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Hongfang Zhang, Conghua Xie, Jing Yue, Zhenzhen Jiang, Rongjing Zhou, Ruifei Xie, Yan Wang, Shixiu Wu
Previous studies on the mechanisms underlying ESCC (esophageal squamous cell carcinoma) chemoresistance only focused on tumor cells while tumor microenvironment has been completely ignored. Our study aimed to clarify the effect of CAFs (cancer-associated fibroblasts), one major component of tumor microenvironment, on the chemoresistance of ESCC. By primary culture, two pairs of CAFs and matched NFs (normal fibroblasts) were isolated from tumor tissues of ESCC patients and matched normal esophageal epithelial tissues, respectively...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Abraham Speedie, Cinosh Mathew, Rashmi Kerr, Rajneesh Calton
Coronary artery anomalies include anomalies of origin, termination, structure or course. Coronary artery fistulae (CAF) are classified as abnormalities of termination and are considered a major congenital anomaly. A coronary artery fistula involves a sizable communication between a coronary artery, bypassing the myocardial capillary bed and entering either a chamber of the heart (coronary-cameral fistula) or a great vessel. Bilateral coronary artery fistula, are a rare variant. We describe a bilateral CAF with angina and significant coronary artery disease requiring percutaneous coronary intervention...
August 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Aya Matsuoka, Akira Hirano, Akinori Hattori, Kaoru Ogura, Hiroaki Inoue, Hiroko Yukawa, Shiho Sakaguchi, Natsuko Tanaka, Asaka Kodera, Mari Kamimura, Yoshihiko Naritaka, Tadao Shimizu
A 71-year-old woman diagnosed with left breast cancer underwent mastectomy and axillary dissection in 1987. Pathological findings showed invasive ductal carcinoma that was ER and PgR positive and HER2 negative.5 -FU and tamoxifen were administered for 2 years as adjuvant therapy.Bone metastasis was found in 2002, and endocrine therapy was started, using anastrozole, exemestane, letrozole, medroxyprogesterone acetate, and fulvestrant.However, liver, lung, pleural, penetiral, and lymph-node metastases were observed, and the following chemotherapy regimen was administered: CAF, capecitabine, paclitaxel, vinorelbine, gemcitabine, methotrexate plus mitomycin C, and eribulin...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Ken Takai, Annie Le, Valerie M Weaver, Zena Werb
Increased collagen expression in tumors is associated with increased risk of metastasis, and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the highest propensity to develop distant metastases when there is evidence of central fibrosis. Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) ligands regulated by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) promote accumulation of fibrosis and cancer progression. In the present study, we have evaluated TNBC tumors with enhanced collagen to determine whether we can reduce metastasis by targeting the CAFs with Pirfenidone (PFD), an anti-fibrotic agent as well as a TGF-β antagonist...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Yoshihiro Komohara, Motohiro Takeya
Many non-tumour host cells such as inflammatory cells, fibroblasts and endothelial cells are present in the tumour microenvironment and affect the malignant potential and chemo-resistance of the tumour cells. Macrophages and fibroblasts are the main components of infiltrating stromal cells and are referred to as tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), respectively. TAMs and CAFs are reported to be involved in tumour progression, although their functions change to those of an anti-tumour phenotype under specific conditions...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Pathology
Gwendal Lazennec, Paula Y Lam
Tumor microenvironment plays a crucial role in coordination with cancer cells in the establishment, growth and dissemination of the tumor. Among cells of the microenvironment, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their ability to evolve into cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have recently generated a major interest in the field. Numerous studies have described the potential pro- or anti-tumorigenic action of MSCs. The goal of this review is to synthesize recent and emerging discoveries concerning the mechanisms by which MSCs can be attracted to tumor sites, how they can generate CAFs and by which way MSCs are able to modulate the growth, response to treatments, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis of tumors...
October 14, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Giacomo Santoro, Giovanni Zucchelli, Enrico Gherlone
The case reports presented in this article describe a surgical approach for improving root coverage and regenerative parameters in deep intrabony defects associated with buccal gingival recession. A mandibular canine and a maxillary premolar were treated. The surgical technique consisted of a connective tissue graft (CTG) that was placed and sutured at the inner surface of a coronally advanced envelope flap (CAF), thickening the buccal soft tissue wall of the most coronal extension of the intrabony defect and treated with biomaterials as scaffold...
November 2016: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
B Rossi, V Venuti, F D'Amico, A Gessini, A Mele, C Punta, L Melone, V Crupi, D Majolino, C Masciovecchio
The focus of the present work is to shed light on possible modifications of the molecular properties of polysaccharide hydrogels induced by the establishment of specific non-covalent interactions during the loading of a guest compound inside the gel phase. With this aim, a case study of the encapsulation of caffeine (Caf) inside cyclodextrin-based hydrogels, namely, cyclodextrin nanosponges (NS), is systematically investigated here by using UV Raman scattering experiments. The UV Raman spectra of the hydrogels, analysed as a function of temperature, concentration of the guest molecule loaded in the gel phase and pH, prove particularly informative both on the structural rearrangements of the hydrophobic/hydrophilic groups of the polymeric network and on the breaking/formation of specific guest-matrix interactions...
October 13, 2016: Soft Matter
Martin Christmann, Ricarda Hoop, Hitendu Dave, Daniel Quandt, Walter Knirsch, Oliver Kretschmar
INTRODUCTION: Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is a rare congenital anomalous connection between the coronary arteries (CA) and a cardiac chamber or great vessel. Treatment options of symptomatic CAF consist of transcatheter or surgical closure. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of all patients with CAF diagnosed between 1993 and 2014 concerning treatment approaches and follow-up after closure. RESULTS: In a cohort of more than 25000 patients, 194 (<0...
October 11, 2016: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
Giovanni Zucchelli, Valentina Bentivogli, Sabrina Ganz, Pietro Bellone, Claudio Mazzotti
The present case report describes the application of the connective tissue graft wall (CTGW) technique for the treatment of deep lingual gingival recessions associated with probing pockets and bone loss. Two deep lingual gingival recessions affecting the mandibular central incisors associated with severe lingual attachment and bone loss were treated. The surgical technique comprised a connective tissue graft (CTG) placed below a trapezoidal-type coronally advanced flap (CAF) acting as a lingual soft tissue wall of the infrabony defect...
2016: International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry
Nello Martiniello, Martina Stefanini, Giovanni Zucchelli
BACKGROUND: In clinical practice it is common to observe adjacent multiple gingival recessions (MGRs) associated with noncarious cervical lesions (NCCLs). The aim of this 2-year case report was to describe the full-mouth treatment of a patient affected by MGRs and NCCLs, with a combined restorative-surgical approach using a coronally advanced flap (CAF) and a xenogeneic collagen matrix (CM). METHOD: Before surgery, a composite restoration filled the deepest portion of the NCCL defects and was finished at the level of the maximum root coverage (MRC)...
2016: International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry
Magda Mensi, Eleonora Scotti, Stefano Salgarello, Antonio Cerutti
The aim of this case report was to treat eight simultaneous recessions that caused an unesthetic smile in a 27-year-old orthodontically treated female patient and to restore the anterior maxillary teeth in the esthetic area. The treatment consisted of bilaminar mucogingival surgery with a palatine graft and a collagen matrix graft (Mucograft, Geistlich). At 24 months, complete root coverage was achieved in all treated sites, with an increase of keratinized tissue (KT), complete resolution of hypersensitivity, and a high level of esthetic satisfaction...
2016: International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry
T Yu, G Yang, Y Hou, X Tang, C Wu, X-A Wu, L Guo, Q Zhu, H Luo, Y-E Du, S Wen, L Xu, J Yin, G Tu, M Liu
Multiple drug resistance is a challenging issue in the clinic. There is growing evidence that the G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) is a novel mediator in the development of multidrug resistance in both estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and -negative breast cancers, and that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in the tumor microenvironment may be a new agent that promotes drug resistance in tumor cells. However, the role of cytoplasmic GPER of CAFs on tumor therapy remains unclear. Here we first show that the breast tumor cell-activated PI3K/AKT (phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT) signaling pathway induces the cytoplasmic GPER translocation of CAFs in a CRM1-dependent pattern, and leads to the activation of a novel estrogen/GPER/cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling axis that triggers the aerobic glycolysis switch in CAFs...
October 10, 2016: Oncogene
Kun-Yi Andrew Lin, Bo-Jau Chen
Extensive usage of caffeine (CAF) as a medicine and additives in beverages has led to increasing presence of CAF in wastewater and even drinking water. To remove CAF, peroxymonosulfate (PMS), is adopted to generate sulfate radical to degrade CAF in water. To facilitate PMS activation, a magnetic carbon-supported cobalt (MC/Co) hybrid material is prepared via carbonization of a cobalt-containing Prussian blue analogue framework (Co3[Co(CN)6]2). The resultant MC/Co contains Co and Co3O4 nanoparticles supported on a carbon matrix, making it an attractive magnetic catalyst to activate PMS for degrading CAF...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Virginia Brancato, Alessandro Garziano, Filomena Gioiella, Francesco Urciuolo, Giorgia Imparato, Valeria Panzetta, Sabato Fusco, Paolo A Netti
: We fabricated three-dimensional microtissues with the aim to replicate in vitro the composition and the functionalities of the tumor microenvironment. By arranging either normal fibroblasts (NF) or cancer-activated fibroblasts (CAF) in two different three dimensional (3D) configurations, two kinds of micromodules were produced: spheroids and microtissues. Spheroids were obtained by means of the traditional cell aggregation technique resulting in a 3D model characterized by high cell density and low amount of extracellular proteins...
October 6, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Martina Stefanini, Karin Jepsen, Massimo de Sanctis, Nicola Baldini, Björn Greven, Bernd Heinz, Jan Wennström, Björn Cassel, Fabio Vignoletti, Mariano Sanz, Søren Jepsen, Giovanni Zucchelli
AIM: To assess patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), aesthetics and stability of root coverage procedures from a previous 6-month RCT after 1 year. MATERIAL & METHODS: 45 patients (90 recessions) had received a coronally advanced flap (CAF = control) only or a xenogeneic collagen matrix in addition (CAF + CMX = test). Visual analogue scales (VAS) and questionnaires were used for PROMs and the root coverage aesthetic score (RES) for professional aesthetic evaluations...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Adriano Azaripour, Maren Kissinger, Vittorio Siro Leone Farina, Cornelis J F Van Noorden, Aslihan Gerhold-Ay, Brita Willershausen, Pierpaolo Cortellini
AIM: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the coronally advanced flap (CAF) with the modified microsurgical tunnel technique (MMTT) for treatment of Miller class I and II recessions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 patients with 71 gingival recessions were recruited and randomly assigned to either CAF or to MMTT. In both groups a connective tissue graft was applied. Clinical evaluations were performed after 3, 6, and 12 months. Impressions were taken and digitally scanned 3-dimensionally to evaluate the quantitative soft tissue changes in the operative region...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
Shih-Chun Kao, Eric S Drollette, Mark R Scudder, Lauren B Raine, Daniel R Westfall, Matthew B Pontifex, Charles H Hillman
The authors used a conditional accuracy function (CAF) method to compute the mean accuracy of multiple reaction time ranges, to investigate the association between aerobic fitness and the utilization of cognitive control strategy during preadolescence. Thirty-eight higher- and lower-fit children were grouped according to their cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2max) and completed a modified flanker task. Seventeen young adults were recruited as a reference group of maturation. The results showed that higher-fit children exhibited an adult-like performance pattern, and demonstrated increased overall response accuracy compared to lower-fit children, with a disproportionally larger increase in individual responses when the time allowed for discriminative processing was constrained...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Motor Behavior
Wei-Lun Chou, Yue-Lin Chung, Jhen-Cheng Fang, Chung-An Lu
Rice is an important crop in the world. However, little is known about rice mRNA deadenylation, which is an important regulation step of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. The CCR4-NOT1 complex contains two key components, CCR4 and CAF1, which are the main cytoplasmic deadenylases in eukaryotic cells. In yeast and humans, CCR4 can interact with CAF1 via its N-terminal LRR domain. However, no CCR4 protein containing N-terminal LRR motifs have been found in plants. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a novel pattern of interaction between OsCCR4 and OsCAF1 in the rice CCR4-NOT complex, and that OsCAF1 acts as a bridge between OsCCR4 and OsNOT1 in this complex...
October 6, 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Birmania Heredia Rivera, Martín Gerardo Rodriguez
Particulate matter accumulated on car engine air-filters (CAFs) was examined in order to investigate the potential use of these devices as efficient samplers for collecting street level air that people are exposed to. The morphology, microstructure, and chemical composition of a variety of particles were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The particulate matter accumulated by the CAFs was studied in two categories; the first was of removed particles by friction, and the second consisted of particles retained on the filters...
October 1, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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