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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326574/tumour-epithelial-and-stromal-characteristics-of-hepatocellular-carcinomas-with-abundant-fibrous-stroma-fibrolamellar-versus-scirrhous-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Young-Joo Kim, Hyungjin Rhee, Jeong Eun Yoo, Venancio A F Alves, Gi Jeong Kim, Hye Min Kim, Paulo Herman, Aline Chagas, Haeryoung Kim, Young Nyun Park
AIMS: The scirrhous variant of hepatocellular carcinoma (S-HCC) and fibrolamellar HCC (FL-HCC) are less common subtypes of HCC that are characterised by abundant fibrous stroma. Here, we aimed to investigate differences in the tumour microenvironment and the tumour epithelial cell characteristics of S-HCC and FL-HCC. METHODS AND RESULTS: Whole tissue sections of 17 S-HCCs and 9 FL-HCCs were subjected to immunohistochemical stains for K7, K19, EpCAM, CD56/NCAM, CD163, CD68, pSTAT3, FAP, CCN2 and Ki-67...
March 22, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320605/percutaneous-closure-of-a-giant-coronary-artery-fistula-after-surgical-pericardiectomy-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Leire Unzué, Eulogio García, Belén Díaz-Antón, Javier Fernández-Portales, Rodrigo Teijeiro, Miguel Rodríguez-Del-Río
Coronary artery fistulae (CAF) are uncommon heart defects defined as a communication between a coronary artery and a cardiac chamber or vascular structure. They are frequently asymptomatic; nevertheless, they can produce angina, dyspnea or cardiac failure. CAF are believed to be congenital; however, isolated cases of CAF have been described as rare complications of cardiac surgery. We report the percutaneous closure of a giant CAF in an adult patient with angina and previous pericardiectomy.
March 9, 2017: Cardiovascular Revascularization Medicine: Including Molecular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319088/reference-component-analysis-of-single-cell-transcriptomes-elucidates-cellular-heterogeneity-in-human-colorectal-tumors
#3
Huipeng Li, Elise T Courtois, Debarka Sengupta, Yuliana Tan, Kok Hao Chen, Jolene Jie Lin Goh, Say Li Kong, Clarinda Chua, Lim Kiat Hon, Wah Siew Tan, Mark Wong, Paul Jongjoon Choi, Lawrence J K Wee, Axel M Hillmer, Iain Beehuat Tan, Paul Robson, Shyam Prabhakar
Intratumoral heterogeneity is a major obstacle to cancer treatment and a significant confounding factor in bulk-tumor profiling. We performed an unbiased analysis of transcriptional heterogeneity in colorectal tumors and their microenvironments using single-cell RNA-seq from 11 primary colorectal tumors and matched normal mucosa. To robustly cluster single-cell transcriptomes, we developed reference component analysis (RCA), an algorithm that substantially improves clustering accuracy. Using RCA, we identified two distinct subtypes of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs)...
March 20, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315523/dna-mediated-association-of-two-histone-bound-caf-1-complexes-drives-tetrasome-assembly-in-the-wake-of-dna-replication
#4
Francesca Mattiroli, Yajie Gu, Tejas Yadav, Jeremy L Balsbaugh, Michael R Harris, Eileen S Findlay, Yang Liu, Catherine A Radebaugh, Laurie A Stargell, Natalie G Ahn, Iestyn Whitehouse, Karolin Luger
Nucleosome assembly in the wake of DNA replication is a key process that regulates cell identity and survival. Chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) is a H3-H4 histone chaperone that associates with the replisome and orchestrates chromatin assembly following DNA synthesis. Little is known about the mechanism and structure of this key complex. Here we investigate the CAF-1•H3-H4 binding mode and the mechanism of nucleosome assembly. We show that CAF-1 binding to a H3-H4 dimer activates the Cac1 winged helix domain interaction with DNA...
March 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304210/long-term-stability-of-root-coverage-by-coronally-advanced-flap-procedures
#5
Karin Jepsen, Martina Stefanini, Mariano Sanz, Giovanni Zucchelli, Søren Jepsen
BACKGROUND: To compare 6 months and 3-year outcomes for root coverage by coronally advanced flap (CAF) procedures in localized gingival recessions. METHODS: Two centers that had participated in a 6 months multinational multicentre RCT were able to follow up 18 patients with 36 Miller Class I and II defects that had been treated in a split-mouth design with CAF or CAF + xenogeneic collagen matrix (CMX). Percentage of root coverage (RC), complete root coverage (CRC), width (KT) and thickness (GT) of keratinized tissue were assessed by the same blinded examiners as after 6 months...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302482/fap-positive-fibroblasts-induce-immune-checkpoint-blockade-resistance-in-colorectal-cancer-via-promoting-immunosuppression
#6
Lingling Chen, Xiangting Qiu, Xinhua Wang, Jian He
Immune checkpoint blockades that significantly prolonged survival of melanoma patients have been less effective on colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Growing evidence suggested that fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP) on cancer associate fibroblasts (CAFs) has critical roles in regulating antitumor immune response by inducing tumor-promoting inflammation. In this study, we explored the roles of FAP in regulating the tumor immunity and immune checkpoint blockades resistance in CRC experimental systems. We found that CAFs with high FAP expression could induce immune checkpoint blockade resistance in CRC mouse model...
March 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295079/improvement-of-the-beam-quality-of-a-high-pulse-energy-mid-infrared-fractional-image-rotation-enhancement-zngep-sub-2-sub-optical-parametric-oscillator
#7
Martin Schellhorn, Gerhard Spindler, Marc Eichhorn
The beam quality of a high-energy mid-infrared ZnGeP<sub>2</sub> (ZGP) optical parametric oscillator has been improved by use of a negative lens inside the nonplanar fractional-image-rotation enhancement (FIRE) resonator compensating for the thermal lensing and gain guiding effects. With an f=-0.9  m CaF<sub>2</sub> lens, the beam quality is 1.5 and ∼2 for the resonant signal beam and the non-resonant idler beam, respectively. Up to 33 mJ of mid-infrared pulse energy in the 3-5 μm wavelength range is obtained with 94 mJ of pump energy on the crystal...
March 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289278/cafeteria-diet-and-probiotic-therapy-cross-talk-among-memory-neuroplasticity-serotonin-receptors-and-gut-microbiota-in-the-rat
#8
J E Beilharz, N O Kaakoush, J Maniam, M J Morris
The western diet is known to have detrimental effects on cognition and the gut microbiota, but few studies have investigated how these may be related. Here, we examined whether a probiotic could prevent diet-induced memory deficits. Rats were pre-exposed to vehicle, low or high doses of VSL#3 for 2 weeks before half were switched from chow to a cafeteria diet (Caf) for 25 days; VSL#3 treatment continued until death. High-dose VSL#3 prevented the diet-induced memory deficits on the hippocampal-dependent place task, but the probiotic caused deficits on the perirhinal-dependent object task, irrespective of diet or dose...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288874/loss-of-exosomal-mir-320a-from-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-contributes-to-hcc-proliferation-and-metastasis
#9
Zhuochao Zhang, Xiao Li, Wei Sun, Shuqiang Yue, Jingyue Yang, Junjie Li, Ben Ma, Jianlin Wang, Xisheng Yang, Meng Pu, Bai Ruan, Ge Zhao, Qike Huang, Lin Wang, Kaishan Tao, Kefeng Dou
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a pivotal role in regulating tumour progression. Therefore, understanding how CAFs communicate with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is crucial for HCC therapy. Recently, exosomes have been considered an important "messenger" between cells. In this study, we performed microRNA (miRNA) sequencing of exosomes derived from CAFs and corresponding para-cancer fibroblasts (PAFs) of HCC patients. We found a significant reduction in the miR-320a level in CAF-derived exosomes...
March 10, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286261/fibroblast-led-cancer-cell-invasion-is-activated-by-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-through-platelet-derived-growth-factor-bb-secretion-of-lung-adenocarcinoma
#10
Shinya Neri, Tomoyuki Miyashita, Hiroko Hashimoto, Yoshitaka Suda, Masayuki Ishibashi, Hiroaki Kii, Hirotada Watanabe, Takeshi Kuwata, Masahiro Tsuboi, Koichi Goto, Toshi Menju, Makoto Sonobe, Hiroshi Date, Atsushi Ochiai, Genichiro Ishii
Cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF)-dependent local invasion is the process by which cancer cells invade the extracellular matrix using tracks that have been physically remodeled by CAFs. In the present study, we investigated the process by which the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells affect CAF-dependent local invasion. Using an in vitro collagen invasion assay, we showed cancer cells undergoing EMT to promote the matrix-remodeling ability of CAFs and thereby enhance CAF-dependent local cancer cell invasion...
March 9, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277613/activation-of-mutated-trpa1-ion-channel-by-resveratrol-in-human-prostate-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-caf
#11
Eric Vancauwenberghe, Lucile Noyer, Sandra Derouiche, Loïc Lemonnier, Pierre Gosset, Laura R Sadofsky, Pascal Mariot, Marine Warnier, Alexandre Bokhobza, Christian Slomianny, Brigitte Mauroy, Jean-Louis Bonnal, Etienne Dewailly, Philippe Delcourt, Laurent Allart, Natalia Prevarskaya, Morad Roudbaraki
Previous studies showed the effects of resveratrol (RES) on several cancer cells, including prostate cancer (PCa) cell apoptosis without taking into consideration the impact of the tumor microenvironment (TME). The TME is composed of cancer cells, endothelial cells, blood cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), the main source of growth factors. The latter cells might modify in the TME the impact of RES on tumor cells via secreted factors. Recent data clearly show the impact of CAF on cancer cells apoptosis resistance via secreted factors...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274000/lateral-anal-sphincterotomy-for-chronic-anal-fissures-a-comparison-of-outcomes-and-complications-under-local-anaesthesia-versus-spinal-anaesthesia
#12
Ravikumar Manoharan, Tarun Jacob, Santosh Benjamin, Sumonth Kirishnan
INTRODUCTION: Fissure-in-Ano is one of the common and most painful anorectal conditions encountered in surgical practice. Inspite of several conservative treatment options, surgical treatment in the form of Lateral Anal Spincterotomy (LAS) remains the gold standard of treatment for Chronic Anal Fissures (CAF). However, LAS is often done under spinal or general anaesthesia incurring huge treatment costs and hospital stay. AIM: To study if LAS can be treated with Local Anaesthesia (LA) thereby, reducing the costs and the anaesthetic risk to patients with no significant change in the surgical ease or clinical outcome...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273616/estimating-the-harms-and-costs-of-cannabis-attributable-collisions-in-the-canadian-provinces
#13
Ashley Wettlaufer, Roxana O Florica, Mark Asbridge, Douglas Beirness, Jeffrey Brubacher, Russell Callaghan, Benedikt Fischer, Gerrit Gmel, Sameer Imtiaz, Robert E Mann, Anna McKiernan, Jürgen Rehm
INTRODUCTION: In 2012, 10% of Canadians used cannabis and just under half of those who use cannabis were estimated to have driven under the influence of cannabis. Substantial evidence has accumulated to indicate that driving after cannabis use increases collision risk significantly; however, little is known about the extent and costs associated with cannabis-related traffic collisions. This study quantifies the costs of cannabis-related traffic collisions in the Canadian provinces. METHODS: Province and age specific cannabis-attributable fractions (CAFs) were calculated for traffic collisions of varying severity...
February 20, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273155/tumor-stroma-with-senescence-associated-secretory-phenotype-in-steatohepatitic-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#14
Jee San Lee, Jeong Eun Yoo, Haeryoung Kim, Hyungjin Rhee, Myoung Ju Koh, Ji Hae Nahm, Jin Sub Choi, Kee-Ho Lee, Young Nyun Park
Senescence secretome was recently reported to promote liver cancer in an obese mouse model. Steatohepatitic hepatocellular carcinoma (SH-HCC), a new variant of HCC, has been found in metabolic syndrome patients, and pericellular fibrosis, a characteristic feature of SH-HCC, suggests that alteration of the tumor stroma might play an important role in SH-HCC development. Clinicopathological characteristics and tumor stroma showing senescence and senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) were investigated in 21 SH-HCCs and 34 conventional HCCs (C-HCCs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272432/melanosomal-formation-of-pmel-core-amyloid-is-driven-by-aromatic-residues
#15
Jia Shee Hee, Susan M Mitchell, Xinran Liu, Ralf M Leonhardt
PMEL is a pigment cell protein that forms physiological amyloid in melanosomes. Many amyloids and/or their oligomeric precursors are toxic, causing or contributing to severe, incurable diseases including Alzheimer's and prion diseases. Striking similarities in intracellular formation pathways between PMEL and various pathological amyloids including Aβ and PrP(Sc) suggest PMEL is an excellent model system to study endocytic amyloid. Learning how PMEL fibrils assemble without apparent toxicity may help developing novel therapies for amyloid diseases...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264911/androgen-receptor-in-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-influences-stemness-in-cancer-cells
#16
Chun-Peng Liao, Leng-Ying Chen, Andrea Luethy, Youngsoo Kim, Kian Kani, A Robert MacLeod, Mitchell E Gross
Androgen receptor (AR) regulation pathways are essential for supporting the growth and survival of prostate cancer cells. Recently, sub-populations of prostate cancer cells have been identified with stem cell features and are associated with the emergence of treatment-resistant prostate cancer. Here, we explored the function of AR in prostate cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) relative to growth and stem cell-associated characteristics. CAFs were isolated from the murine cPten(-/-)L prostate cancer model and cultured with human prostate cancer epithelial (hPCa) cells...
April 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260082/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-enhance-pancreatic-cancer-cell-invasion-by-remodeling-the-metabolic-conversion-mechanism
#17
Tao Shan, Shuo Chen, Xi Chen, Wan Run Lin, Wei Li, Jiancang Ma, Tao Wu, Xijuan Cui, Hong Ji, Yiming Li, Ya'an Kang
We investigated the mechanism of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in promoting the invasion and metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells in a non-vascular manner. We verified the original generation of isolated cultured CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) based on the expression of α-SMA and vimentin, and we examined the cell glycolysis level through glucose consumption and lactate production experiments. The mRNA and protein expression of CAF glycolytic enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate kinase m2, were examined by RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively...
February 28, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258923/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-promote-irradiated-cancer-cell-recovery-through-autophagy
#18
Yongbin Wang, Guifang Gan, Bocheng Wang, Jinliang Wu, Yuan Cao, Dan Zhu, Yan Xu, Xiaona Wang, Hongxiu Han, Xiaoling Li, Ming Ye, Jiangmin Zhao, Jun Mi
Tumor relapse after radiotherapy is a significant challenge to oncologists, even after recent the advances in technologies. Here, we showed that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), a major component of cancer stromal cells, promoted irradiated cancer cell recovery and tumor relapse after radiotherapy. We provided evidence that CAFs-produced IGF1/2, CXCL12 and β-hydroxybutyrate were capable of inducing autophagy in cancer cells post-radiation and promoting cancer cell recovery from radiation-induced damage in vitro and in vivo in mice...
February 22, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258248/caf-derived-hgf-promotes-cell-proliferation-and-drug-resistance-by-up-regulating-the-c-met-pi3k-akt-and-grp78-signaling-in-ovarian-cancer-cells
#19
De Ying Wei, Feng Geng, Shu Mei Liang, Hui Zhao, Ming Liu, Hong Qing Wang
The tumor microenvironment which is a highly heterogeneous entity plays crucial roles in cancer progression. As the most prominent stromal cell types, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) produce a variety of factors into the tumor microenvironment. In this study, we firstly isolated CAFs from tumor tissues of the patients with ovarian cancer and demonstrated that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was highly expressed in the supernatant of CAFs. CAF-derived HGF or human recombinant HGF promoted cell proliferation in human ovarian cell lines SKOV3 and HO-8910 cells...
March 3, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254435/il-6-and-pd-l1-blockade-combination-inhibits-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cancer-development-in-mouse-model
#20
Hu Liu, Jun Shen, Kai Lu
Limited efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was observed in clinical trials, thus prompting investigation into combination therapy. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has important roles in modeling immune responses in cancers. Here, we hypothesized that IL-6 blockade would enhance antitumor immunity of HCC and synergize with anti-programmed death-1-ligand 1 (PD-L1) checkpoint inhibitor in treating HCC. The sources and immune modulating effects of IL-6 were investigated in HCC models...
February 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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