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Narges Aghaallaei, Baubak Bajoghli
T-cell development is coupled with a highly ordered migratory pattern. Lymphoid progenitors must follow a precise journey; starting from the hematopoietic tissue, they move toward the thymus and then migrate into and out of distinct thymic microenvironments, where they receive signals and cues required for their differentiation into naïve T-cells. Knowing where, when, and how these cells make directional "decisions" is key to understanding T-cell development. Such insights can be gained by directly observing developing T-cells within their environment under various conditions and following specific experimental manipulations...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mingsan Miao, Shuo Tian, Lin Guo, Ming Bai, Xiaoyan Fang, Shaoyan Liu
Objective: To investigate the effect of curculigoside on mice with simulated perimenopausal depression. Method: Gavage with high, medium, small dose of curculigoside once daily for 30 d consecutive days. Record the related behavior index. The wet weights and viscera indexes of the mouse uterus, thymus, and spleen were measured. Half of the brain was homogenized and tested for 5-HT and DA concentrations. The levels of serum E2, T, FSH, and LH were measured as well...
December 2017: Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
Sujun Sun, Haiyu Ji, Yingying Feng, Yu Kang, Juan Yu, Anjun Liu
Background: Thymic atrophy was discovered in tumor-bearing mice in recent years. Methods: Flow cytometry was carried out including Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining, PI staining, Terminal dUTP nick-end labeling, CD3-FITC/CD19-PE and CD8-FITC/CD4-PE double staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction were also investigated. Results: According to our experiments, we demonstrated that no signs of apoptosis in thymocytes were found in H22-bearing mice, while the proportions of CD4+ T cells and CD8+ T cells in thymuses were remarkably increased, the opposite tendency was found in peripheral bloods, and only CD3+ CD8+ T cells were discovered in H22 solid tumors...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Lin Sun, Chenyang Dai, Jiayin Wu, Chen Chen, Xinyi Wu
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is an IL-7-like cytokine, which is secreted by epithelial cells under the stimulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Dendritic cells (DCs) which express the thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor (TSLPR) can be activated by TSLP. Mature DCs can express the OX40 ligand, which has the ability to combine with OX40 on the surface of T cells to stimulate T cell proliferation. TSLP secreted by corneal epithelial cells can engage in the process of T helper type 2 (Th2) inflammation in Aspergillus fumigatus keratitis, but the mechanism remains unclear...
March 14, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Thomas Joshua Pasvol, Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Successful roll-out of paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant increase in survival of adolescents and young people growing up with HIV. Those on suppressive ART since childhood represent a unique group particularly well positioned to interrupt ART and achieve post-treatment control (PTC), or HIV remission. This maybe a consequence of early and sustained treatment since infancy, the small size of the HIV reservoir, the presence of a functioning thymus and a more 'flexible' immune system better able to respond to novel immune therapeutic interventions when compared with adults who acquired HIV at a time of immunological maturity and thymic involution...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Mariona Camps-Bossacoma, Francisco J Pérez-Cano, Àngels Franch, Margarida Castell
Background: A 10% cocoa-enriched diet influences immune system functionality including the prevention of the antibody response and the induction of lower immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations. However, neither cocoa polyphenols nor cocoa fiber can totally explain these immunoregulatory properties. Objectives: This study aimed to establish the influence of cocoa theobromine in systemic and intestinal Ig concentrations and to determine the effect of cocoa or theobromine feeding on lymphoid tissue lymphocyte composition...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Li Xue, Yan Geng, Ming Li, Yao-Feng Jin, Hui-Xun Ren, Xia Li, Feng Wu, Biao Wang, Wei-Ying Cheng, Teng Chen, Yan-Jiong Chen
Previous studies have demonstrated that methamphetamine (MA) influences host immunity; however, the effect of MA on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune responses remains unknown. Mast cells (MCs) are considered to serve an important role in the innate and acquired immune response, but it remains unknown whether MA modulates MC activation and LPS-stimulated cytokine production. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of MA on LPS-induced MC activation and the production of MC-derived cytokines in mice...
April 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Philippe A Gallay, Udayan Chatterji, Aaron Kirchhoff, Angel Gandarilla, Richard B Pyles, Marc M Baum, John A Moss
Introduction: In the absence of a vaccine, there is an urgent need for the identification of effective agents that prevent HIV transmission in uninfected individuals. Non-vaccine Biomedical Prevention (nBP) methods, such as topical or systemic pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), are promising strategies to slow down the spread of AIDS. Methods: In this study, we investigated the microbicidal efficacy of the viral membrane-disrupting amphipathic SWLRDIWDWICEVLSDFK peptide called C5A...
2018: Open Virology Journal
Lauren A Bruns, Sarah Isbey, Melisa Tanverdi, Ian Kane
Although there are several reports of intracranial hemorrhage associated with vitamin K deficient bleeding, there are few reported cases of extracranial manifestations, specifically involving the thymus. Here, we discuss the unique case of a 4-week-old infant presenting with scrotal discoloration, respiratory distress, and widened mediastinum, found to have thymic hemorrhage related to confirmed coagulopathy secondary to late-onset vitamin K deficiency bleeding of the newborn.
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Hitoshi Hasegawa, Takuya Matsumoto
Dendritic cells (DCs) are a heterogeneous population playing a pivotal role in immune responses and tolerance. DCs promote immune tolerance by participating in the negative selection of autoreactive T cells in the thymus. Furthermore, to eliminate autoreactive T cells that have escaped thymic deletion, DCs also induce immune tolerance in the periphery through various mechanisms. Breakdown of these functions leads to autoimmune diseases. Moreover, DCs play a critical role in maintenance of homeostasis in body organs, especially the skin and intestine...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tomohisa Okamura, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Keishi Fujio
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are necessary for the maintenance of immune tolerance. Tregs are divided into two major populations: one is thymus derived and the other develops in the periphery. Among these Tregs, CD4+ CD25+ Tregs, which mainly originate in the thymus, have been extensively studied. Transcription factor Foxp3 is well known as a master regulatory gene for the development and function of CD4+ CD25+ Tregs. On the other hand, peripheral Tregs consist of distinct cell subsets including Foxp3-dependent extrathymically developed Tregs and interleukin (IL)-10-producing type I regulatory T (Tr1) cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Josef Davidsson, Andreas Puschmann, Ulf Tedgård, David Bryder, Lars Nilsson, Jörg Cammenga
Germline mutations in the SAMD9 and SAMD9L genes, located in tandem on chromosome 7, are associated with a clinical spectrum of disorders including the MIRAGE syndrome, ataxia-pancytopenia syndrome and myelodysplasia and leukemia syndrome with monosomy 7 syndrome. Germline gain-of-function mutations increase SAMD9 or SAMD9L's normal antiproliferative effect. This causes pancytopenia and generally restricted growth and/or specific organ hypoplasia in non-hematopoietic tissues. In blood cells, additional somatic aberrations that reverse the germline mutation's effect, and give rise to the clonal expansion of cells with reduced or no antiproliferative effect of SAMD9 or SAMD9L include complete or partial chromosome 7 loss or loss-of-function mutations in SAMD9 or SAMD9L...
February 25, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Taku Kuwabara, Yukihide Matsui, Fumio Ishikawa, Motonari Kondo
The adaptive immune system involves antigen-specific host defense mechanisms mediated by T and B cells. In particular, CD4⁺ T cells play a central role in the elimination of pathogens. Immunological tolerance in the thymus regulates T lymphocytes to avoid self-components, including induction of cell death in immature T cells expressing the self-reactive T-cell receptor repertoire. In the periphery, mature T cells are also regulated by tolerance, e.g., via induction of anergy or regulatory T cells. Thus, T cells strictly control intrinsic signal transduction to prevent excessive responses or self-reactions...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ji-Won Park, Han-Sol Lee, Yourim Lim, Jin-Hyub Paik, Ok-Kyoung Kwon, Jung-Hee Kim, Imam Paryanto, Prasetyawan Yunianto, Sangho Choi, Sei-Ryang Oh, Kyung-Seop Ahn
Rhododendron album Blume (RA) has traditionally been used as an herbal medicine and is considered to have anti‑inflammatory properties. It is a well‑known medicine for treatment of allergic or atopic diseases. In the present study, the biological effects of an RA methanol extract (RAME) on inflammation were investigated in tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α)/interferon‑γ (IFN‑γ)‑stimulated human keratinocytes. The present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms by which RAME inhibited TNF‑α/IFN‑γ‑induced expression of chemokines [thymus‑ and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) and macrophage‑derived chemokine (MDC)] and cytokines [interleukin (IL)‑6 and IL‑8] through the nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) pathway in human keratinocytes...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Xinghua Gao, Qiuhua Cao, Yan Cheng, Dandan Zhao, Zhuo Wang, Hongbao Yang, Qijin Wu, Linjun You, Yue Wang, Yanting Lin, Xianjing Li, Yun Wang, Jin-Song Bian, Dongdong Sun, Lingyi Kong, Lutz Birnbaumer, Yong Yang
Chronic stress is known to promote inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unresolved. Here, we found chronic stress to sensitize mice to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis; to increase the infiltration of B cells, neutrophils, and proinflammatory ly6Chi macrophages in colonic lamina propria; and to present with decreased thymus and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) coefficients. Circulating total white blood cells were significantly increased after stress, and the proportion of MLN-associated immune cells were largely changed...
March 12, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Swetha K Maddili, Ramesh Katla, Vijaya Kumar Kannekanti, Naveen Kumar Bejjanki, Balaraju Tuniki, Cheng-He Zhou, Himabindu Gandham
The binding behaviour between calf thymus DNA and synthesized benzothiazolyl triazolium derivatives as potent antimicrobial agents was explored by means of spectroscopic applications together with molecular docking study at the sub-domain IIA, binding site I of human serum albumin (HSA). Most of the synthesized derivatives presented significant antimicrobial inhibition when compared with the clinical Norfloxacin, Chloromycin, and Fluconazole. In particular, compound 5q presented efficient anti-Bacillus subtilis, anti-Escherichia coli, anti-Salmonella typhi, and anti-Psuedomonas aeruginosa activity with low MIC values of 2-8 μg/mL which were relatively superior to the reference drugs...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Maha K Gohar, Amal H Atta, Mohamed M Nasr, Doaa N Hussein
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a worldwide chronic inflammation of skin.Many factors and chemokines play role in pathogenesis of AD. Identifying the reliable biomarkers to diagnose and assess severity of AD is important. In this study we aimed to find a reliable biomarker to determine the severity of AD and monitor treatment as well as, examining the possible association between IL-18 gene [rs 187238] promoter polymorphism and AD disease. The study included 30 Egyptian patients with AD and 30 healthy controls. Patients were clinically evaluated according to SCORAD scoring system...
June 2017: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
Katsuhiro Nakagawa, Takanori Matsuki, Liang Zhao, Kanako Kuniyoshi, Hiroki Tanaka, Isao Ebina, Kenta J Yoshida, Hiroshi Nabeshima, Kiyoharu Fukushima, Hisashi Kanemaru, Fumihiro Yamane, Takahiro Kawasaki, Tomohisa Machida, Hisamichi Naito, Nobuyuki Takakura, Takashi Satoh, Shizuo Akira
Schlafen-8 (Slfn8) is a member of the Schlafen family of proteins, which harbor helicase domains and are induced by LPS and interferons. It has been reported that the Schlafen family are involved in various cellular functions, including proliferation, differentiation and regulation of virus replication. Slfn8 has been implicated in T-cell differentiation in the thymus. However, the roles of Slfn8 in the immune system remains unclear. In this study, we generated Slfn8 knockout mice (Slfn8-/-) and investigated the immunological role of Slfn8 using the T-cell-mediated autoimmune model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)...
March 8, 2018: International Immunology
Melda Onal, Alex H Carlson, Jeff D Thostenson, Nancy A Benkusky, Mark B Meyer, Seong M Lee, J Wesley Pike
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) production is regulated by both calciotropic hormones and inflammation. Consistent with this, elevated FGF23 levels are associated with inflammatory markers as well as parathyroid hormone (PTH) in various disease states, including chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning Fgf23 transcription in response to these regulators are largely unknown. We therefore utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) data from an osteocyte cell line to identify potential regulatory regions of the Fgf23 gene...
January 2018: JBMR Plus
Mouli Saha, Promita Nandy, Mousumi Chakraborty, Piyal Das, Saurabh Das
pKa of a compound is crucial for determining the contributions of different forms of it towards overall binding with DNA. Hence it is important to use correct pKa values in DNA interaction studies. This study takes a look at the importance of pKa values to realize binding of compounds with DNA. Since pKa of a compound determined in the presence of DNA is quite different from that determined in its absence hence, presence of different forms of a compound during interaction with DNA is different from that realized if the determination of pKa is done in normal aqueous solution in absence of DNA...
February 6, 2018: Biophysical Chemistry
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