mass, thermogravimetric and SEM EDAX techniques. The complexes exhibit octahedral geometry. The interaction of the Cu(II) with cailf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was explored by using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Fluorescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095872/an-unusual-combined-thymic-carcinoma-composed-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-type-ab-thymoma-a-rare-case-report
#7
Yufeng Jiang, Yang Liu, Xiuying Shi, Xiaoyun Mao, Yang Zhao, Chuifeng Fan
BACKGROUND: Combined thymic carcinoma is a malignant neoplasm of the thymus recently added to the 4th edition of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification of tumors of the lung, pleura, thymus and heart. It involves at least one type of thymic carcinoma and another thymic epithelial tumor. The previously used term "combined thymic epithelial tumor" has been abandoned. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present an unusual case of combined thymic carcinoma of the thymus in a 44-year-old male who had suffered from fever, chest pain, chest tightness and shortness of breath...
January 17, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094577/protective-role-of-bentonite-against-aflatoxin-b1-and-ochratoxin-a-induced-immunotoxicity-in-broilers
#8
Sheraz Ahmed Bhatti, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi, Muhammad Saqib, Ahrar Khan, Zahoor Ul-Hassan
The present study was designed to investigate any ameliorative effects of bentonite (BN) against immuno-pathological alterations induced by dietary aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) or ochratoxin A (OTA) in broiler chicks. In one experiment, AFB1 (0.1, 0.2 or 0.6 mg/kg feed) was fed alone and par alley with bentonite clay (3.7 or 7.5 g/kg feed) to the broilers. In the second experiment, the broilers were given feed contaminated with OTA (0.15, 0.3 or 1.0 mg/kg feed) alone and in combination with bentonite clay (3...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094275/sulfated-cyclocarya-paliurus-polysaccharides-markedly-attenuates-inflammation-and-oxidative-damage-in-lipopolysaccharide-treated-macrophage-cells-and-mice
#9
Zhijun Wang, Jianhua Xie, Yujiao Yang, Fan Zhang, Shengnan Wang, Ting Wu, Mingyue Shen, Mingyong Xie
Natural polysaccharides and their modified derivatives are crucial supplements to the prevention of inflammation. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of sulfated modification on the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities of Cyclocarya paliurus polysaccharides (CP). A sulfated CP, S-CP1-4 was obtained using chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method. The chemical components and FT-IR spectrum confirmed that sulfated group was synthesized to the polysaccharide chains successfully. S-CP1-4 was found to inhibit nitric oxide production, phagocytic activity and the release of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β in lipopolysaccharide-treated macrophage cells, RAW 264...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093225/il-4r-suppresses-airway-inflammation-in-bronchial-asthma-by-inhibiting-the-il-4-stat6-pathway
#10
Ying Liu, Hui Zhang, Ran Ni, Wen-Qing Jia, Yuan-Yuan Wang
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the mechanisms of how IL-4R suppresses airway inflammation in bronchial asthma by inhibiting the IL-4/STAT6 pathway. METHODS: A total of 27 BALB/c male mice were selected and divided into control, asthma and IL-4R groups. Ovalbumin-induced mouse asthma model was established. Maximal pulmonary resistance was recorded. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) and periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining were conducted to observe the pathological changes in lung tissue...
January 13, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092862/protective-effects-of-total-flavonoids-of-astragalus-against-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-in-rats-by-regulating-opg-rankl-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway
#11
Xin-Yu Liu, Lu Xu, Ying Wang, Jin-Xia Li, Yu Zhang, Chong Zhang, Sha-Sha Wang, Xue-Mei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Astragalus membranaceus Bunge is one of the oldest and most frequently used crude herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. The total flavonoids of Astragalus (TFA) are the main active components isolated from Astragalus membranaceus Bunge. Our recent study has shown its potential immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in vivo and in vitro. However, its anti-arthritic effects and mechanisms of action involved have not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects and possible mechanisms of TFA on Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA)-induced arthritis in rats...
January 13, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091621/differential-susceptibility-and-maturation-of-thymocyte-subsets-during-salmonella-typhimurium-infection-insights-on-the-roles-of-glucocorticoids-and-interferon-gamma
#12
Shamik Majumdar, Mukta Deobagkar-Lele, Vasista Adiga, Abinaya Raghavan, Nitin Wadhwa, Syed Moiz Ahmed, Supriya Rajendra Rananaware, Subhashish Chakraborty, Omana Joy, Dipankar Nandi
The thymus is known to atrophy during infections; however, a systematic study of changes in thymocyte subpopulations has not been performed. This aspect was investigated, using multi-color flow cytometry, during oral infection of mice with Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). The major highlights are: First, a block in the developmental pathway of CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative (DN) thymocytes is observed. Second, CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive (DP) thymocytes, mainly in the DP1 (CD5(lo)CD3(lo)) and DP2 (CD5(hi)CD3(int)), but not DP3 (CD5(int)CD3(hi)), subsets are reduced...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090811/antibacterial-combination-therapy-using-co-3-cu-2-zn-2-and-pd-2-complexes-their-calf-thymus-dna-binding-studies
#13
Fatemeh Khosravi, Hassan Mansouri-Torshizi
Four Co(III)-, Cu(II)-, Zn(II)- and Pd(II)- based potent antibacterial complexes of formula K3[Co(ox)3].3H2O (I), [Cu(bpy)2Cl]Cl.5H2O (II), [Zn(bpy)3]Cl2 (III) and [Pd(bpy)2](NO3)2 (IV) (where ox is oxalate and bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine) were synthesized. They were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements, UV-Vis, FT-IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectra. These metal complexes were ordered in three combination series of I+II, I+II+III and I+II+III+IV. Antibacterial activity was tested for each of these four metal complexes and their combinations against gram positive and gram negative bacteria...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090785/thymic-cytoarchitecture-changes-in-mice-exposed-to-vanadium
#14
Martha Ustarroz-Cano, Isabel Garcia-Pelaez, Silvana Cervantes-Yepez, Nelly Lopez-Valdez, Teresa I Fortoul
The thymus is a vital immune system organ wherein selection of T-lymphocytes occurs in a process regulated by dendritic and epithelial thymic cells. Previously, we have reported that in a mouse model of vanadium inhalation, a decrease in CD11c dendritic cells was observed. In the present study, we report on a thymic cortex-medulla distribution distortion in these hosts due to apparent effects of the inhaled vanadium on cytokeratin-5 (K5(+)) epithelial cells in the same mouse model - after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of exposure - by immunohistochemistry...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088690/electrochemical-studies-of-dna-interaction-and-antimicrobial-activities-of-mn-ii-fe-iii-co-ii-and-ni-ii-schiff-base-tetraazamacrocyclic-complexes
#15
Anuj Kumar, Vinod Kumar Vashistha, Prashant Tevatia, Randhir Singh
Tetraazamacrocyclic complexes of Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II) and Ni(II) have been synthesized by template method. These tetraazamacrocycles have been analyzed with various techniques like molar conductance, IR, UV-vis, mass spectral and cyclic voltammetric studies. On the basis of all these studies, octahedral geometry has been assigned to these tetraazamacrocyclic complexes. The DNA binding properties of these macrocyclic complexes have been investigated by electronic absorption spectra, fluorescence spectra, cyclic voltammetric and differential pulse voltammetric studies...
January 6, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087919/presumptive-spontaneous-lysosomal-storage-like-disease-in-a-crl-cd1-icr-mouse
#16
Krista M
A clinically unremarkable 4.5-mo-old female Crl:CD1(ICR) VAF/Elite mouse was euthanized for scheduled sentinel processing.Gross necropsy findings included significant hepatosplenomegaly and visceral lymphadenomegaly, resulting in a preliminarygross diagnosis of lymphoma. Histology revealed florid accumulations of large, 'foamy' macrophages present in the bone marrow, small intestines, and viscera including liver, spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, uterus, and ovaries. The cytoplasm of these cells was abundant, stained pale blue with Wright-Giemsa and was periodic acid-Schiff positive...
January 13, 2017: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081217/collective-genetic-interaction-effects-and-the-role-of-antigen-presenting-cells-in-autoimmune-diseases
#17
Hyung Jun Woo, Chenggang Yu, Jaques Reifman
Autoimmune diseases occur when immune cells fail to develop or lose their tolerance toward self and destroy body's own tissues. Both insufficient negative selection of self-reactive T cells and impaired development of regulatory T cells preventing effector cell activation are believed to contribute to autoimmunity. Genetic predispositions center around the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II loci involved in antigen presentation, the key determinant of CD4+ T cell activation. Recent studies suggested that variants in the MHC region also exhibit significant non-additive interaction effects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077418/a-novel-humanized-mouse-model-with-significant-improvement-of-class-switched-antigen-specific-antibody-production
#18
Hua Yu, Chiara Borsotti, Jean-Nicolas Schickel, Shu Zhu, Till Strowig, Elizabeth E Eynon, Davor Frleta, Cagan Gurer, Andrew J Murphy, George D Yancopoulos, Eric Meffre, Markus G Manz, Richard A Flavell
Humanized mice are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, the existing models cannot support robust adaptive immune responses, especially the generation of class-switched, antigen-specific antibody responses. Here we describe a new mouse strain, in which human IL6 gene encoding the cytokine that is important for B and T cell differentiation was knocked into its respective mouse locus. The provision of human IL6 not only enhanced thymopoiesis and periphery T-cell engraftment, but also significantly increased class switched memory B cells and serum IgG...
January 11, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077132/foxn1-deficient-nude-severe-combined-immunodeficiency
#19
REVIEW
Ioanna A Rota, Fatima Dhalla
Nude severe combined immunodeficiency is a rare inherited disease caused by autosomal recessive loss-of-function mutations in FOXN1. This gene encodes a transcription factor essential for the development of the thymus, the primary lymphoid organ that supports T-cell development and selection. To date nine cases have been reported presenting with the clinical triad of absent thymus resulting in severe T-cell immunodeficiency, congenital alopecia universalis and nail dystrophy. Diagnosis relies on testing for FOXN1 mutations, which allows genetic counselling and guides therapeutic management...
January 11, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076987/antioxidant-activity-and-cholinesterase-inhibition-studies-of-four-flavouring-herbs-from-alentejo
#20
Sílvia Arantes, Andreia Piçarra, Fátima Candeias, A Teresa Caldeira, M Rosário Martins
Essential oils (EOs) and aqueous extracts of aerial parts of four aromatic species, Calamintha nepeta, Foeniculum vulgare, Mentha spicata and Thymus mastichina, from southwest of Portugal were characterised chemically and analysed in order to evaluate their antioxidant potential and cholinesterase inhibitory activities. The main components of EOs were oxygenated monoterpenes, and aqueous extracts were rich in phenol and flavonoid compounds. EOs and aqueous extracts presented a high antioxidant potential, with ability to protect the lipid substrate, free radical scavenging and iron reducing power...
January 11, 2017: Natural Product Research
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