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Diabetes,Islet pancreatic cell

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30546031/age-dependent-protection-of-insulin-secretion-in-diet-induced-obese-mice
#1
Elizabeth R De Leon, Jacqueline A Brinkman, Rachel J Fenske, Trillian Gregg, Brian A Schmidt, Dawn S Sherman, Nicole E Cummings, Darby C Peter, Michelle E Kimple, Dudley W Lamming, Matthew J Merrins
Type 2 diabetes is an age-and-obesity associated disease driven by impairments in glucose homeostasis that ultimately result in defective insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. To deconvolve the effects of age and obesity in an experimental model of prediabetes, we fed young and aged mice either chow or a short-term high-fat/high-sucrose Western diet (WD) and examined how weight, glucose tolerance, and β-cell function were affected. Although WD induced a similar degree of weight gain in young and aged mice, a high degree of heterogeneity was found exclusively in aged mice...
December 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541957/protein-rich-extract-of-musca-domestica-larvae-alleviated-metabolic-disorder-in-stz-induced-type-2-diabetic-rat-model-via-hepatoprotective-and-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-protective-activities
#2
Hanfang Mei, Jianhua Xu, Yinru He, Xia Yang, Wenbin Liu, Wei Tian, Y U Zeng, Jiayong Zhu
The study was designed to explore the beneficial effect of Musca domestica larvae extract (MDLE) on a metabolic disorder using a diabetic rat model. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were treated with or without MDLE. Blood glucose, insulin levels, lipid profiles, and oxidative stress markers were measured. The morphological changes in the pancreas and liver were determined, as well as insulin expression. The expression of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), phospho-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK)/total AMPK, superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), catalase (CAT), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) were detected...
December 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541952/primary-study-on-the-hypoglycemic-mechanism-of-5rolglp-hv-in-stz-induced-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-mice
#3
Yanan Wang, Minggang Li, Zaizhong Ni
5rolGLP-HV is a promising dual-function peptide for the treatment of diabetes and thrombosis simultaneously. For investigating the therapeutic mechanism of 5rolGLP-HV for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), STZ-induced diabetic mice were established and treated with 5rolGLP-HV. The results showed that daily water and food intake, blood glucose, serum and pancreatic insulin levels significantly decreased after 5rolGLP-HV treatment with various oral concentrations, and 16 mg/kg was the optimal dose for controlling diabetes...
December 2018: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541144/pancreatic-islet-transplantation-in-humans-recent-progress-and-future-directions
#4
Michael R Rickels, R Paul Robertson
Pancreatic islet transplantation has become an established approach to β-cell replacement therapy for the treatment of insulin deficient diabetes. Recent progress in techniques for islet isolation, islet culture, and peri-transplant management of the islet transplant recipient have resulted in substantial improvements in metabolic and safety outcomes for patients. For patients requiring total or sub-total pancreatectomy for benign disease of the pancreas, isolation of islets from the diseased pancreas with intrahepatic transplantation of autologous islets can prevent or ameliorate post-surgical diabetes, and for patients previously experiencing painful recurrent acute or chronic pancreatitis, quality-of-life is substantially improved...
December 12, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537678/investigation-of-the-diabetic-effects-of-maternal-high-glucose-diet-on-rats
#5
Halis Ozkan, Senay Topsakal, Ozlem Ozmen
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus become an epidemic problem throughout the world. Relation of the diabetes with diet is known. Some evidence is reported about mother died and risk of diabetes in babies during the life related with gestational diabetes. This study was conducted to examine the effects of the exposure of high-dose sucrose to rats and pups during pregnancy and lactation. METHODS: The mother rats were categorized into four groups, during pregnancy and until the offspring were 1-month-old, as follows: Group 1, provided with normal drinking water; Group 2, provided with water containing 10%; Group 3, 20%; and Group 4, 30% table sugar...
December 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535697/characterization-of-the-goto-kakizaki-gk-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#6
Paul C Guest
The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus, produced originally by selective inbreeding for a hyperglycemic trait. These rats are characterized as having insulin resistance and an insulin secretory defect. Pancreatic islets from these mice show abnormal morphology in the distribution of glucagon-secreting α cells and insulin-secreting β cells, which may affect paracrine functions involved in the secretory response. This chapter describes the characterization of GK rat islets using immunofluorescence microscopy and Western blot analyses to demonstrate the effects on islet architecture and how this translates to changes in expression of predominant islet proteins...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535681/monosodium-glutamate-msg-induced-animal-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#7
Zahra Bahadoran, Parvin Mirmiran, Asghar Ghasemi
In 1976, an animal model of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) was described by Cameron et al. using injection of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in KK mice during the neonatal period. Some years later, similar models have been developed by various doses and durations and the main of these models exhibited obesity and features of diabetes mellitus, including glycosuria, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, decreased glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity. Studies indicated that MSG treatment of newborn animals generates necrosis of neuronal cells of the hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus and arcuate nucleus...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532775/antidiabetic-effects-of-the-ethanolic-root-extract-of-uvaria-chamae-p-beauv-annonaceae-in-alloxan-induced-diabetic-rats-a-potential-alternative-treatment-for-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Jonathan Emeka Emordi, Esther Oluwatoyin Agbaje, Ibrahim Adekunle Oreagba, Osede Ignis Iribhogbe
Diabetes mellitus has been a menace to mankind from time immemorial. However, a natural product such as U. chamae P. Beauv (Annonaceae) offers alternative treatment for diabetes mellitus. The study aimed at evaluating antidiabetic activity of the ethanolic root extract of U. chamae in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in Sprague Dawley rats after overnight fast with 150 mg/kg alloxan intraperitoneally. After 72 h, those with plasma glucose levels >200 mg/dl were classified as diabetic...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30532033/bioluminescent-reporter-assay-for-monitoring-er-stress-in-human-beta-cells
#9
Maria J L Kracht, Eelco J P de Koning, Rob C Hoeben, Bart O Roep, Arnaud Zaldumbide
During type 1 diabetes development, cells in the islets of Langerhans engage adaptive mechanisms in response to inflammatory signals to cope with stress, to restore cellular homeostasis, and to preserve cell function. Disruption of these mechanisms may induce the formation of a repertoire of stress-induced neoantigens, which are critical in the loss of tolerance to beta cells and the development of autoimmunity. While multiple lines of evidence argue for a critical role of the endoplasmic reticulum in these processes, the lack of tools to specifically monitor beta cell stress hampers the development of therapeutic interventions focusing on maintaining endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis...
December 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530075/synthesis-and-identification-of-novel-pyridazinylpyrazolone-based-diazo-compounds-as-inhibitors-of-human-islet-amyloid-polypeptide-aggregation
#10
Syed Usama Bin Farrukh, Ibrahim Javed, Abdul Qayyum Ather, Abdul-Hamid Emwas, Meshari Alazmi, Xin Gao, Ghayoor Abbas Chotana, Thomas P Davis, Pu Chun Ke, Rahman Shah Zaib Saleem
We have carried out a docking inspired synthesis and screening of a library of diazenyl-derivatives of pyridazinylpyrazolone molecules for their ability to modulate the amyloidogenic self-assembly of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP). hIAPP is a 37-residue peptide which is involved in glycemic control along with insulin. Its extracellular fibrillar assemblies in pancreatic β-cells are responsible for type 2 diabetes. A three-step synthetic scheme was used to prepare these novel compounds using 2-(6-chloropyridazin-3-yl)-5-methyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-pyrazol-3-one as a key intermediate that was reacted with various diazo electrophiles to generate a library of compounds with yields ranging from 64 to 85%...
November 28, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529081/nanotopographical-regulation-of-pancreatic-islet-like-cluster-formation-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-using-a-gradient-pattern-chip
#11
Jong Hyun Kim, Bo Gi Park, Suel-Kee Kim, Dong-Hyun Lee, Gyung Gyu Lee, Deok-Ho Kim, Byung-Ok Choi, Kyu Back Lee, Jong-Hoon Kim
Bioengineering approaches to regulate stem cell fates aim to recapitulate the in vivo microenvironment. In recent years, manipulating the micro- and nano-scale topography of the stem cell niche has gained considerable interest for the purposes of controlling extrinsic mechanical cues to regulate stem cell fate and behavior in vitro. Here, we established an optimal nanotopographical system to improve 3-dimensional (3D) differentiation of pancreatic cells from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) by testing gradient-pattern chips of nano-scale polystyrene surface structures with varying sizes and shapes...
December 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30527998/zinc-chelating-small-molecules-preferentially-accumulate-and-function-within-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#12
Timothy M Horton, Paul A Allegretti, Sooyeon Lee, Hannah P Moeller, Mark Smith, Justin P Annes
Diabetes is a hyperglycemic condition characterized by pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and depletion. Whereas methods for monitoring β-cell function in vivo exist, methods to deliver therapeutics to β cells are lacking. We leveraged the rare ability of β cells to concentrate zinc to preferentially trap zinc-binding molecules within β cells, resulting in β-cell-targeted compound delivery. We determined that zinc-rich β cells and islets preferentially accumulated TSQ (6-methoxy-8-p-toluenesulfonamido-quinoline) in a zinc-dependent manner compared with exocrine pancreas...
November 16, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30526660/overexpression-of-apelin-in-wharton-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cell-reverses-insulin-resistance-and-promotes-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#13
Lian Ru Gao, Ning Kun Zhang, Yan Zhang, Yu Chen, Li Wang, Ying Zhu, Hai Hong Tang
BACKGROUND: Apelin plays a key beneficial role in energy metabolism by increasing glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity; however, apelin has a short half-life because it is rapidly cleared from the circulation limiting its therapeutic benefit. The aim of this study is to create a new approach to treat type 2 diabetes by inducing prolonged expression of apelin in Wharton's jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (WJ-MSCs). METHODS: A type 2 diabetic rat model was given a high-fat diet combined with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection...
December 7, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524692/improvement-of-the-functionality-of-pancreatic-langerhans-islets-via-reduction-of-bacterial-contamination-and-apoptosis-using-phenolic-compounds
#14
Mahban Rahimifard, Shermineh Moini-Nodeh, Kamal Niaz, Maryam Baeeri, Hossein Jamalifar, Mohammad Abdollahi
Objectives: During type-1 diabetes treating by pancreatic islet transplantation, increasing oxidative stress and microbial contaminations are the main reasons of transplantation failure. In this study, we evaluated anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and antimicrobial potentials of phenolic compounds called ellagic acid (EA) and silybin on rat pancreatic islets. Materials and Methods: By doing MTT assay, effective concentrations of EA and silybin were determined as 1500 and 2100 μM, respectively...
September 2018: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524468/type-1-diabetes-mellitus-associated-genetic-variants-contribute-to-overlapping-immune-regulatory-networks
#15
Denis M Nyaga, Mark H Vickers, Craig Jefferies, Jo K Perry, Justin M O'Sullivan
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic metabolic disorder characterized by the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic islet beta cells in genetically predisposed individuals. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 60 risk regions across the human genome, marked by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which confer genetic predisposition to T1D. There is increasing evidence that disease-associated SNPs can alter gene expression through spatial interactions that involve distal loci, in a tissue- and development-specific manner...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30524058/oxygen-transporter-for-the-hypoxic-transplantation-site
#16
Hirotake Komatsu, Colin A Cook, Nelson Gonzalez, Leonard Medrano, Mayra Salgado, Feng Sui, Junfeng Li, Fouad Kandeel, Yoko Mullen, Yu-Chong Tai
Cell transplantation is a promising treatment for complementing lost function by replacing new cells with a desired function, e.g., pancreatic islet transplantation for diabetics. To prevent cell obliteration, oxygen supply is critical after transplantation, especially until the graft is sufficiently re-vascularized. To supply oxygen during this period, we developed a chemical-/electrical-free implantable oxygen transporter that delivers oxygen to the hypoxic graft site from ambient air by diffusion potential...
November 22, 2018: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523046/gpr120-protects-lipotoxicity-induced-pancreatic-beta-cell-dysfunction-through-regulation-of-pdx1-expression-and-inhibition-of-islet-inflammation
#17
Yi Wang, Ting Xie, Dan Zhang, Po Sing Leung
G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) has been shown to act as an omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid sensor and is involved in insulin secretion. However, the underlying mechanism in pancreatic beta cells remains unclear. To explore the potential link between GPR120 and beta-cell function, its agonist DHA and GSK137647AS were used in palmitic acid (PA)-induced pancreatic beats-cell dysfunction, coupled with GPR120 KD in MIN6 cells and GPR120 KO mice to identify the underlying signalling pathways. In vitro and ex vivo treatments of MIN6 cells and islets isolated from WT mice with DH and GSK restored pancreatic PDX1 expression levels and beta-cell function via PA-induced elevation of proinflammatory chemokine and activation of NF-kB, JNK and p38MAPK signalling pathways...
December 6, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515793/protective-effects-of-either-c-peptide-or-l-arginine-on-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-proliferation-and-oxidative-stress-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#18
Merhan Mamdouh Ragy, Sabreen Mahmoud Ahmed
Diabetes and cardiometabolic risk factors including hypertension and dyslipidemia are the major threats to human health in the 21st century. Apoptosis in pancreatic tissue is one of the major causes of diabetes type 1 progression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of C-peptide or l-arginine on some cardiometabolic risk factors, pancreatic morphology, function and apoptosis, and the mechanisms of their actions. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into four equal groups: 1-control nondiabetic, 2-diabetic (no treatment), 3-diabetic + C-peptide, and 4-diabetic +  l-arginine...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510621/-polysiphonia-japonica-extract-attenuates-palmitate-induced-toxicity-and-enhances-insulin-secretion-in-pancreatic-beta-cells
#19
Seon-Heui Cha, Hyun-Soo Kim, Yongha Hwang, You-Jin Jeon, Hee-Sook Jun
Beta-cell loss is a major cause of the pathogenesis of diabetes. Elevated levels of free fatty acids may contribute to the loss of β -cells. Using a transgenic zebrafish, we screened ~50 seaweed crude extracts to identify materials that protect β -cells from free fatty acid damage. We found that an extract of the red seaweed Polysiphonia japonica (PJE) had a β -cell protective effect. We examined the protective effect of PJE on palmitate-induced damage in β -cells. PJE was found to preserve cell viability and glucose-induced insulin secretion in a pancreatic β -cell line, Ins-1, treated with palmitate...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509117/gaba-promotes-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-but-does-not-overcome-impaired-glucose-homeostasis-associated-with-diet-induced-obesity
#20
Ashley Untereiner, Shaaban Abdo, Alpana Bhattacharjee, Himaben Gohil, Farzaneh Pourasgari, Neke Ibeh, Mi Lai, Battsetseg Batchuluun, Anthony Wong, Nicholas Khuu, Ying Liu, Dana Al Rijjal, Neil Winegarden, Carl Virtanen, Beverley A Orser, Over Cabrera, Gabor Varga, Jonathan Rocheleau, Feihan F Dai, Michael B Wheeler
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) administration has been shown to increase β-cell mass, leading to a reversal of type 1 diabetes in mice. Whether GABA has any effect on β cells of healthy and prediabetic/glucose-intolerant obese mice remains unknown. In the present study, we show that oral GABA administration ( ad libitum) to mice indeed increased pancreatic β-cell mass, which led to a modest enhancement in insulin secretion and glucose tolerance. However, GABA treatment did not further increase insulin-positive islet area in high fat diet-fed mice and was unable to prevent or reverse glucose intolerance and insulin resistance...
December 3, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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