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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931212/pdgf-aa-mediates-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-chemotaxis-to-the-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-tumor-microenvironment
#1
Tammara L Watts, Ruwen Cui, Peter Szaniszlo, Vicente A Resto, Don W Powell, Irina V Pinchuk
BACKGROUND: The robust desmoplasia associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) suggests that the tumor microenvironment may be an important component in the pathophysiology of this cancer. Moreover, the high recurrence rate and poor clinical response to chemotherapy and radiation treatment further underscores that the non-cancerous cells of the microenvironment, such as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), and pericytes, may be important in the pathophysiology of HNSCC...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924651/caffeine-combined-with-sedative-anesthetic-drugs-triggers-widespread-neuroapoptosis-in-a-mouse-model-of-prematurity
#2
Omar Hoseá Cabrera, Shawn David O'Connor, Brant Stephen Swiney, Patricia Salinas-Contreras, Francesca Maria Manzella, George Townsend Taylor, Kevin Kiyoshi Noguchi
OBJECTIVES: Caffeine (CAF) and sedative/anesthetic drugs (SADs) are often coadministered to premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). While SAD neurotoxicity in the developing brain is well established, it is not fully clear whether CAF interacts with SADs and whether this interaction is detrimental. Using a mouse model of prematurity, we hypothesized that CAF would increase apoptotic neurotoxicity when coadministered with SADs. METHODS: Postnatal day 3 mice were treated with vehicle or 80 mg/kg CAF prior to challenge with 6 mg/kg midazolam, 40 mg/kg ketamine, or 40 μg/kg fentanyl...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922075/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-treated-with-cisplatin-facilitates-chemoresistance-of-lung-adenocarcinoma-through-il-11-il-11r-stat3-signaling-pathway
#3
Leilei Tao, Guichun Huang, Rui Wang, Yan Pan, Zhenyue He, Xiaoyuan Chu, Haizhu Song, Longbang Chen
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are recognized as one of the key determinants in the malignant progression of lung adenocarcinoma. And its contributions to chemoresistance acquisition of lung cancer has raised more and more attention. In our study, cancer associated fibroblasts treated with cisplatin conferred chemoresistance to lung cancer cells. Meanwhile, Interleukin-11(IL-11) was significantly up-regulated in the CAF stimulated by cisplatin. As confirmed in lung adenocarcinoma cells in vivo and in vitro, IL-11 could protect cancer cells from cisplatin-induced apoptosis and thus promote their chemoresistance...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919940/vitamin-d-and-myofibroblasts-in-fibrosis-and-cancer-at-cross-purposes-with-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signaling
#4
REVIEW
Shraga Shany, Ina Sigal-Batikoff, Sergio Lamprecht
The multifaceted involvement of the active vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (henceforth referred to by the synonyms 1,25(OH)2D3, calcitriol or vitamin D) in blunting the growth of cancer cells is amply recognized. In this review we focused our attention on the cross-talk between 1,25 (OH)2D3 and the tumor microenvironment (TME), signaling out stromal cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the most abundant TME population, as a target for calcitriol anticancer action. In view of the commonality of the phenotypic signature in myofibroblasts, resident in the cancer stroma and in non-neoplastic fibrotic loci, we examined modes of action of vitamin D in non-neoplastic chronic diseases and in cancer to assess mechanistic similarities and divergences...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919745/biomechanics-of-cell-reorientation-in-a-three-dimensional-matrix-under-compression
#5
Lijie Yang, Léolène Jean Carrington, Begum Erdogan, Mingfang Ao, Bryson M Brewer, Donna J Webb, Deyu Li
Although a number of studies have reported that cells cultured on a stretchable substrate align away from or perpendicular to the stretch direction, how cells sense and respond to compression in a three-dimensional (3D) matrix remains an open question. We analyzed the reorientation of human prostatic normal tissue fibroblasts (NAFs) and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in response to 3D compression using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method. Results show that NAFs align to specific angles upon compression while CAFs exhibit a random distribution...
December 2, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919179/an-analysis-of-the-role-of-follicular-lymphoma-associated-fibroblasts-to-promote-tumor-cell-viability-following-drug-induced-apoptosis
#6
Annette M Staiger, Jasmin Duppel, Michael A Dengler, Heiko van der Kuip, Matthias C Vöhringer, Walter E Aulitzky, Andreas Rosenwald, German Ott, Heike Horn
Treatment response of follicular lymphomas (FL) is highly variable. We, therefore, investigated the role of FL cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) on tumor cell viability, in particular in response to treatment with cytotoxic drugs. Stromal cells outgrown from FL patients were characterized and pure CAF populations were co-cultivated with FL cells. To analyze fibroblast-mediated effects, cells in co-culture were treated with ABT-737 and Bortezomib. The adherent cell population was positive for all fibroblastic markers tested and showed increased mRNA-expression of the activation marker FAP...
December 6, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901488/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-promote-cancer-cell-growth-through-a-mir-7-rassf2-par-4-axis-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#7
Zongze Shen, Xing Qin, Ming Yan, Rongrong Li, Gang Chen, Jianjun Zhang, Wantao Chen
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), a major component of cancer stroma, play an important role in cancer progression but little is known about how CAFs affect tumorigenesis and development. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that can negatively regulate target mRNA expression at post-transcriptional levels. In head and neck cancer (HNC), our analysis of miRNA arrays showed that miR-7, miR-196 and miR-335 were significantly up-regulated in CAFs when compared with their paired normal fibroblasts (NFs)...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894105/histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-provoke-a-tumor-supportive-phenotype-in-pancreatic-cancer-associated-fibroblasts
#8
Andrew H Nguyen, Irmina A Elliott, Nanping Wu, Cynthia Matsumura, Maria Vogelauer, Narsis Attar, Amanda Dann, Razmik Ghukasyan, Paul A Toste, Sanjeet G Patel, Jennifer L Williams, Luyi Li, David W Dawson, Caius Radu, Siavash K Kurdistani, Timothy R Donahue
Although histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are a promising class of anti-cancer drugs, thus far, they have been unsuccessful in early phase clinical trials for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). One potential reason for their poor efficacy is the tumor stroma, where cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are a prominent cell type and a source of resistance to cancer therapies. Here, we demonstrate that stromal fibroblasts contribute to the poor efficacy of HDACi's in PDAC. HDACi-treated fibroblasts show increased biological aggressiveness and are characterized by increased secretion of pro-inflammatory tumor-supportive cytokines and chemokines...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893716/hic-5-remodeling-of-the-stromal-matrix-promotes-breast-tumor-progression
#9
G J Goreczny, J L Ouderkirk-Pecone, E C Olson, M Krendel, C E Turner
The remodeling of the stromal extracellular matrix (ECM) has a crucial, but incompletely understood role during tumor progression and metastasis. Hic-5, a focal adhesion scaffold protein, has previously been implicated in tumor cell invasion, proliferation and metastasis. To investigate the role of Hic-5 in breast tumor progression in vivo, Hic-5(-/-) mice were generated and crossed with the Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus-Polyoma Middle T-Antigen mouse. Tumors from the Hic-5(-/-);PyMT mice exhibited increased latency and reduced growth, with fewer lung metastases, as compared with Hic-5(+/-);PyMT mice...
November 28, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884164/hyaluronan-synthase-2-expressed-by-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-promotes-oral-cancer-invasion
#10
Ziwen Zhang, Detao Tao, Ping Zhang, Xue Liu, Yuchao Zhang, Jie Cheng, Hua Yuan, Laikui Liu, Hongbing Jiang
BACKGROUND: Hyaluronan synthases (HAS) control the biosynthesis of hyaluronan (HA) and critically modulate the tumor microenviroment. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) affect the progression of a tumor by remolding the matrix. However, little is known about the role of HAS from CAFs in this process. This study aimed to determine the role of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) from CAFs in the progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) invasion. METHODS: HAS isoforms 1, 2, and 3 in paired sets of CAFs and normal fibroblasts (NFs) were examined by real-time PCR, and the expression of HAS2 and α-SMA in OSCC tissue sections was further evaluated using immunohistochemical staining...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882605/placebo-in-sports-nutrition-a-proof-of-principle-study-involving-caffeine-supplementation
#11
B Saunders, L F de Oliveira, R P da Silva, V de Salles Painelli, L S Gonçalves, G Yamaguchi, T Mutti, E Maciel, H Roschel, G G Artioli, B Gualano
We investigated the effects of supplement identification on exercise performance with caffeine supplementation. Forty-two trained cyclists (age 37 ± 8 years, body mass [BM] 74.3 ± 8.4 kg, height 1.76 ± 0.06 m, maximum oxygen uptake 50.0 ± 6.8 mL/kg/min) performed a ~30 min cycling time-trial 1 h following either 6 mg/kgBM caffeine (CAF) or placebo (PLA) supplementation and one control (CON) session without supplementation. Participants identified which supplement they believed they had ingested ("caffeine", "placebo", "don't know") pre- and post-exercise...
November 23, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881889/expression-of-caf-related-proteins-is-associated-with-histologic-grade-of-breast-phyllodes-tumor
#12
Hye Min Kim, Yu Kyung Lee, Ja Seung Koo
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of cancer-associated fibroblast- (CAF-) related proteins and the implications in breast phyllodes tumor (PT). Methods. Tissue microarrays of 194 PT cases (151 benign PT, 27 borderline PT, and 16 malignant PT) were constructed. We performed immunohistochemical staining for CAF-related proteins (podoplanin, prolyl 4-hydroxylase, FAPα, S100A4, PDGFR α/β, and NG2) and analyzed the results according to clinicopathologic parameters. Results. Expression of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in the stromal component increased with increasing histologic grade of PT (p = 0...
2016: Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880067/cell-proliferation-downregulated-by-tgf-%C3%AE-2-triggered-g1-s-checkpoint-in-clinical-cafs
#13
Jinliang Wu, Rong Fu, Xiaolei Huang, Yang Xue, Yan Xu, Jiangmin Zhao, Jun Mi
The metabolic reprogramming is indispensible for the fast growth of tumor cells. The metabolism of CAFs is reprogrammed to aerobic glycolysis too. However, it is not clear whether this metabolic reprogramming promotes the growth of CAFs themselves. In this study, we found that the proliferation rate of CAFs was slower than NAFs, which was determined by cell counting, BrdU assay and flow cytometry analysis. Moreover, we found TGF-β signaling regulated cell growth of CAF through RNA-sequencing analysis and Western blot, which was further supported by the observation that TGF-β2 was highly expressed in colon cancer tissues...
November 23, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878234/prometastatic-mechanisms-of-caf-mediated-emt-regulation-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#14
Tao Shan, Shuo Chen, Xi Chen, Wan Run Lin, Wei Li, Jiancang Ma, Tao Wu, Hong Ji, Yiming Li, Xijuan Cui, Ya'an Kang
Tumor metastasis are accompanied by the EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition)-MET (mesenchymal-epithelial transition) two-step process. In this study, we investigated the importance of cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) in the process. First, the primary cultures of isolated pancreatic CAF, fibroblasts of normal pancreatic tissues (NF), and normal hepatic stellate cells (HSF) were identified and verified via the expression of α-SMA and vimentin. Using an indirect three-dimensional co-culture model, the morphological changes were observed by light microscopy and laser scanning confocal microscopy...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876310/impact-of-atrial-natriuretic-peptide-value-for-predicting-paroxysmal-atrial-fibrillation-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#15
Hiroshi Shiroto, Hirofumi Tomita, Joji Hagii, Norifumi Metoki, Ayaka Fujita, Takaatsu Kamada, Koki Takahashi, Shin Saito, Satoko Sasaki, Hiroyasu Hitomi, Satoshi Seino, Yoshiko Baba, Takamitsu Uchizawa, Manabu Iwata, Shigeo Matsumoto, Minoru Yasujima, Ken Okumura
INTRODUCTION: The impact of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) value for predicting paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (pAF) in ischemic stroke patients remains uncertain. METHODS: The consecutive 222 ischemic stroke patients (median 77 [IQR 68-83] years old, 93 females) within 48 hours after onset were retrospectively studied. Plasma ANP and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were simultaneously measured at admission. Of all, 158 patients had no evidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) (sinus rhythm [SR] group), 25 patients had pAF (pAF group), and the other 39 patients had chronic AF (cAF group)...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873018/soft-tissue-augmentation-around-osseointegrated-and-uncovered-dental-implants-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Renzo G Bassetti, Alexandra Stähli, Mario A Bassetti, Anton Sculean
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to compile the current knowledge about the efficacy of different soft tissue correction methods around osseointegrated, already uncovered and/or loaded (OU/L) implants with insufficient soft tissue conditions. Procedures to increase peri-implant keratinized mucosa (KM) width and/or soft tissue volume were considered. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Screening of two databases: MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE (OVID), and manual search of articles were performed...
November 21, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872185/the-major-replicative-histone-chaperone-caf-1-suppresses-the-activity-of-the-dna-mismatch-repair-system-in-the-cytotoxic-response-to-a-dna-methylating-agent
#17
Lyudmila Y Kadyrova, Basanta K Dahal, Farid A Kadyrov
The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system corrects DNA mismatches in the genome. It is also required for the cytotoxic response of O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT)-deficient mammalian cells and yeast mgt1Δ rad52Δ cells to treatment with Sn1-type methylating agents, which produce cytotoxic O(6)-methylguanine (O(6)-mG) DNA lesions. Specifically, processing of irreparable O(6)-mG-containing mispairs by the MMR system causes DNA degradation, triggering cell death; this process forms the basis of treatments of MGMT-deficient cancers with Sn1-type methylating drugs...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869513/adverse-effects-of-pesticides-on-central-auditory-functions-in-tobacco-growers
#18
França Denise Maria Vaz Romano, Adriana Bender Moreira Lacerda, Diolen Lobato, Angela Ribas, Karin Ziliotto Dias, Tony Leroux, Adrian Fuente
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of exposure to pesticides on the central auditory functions (CAF) of Brazilian tobacco growers. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study carried out between 2010 and 2012. Participants were evaluated with two behavioural procedures to investigate CAF, the random gap detection test (RGDT) and the dichotic digit test in Portuguese (DDT). STUDY SAMPLE: A total of 22 growers exposed to pesticides (study group) and 21 subjects who were not exposed to pesticides (control group) were selected...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865772/kissing-bugs-can-generalize-and-discriminate-between-different-bitter-compounds
#19
Yamila Asparch, Gina Pontes, Santiago Masagué, Sebastian Minoli, Romina B Barrozo
Animals make use of contact chemoreception structures to examine the quality of potential food sources. During this evaluation they can detect nutritious compounds that promote feeding and recognize toxins that trigger evasive behaviors. Although animals can easily distinguish between stimuli of different gustatory qualities (bitter, salty, sweet, etc.), their ability to discriminate between compounds of the same quality may be limited. Numerous plants produce alkaloids, compounds that elicit aversive behaviors in phytophagous insects and almost uniformly evoke a bitter taste for man...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864344/targeting-tumor-associated-fibroblasts-for-therapeutic-delivery-in-desmoplastic-tumors
#20
Lei Miao, Qi Liu, C Michael Lin, Cong Luo, Yuhua Wang, Lina Liu, Weiyan Yin, Shihao Hu, William Y Kim, Leaf Huang
The off-target distribution of anticancer nanoparticles (NP) to fibroblasts creates a barrier to the effective treatment of desmoplastic tumors. However, we hypothesized that this NP detriment might be exploited to target the expression of secreted cytotoxic proteins from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) as an anticancer strategy. In addressing this hypothesis, plasmids encoding the secretable TNF-related factor sTRAIL were loaded into lipid-coated protamine DNA complexes (LPD) and administered by infusion in a murine xenograft model of human desmoplastic bladder carcinoma...
November 18, 2016: Cancer Research
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