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Tissue Engineered

Anna Astashchanka, Thomas M Shroka, Britta M Jacobsen
PURPOSE: Tumors that secrete large volumes of mucus are chemotherapy resistant, however, mechanisms underlying this resistance are unknown. One protein highly expressed in mucin secreting breast cancers is the secreted mucin, Mucin 2 (MUC2). While MUC2 is expressed in some breast cancers it is absent in normal breast tissue, implicating it in breast cancer. However, the effects of MUC2 on breast cancer are largely unknown. This study examined the role of MUC2 in modulating breast cancer proliferation, response to chemotherapy and metastasis...
October 13, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Mark C Allenby, Nicki Panoskaltsis, Asma Tahlawi, Susana Brito Dos Santos, Athanasios Mantalaris
Traditional culture systems for human erythropoiesis lack microenvironmental niches, spatial marrow gradients and dense cellularity rendering them incapable of effectively translating marrow physiology ex vivo. Herein, a bio-inspired three-dimensional (3D) perfusion bioreactor was engineered and inoculated with unselected single donor umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMNCs). Functional stromal and hematopoietic environments supporting long-term erythropoiesis were generated using defined medium supplemented only with stem cell factor (SCF) and erythropoietin (EPO) at near physiological concentrations...
August 8, 2018: Biomaterials
Quentin Muller, Marie-Josée Beaudet, Thiéry De Serres-Bérard, Sabrina Bellenfant, Vincent Flacher, François Berthod
Cutaneous innervation is increasingly recognized as a major element of skin physiopathology through the neurogenic inflammation driven by neuropeptides that are sensed by endothelial cells and the immune system. To investigate this process in vitro, models of innervated tissue-engineered skin (TES) were developed, yet exclusively with murine sensory neurons extracted from dorsal root ganglions. In order to build a fully human model of innervated TES, we used induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) generated from human skin fibroblasts...
October 10, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Sophia M Orbach, Andrew J Ford, Scott-Eugene Saverot, Padmavathy Rajagopalan
Hepatic fibrosis is the result of wound healing and inflammation resulting in organ dysfunction. Hepatocytes, liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs), Kupffer cells (KCs), and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play critical roles in fibrogenesis. As the liver undergoes fibrosis, there are populations of cells that are healthy, fibrotic as well as those undergoing fibrosis. We investigated how a varying mechanical environment could induce changes in hepatic cells. In this study, a gradient in the mechanical properties of the microenvironment resulted in transitioning phenotypes in hepatic cells...
October 10, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Muhammad Shafiq, Lina Wang, Dengke Zhi, Qiuying Zhang, Kai Wang, Lianyong Wang, Dong-Hwee Kim, Deling Kong, Soo Hyun Kim
In situ blood vessel regeneration through host stem/progenitor cell mobilization may hold great promise for vascular reconstruction. Neuropeptide substance P (SP) has been shown to accelerate tissue repair by endogenous cell mobilization and recruitment. This study was aimed to evaluate the vascular regeneration potential of SP and heparin co-tethered vascular grafts. Polycaprolactone (PCL), PCL/SP-conjugated poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL-SP) (SP), and PCL/PLCL-SP/heparin-conjugated PLCL (Hep/SP) vascular grafts were implanted as rat abdominal aorta substitutes for up to 2 weeks and 4 weeks...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Liang Zhu
Despite more than 80 years of animal experiments and clinical practice, efficacy of hypothermia in improving treatment outcomes in patients suffering from cell and tissue damage caused by ischemia is still ongoing. This review will first describe the history of utilizing cooling in medical treatment, followed by chemical and biochemical mechanisms of cooling that can lead to neuroprotection often observed in animal studies and some clinical studies. The next sections will be focused on current cooling approaches/devices, as well as cooling parameters recommended by researchers and clinicians...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kai Wang, Ruei-Zeng Lin, Juan M Melero-Martin
Tissue engineering holds great promise in regenerative medicine. However, the field of tissue engineering faces a myriad of difficulties. A major challenge is the necessity to integrate vascular networks into bioengineered constructs to enable physiological functions including adequate oxygenation, nutrient delivery, and removal of waste products. The last two decades have seen remarkable progress in our collective effort to bioengineer human-specific vascular networks. Studies have included both in vitro and in vivo investigations, and multiple methodologies have found varying degrees of success...
October 12, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Álvaro J Leite, Nuno M Oliveira, Wenlong Song, João F Mano
Liquid marbles represented a significant advance in the manipulation of fluids as they used particle films to confine liquid drops, creating a robust and durable soft solid. We exploit this technology to engineering a bioactive hydrogel marble (BHM). Specifically, pristine bioactive glass nanoparticles were chemically tuned to produce biocompatible hydrophobic bioactive glass nanoparticles (H-BGNPs) that shielded a gelatin-based bead. The designed BHM shell promoted the growth of a bone-like apatite layer upon immersion in a physiological environment...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elizabeth C Stahl, Ryan W Bonvillain, Clint D Skillen, Brandon L Burger, Hidetaka Hara, Whayoung Lee, Cynthia B Trygg, Peter J Didier, Brooke F Grasperge, Nicholas C Pashos, Bruce A Bunnell, John Bianchi, David L Ayares, Kelly I Guthrie, Bryan N Brown, Thomas H Petersen
Whole organ tissue engineering is a promising approach to address organ shortages in many applications, including lung transplantation for patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Engineered lungs may be derived from animal sources after removing cellular content, exposing the extracellular matrix to serve as a scaffold for recellularization with human cells. However, the use of xenogeneic tissue sources in human transplantation raises concerns due to the presence of the antigenic Gal epitope. In the present study, lungs from wild type or α-Gal knockout pigs were harvested, decellularized, and implanted subcutaneously in a non-human primate model to evaluate the host immune response...
September 28, 2018: Biomaterials
Minjuan Shen, Mingli Lin, Mengqi Zhu, Wenxin Zhang, Danyang Lu, Huanhuan Liu, Jingjing Deng, Kehua Que, Xu Zhang
Since their discovery, matrix vesicles (MVs) containing minerals have received considerable attention for their role in the mineralization of bone, dentin and calcified cartilage. Additionally, MVs' association with collagen fibrils, which serve as the scaffold for calcification in the organic matrix, has been repeatedly highlighted. The primary purpose of the present study was to establish a MVs-mimicking model (PEG-S-ACP/micelle) in vitro for studying the exact mechanism of MVs-mediated extra/intra fibrillar mineralization of collagen in vivo...
October 9, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Alessandro Polini, Loretta L Del Mercato, Adriano Barra, Yu Shrike Zhang, Franco Calabi, Giuseppe Gigli
Organ-on-a-chip (OoCs) platforms could revolutionize drug discovery and might ultimately become essential tools for precision therapy. Although many single-organ and interconnected systems have been described, the immune system has been comparatively neglected, despite its pervasive role in the body and the trend toward newer therapeutic products (i.e., complex biologics, nanoparticles, immune checkpoint inhibitors, and engineered T cells) that often cause, or are based on, immune reactions. In this review, we recapitulate some distinctive features of the immune system before reviewing microfluidic devices that mimic lymphoid organs or other organs and/or tissues with an integrated immune system component...
October 9, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Timothy Chen
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major but potentially preventable contributor to the final tissue damage after acute myocardial infarction. Many therapies have demonstrated successful reduction of ischemia-reperfusion injury in preclinical settings, but none have shown improved outcomes in clinical studies. Part of the failure to translate new therapies to clinical settings can be attributed to the reliance on small animal models in preclinical studies. While animal models encapsulate the complexity of the systemic in vivo environment, they do not necessarily recapitulate human physiology...
October 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Adeline Decambron, Nausikaa Devriendt, Nathanael Larochette, Mathieu Manassero, Marianne Bourguignon, Hanane El-Hafci, Hervé Petite, Véronique Viateau, Delphine Logeart-Avramoglou
The addition of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) with multipotent stromal cells (MSC) is an attractive strategy to enhance the bone-forming potential of MSC-based tissue engineering (TE) constructs. However, the effective dosage of BMP-2 remains to be determined. In this study, we evaluated the effects of human MSCs co-delivered with BMP-2 at either low or high dosage on the bone-forming potential of constructs in a mice ectopic model. Our results showed that the addition of only low dose of BMP-2 was beneficial to enhance the bone-forming potential of MSCs, whereas high dose of BMP-2 overcame the advantage of combining this growth factor with MSCs...
October 12, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Rasime Kalkan, Chidi Wilson Nwekwo, Terin Adali
Scaffolds are important tools in tissue engineering and play a unique role in tissue regeneration and repair of damaged tissues. A variety of natural, synthetic, and composite scaffold types can be used in cartilage tissue engineering. The limited capability of cartilage to repair itself has always been a problem during recovery from damage. The success of cartilage regeneration is dependent on a couple of factors, but the basic properties of scaffolds are biocompatibility, degradability under physiological conditions, and structural support for cell attachment...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Xu Li, Mingjie Wang, Xiaoguang Jing, Weimin Guo, Chunxiang Hao, Yu Zhang, Shuang Gao, Mingxue Chen, Zengzeng Zhang, Xueliang Zhang, Shi Shen, Bin Zhang, Hai Xian, Zehao Wang, Yu Wang, Xiang Sui, Aiyuan Wang, Jiang Peng, Shibi Lu, Shuyun Liu, Quanyi Guo
Articular cartilage defects have very limited self-repair potential, and traditional bone marrow-stimulating therapy is not effective. Cartilage tissue engineering using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) is considered an attractive treatment for cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. However, studies proved that both BMSCs and ADSCs have their own advantages and shortcomings, including their sources, isolation methods, characterizations and differentiation potential...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Ruchi Shah, Ravi P Jagani
Endometriosis is characterized as the ectopic presence of endometrium in various locations within the abdominal cavity, such as the fallopian tube, the pouch of Douglas, the ovaries, outside the ovaries, and more. The inner lining of the uterus, endometrium, is a dynamic tissue that undergoes morphological and functional changes cyclically. The proliferation of endometrial cells during menstruation is influenced by increasing circulating estrogen levels. Adult progenitor stem cells are likely responsible for this remarkable regenerative capacity and hence, enhanced capacity to generate endometriosis...
2018: Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering
Brandon J Tefft, Joshua A Choe, Melissa D Young, Ryan S Hennessy, David W Morse, Jeffery A Bouchard, Herbert J Hedberg, Joseph F Consiglio, Dan Dragomir-Daescu, Robert D Simari, Amir Lerman
PURPOSE: Tissue engineered heart valves (TEHV) are being investigated to address the limitations of currently available valve prostheses. In order to advance a wide variety of TEHV approaches, the goal of this study was to develop a cardiac valve bioreactor system capable of conditioning living valves with a range of hydrodynamic conditions as well as capable of assessing hydrodynamic performance to ISO 5840 standards. METHODS: A bioreactor system was designed based on the Windkessel approach...
October 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
H A Owida, A V Rutter, G Cinque, N J Kuiper, J Sulé-Suso, Y Yang
Isolated and monolayer expanded chondrocytes are not the ideal cell form to produce a cartilage matrix. In articular cartilage, each chondrocyte is surrounded by a 2-4 μm thick collagen VI-rich pericellular matrix (PCM) forming a chondron. Freshly extracted chondrons form a more cartilage-like extracellular matrix (ECM) than chondrocytes and their surrounding PCM is thought to maintain the chondrocyte phenotype. To regenerate articular cartilage, preserving and/or regenerating a functional PCM is essential...
October 12, 2018: Analyst
Wei Hong, Yan Liu, Ming-Hui Li, Yue-Xiao Xing, Ting Chen, Yong-Hong Fu, Lei Jiang, He Zhao, Ai-Qun Jia, Jun-Song Wang
Owing to the promising applications of C-dots in biomedical engineering, concerns about their safety have drawn increasing attention recently. In this study, mice were intraperitoneally injected at different C-dot concentrations (0, 6.0, 12.0 and 24.0 mg kg-1 ) once every 2 days for 30 days. A 1 H NMR-based metabolic approach supplemented with biochemical analysis and histopathology was used for the first time to explore the toxicity of C-dots in vivo . Histopathological inspection revealed that C-dots did not induce any obvious impairment in tissues...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
Deting Xue, Erman Chen, Huiming Zhong, Wei Zhang, Shengdong Wang, Muhammad Umar Joomun, Tianyi Yao, Yanbin Tan, ShiSheng Lin, Qiang Zheng, Zhijun Pan
Background: The osteo-immunomodulatory properties of biomaterials play an important role in the outcomes of bone regeneration. Graphene oxide (GO) has been widely applied in many research fields due to its unique properties. However, the immunomodulatory properties of GO as a biomaterial for bone tissue engineering are still unclear. Materials and methods: In this study, we evaluated the Inflammatory response of RAW264.7 cells influenced by GO. Then the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs, and angiogenic differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by stimulation with GO/RAW 264...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
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