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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346528/a-novel-stromal-lncrna-signature-reprograms-fibroblasts-to-promote-the-growth-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-via-lncrna-caf-interleukin-33
#1
Liang Ding, Jing Ren, Dongya Zhang, Yi Li, Xiaofeng Huang, Qingang Hu, Hui Wang, Yuxian Song, Yanhong Ni, Yayi Hou
Stromal carcinoma-related fibroblasts (CAFs) are the main type of non-immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). CAFs interact with cancer cells to promote tumor proliferation. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to regulate cell growth, apoptosis, and metastasis of cancer cells, but their role in stromal cells is unclear. Using RNA sequencing, we identified a stromal lncRNA signature during the transformation of CAFs from normal fibroblasts (NFs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We uncovered an uncharacterized lncRNA, FLJ22447, which was remarkably up-regulated in CAFs, referred to LncRNA-CAF (Lnc-CAF) hereafter...
January 13, 2018: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344235/metronomic-chemotherapy-remodel-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-to-decrease-chemoresistance-of-gastric-cancer-in-nude-mice
#2
Chao Wang, Wenqi Xi, Jinling Jiang, Jun Ji, Yingyan Yu, Zhenggang Zhu, Jun Zhang
The present study aimed to evaluate whether capecitabine or 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) chemotherapy with the metronomic pattern may cause significant chemoresistance compared with the traditional pattern, and whether CAFs are involved in drug resistance. SGC-7901 cells were subcutaneously injected into the nude mice, and the mice were divided into five groups: The control group, intraperitoneally injected with normal saline; the 5-Fu conventional dose group [5-Fu maximum tolerated dose (MTD) group], intraperitoneally injected with 50 mg/kg, twice per week for 2 weeks, with an 1-week discontinuation for 6 weeks; the capecitabine conventional dose group (capecitabine MTD group), intragastric 500 mg/kg, twice per week for 2 weeks, with a 1-week discontinuation for 6 weeks; the 5-Fu metronomic group [5-Fu low-dose metronomic (LDM) group], intraperitoneally injected with 15 mg/kg, twice a week for 6 weeks; and the capecitabine metronomic group (capecitabine LDM group), intragastric administration at 200 mg/kg, twice a week for 6 weeks...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338685/functional-health-state-description-and-valuation-by-people-aged-65-and-over-a-pilot-study
#3
Riaan Botes, Karin M Vermeulen, Adelita V Ranchor, Erik Buskens
BACKGROUND: Assessing quality of life among the elderly is a complex and multifaceted issue. Elderly people might find valuing and describing their personal experience of quality of life (QoL) demanding and cumbersome. This study therefore sought to determine the feasibility of administering two questionnaires in two samples of elderly people. METHODS: A preference-based instrument (EQ-5D + C) and a currently achieved functioning questionnaire (CAF) were utilized...
January 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335551/tumor-derived-exosomal-mir-1247-3p-induces-cancer-associated-fibroblast-activation-to-foster-lung-metastasis-of-liver-cancer
#4
Tian Fang, Hongwei Lv, Guishuai Lv, Ting Li, Changzheng Wang, Qin Han, Lexing Yu, Bo Su, Linna Guo, Shanna Huang, Dan Cao, Liang Tang, Shanhua Tang, Mengchao Wu, Wen Yang, Hongyang Wang
The communication between tumor-derived elements and stroma in the metastatic niche has a critical role in facilitating cancer metastasis. Yet, the mechanisms tumor cells use to control metastatic niche formation are not fully understood. Here we report that in the lung metastatic niche, high-metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells exhibit a greater capacity to convert normal fibroblasts to cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) than low-metastatic HCC cells. We show high-metastatic HCC cells secrete exosomal miR-1247-3p that directly targets B4GALT3, leading to activation of β1-integrin-NF-κB signaling in fibroblasts...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335008/multi-omics-differentially-classify-disease-state-and-treatment-outcome-in-pediatric-crohn-s-disease
#5
Gavin M Douglas, Richard Hansen, Casey M A Jones, Katherine A Dunn, André M Comeau, Joseph P Bielawski, Rachel Tayler, Emad M El-Omar, Richard K Russell, Georgina L Hold, Morgan G I Langille, Johan Van Limbergen
BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease (CD) has an unclear etiology, but there is growing evidence of a direct link with a dysbiotic microbiome. Many gut microbes have previously been associated with CD, but these have mainly been confounded with patients' ongoing treatments. Additionally, most analyses of CD patients' microbiomes have focused on microbes in stool samples, which yield different insights than profiling biopsy samples. RESULTS: We sequenced the 16S rRNA gene (16S) and carried out shotgun metagenomics (MGS) from the intestinal biopsies of 20 treatment-naïve CD and 20 control pediatric patients...
January 15, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334123/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-tailored-tumor-microenvironment-of-therapy-resistance-in-gastrointestinal-cancers
#6
REVIEW
Yeqi Sun, Ruifen Wang, Meng Qiao, Yanchun Xu, Wenbin Guan, Lifeng Wang
Gastrointestinal cancers (GI) are a group of highly aggressive malignancies with heavy cancer-related mortalities. Even if continued development of therapy methods, therapy resistance has been a great obstruction for cancer treatment and thereby inevitably leads to depressed final mortality. Peritumoral cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), a versatile population assisting cancer cells to build a facilitated tumor microenvironment (TME), has been demonstrated exerting a promotion influence on cancer proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis and also therapy resistance...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331808/simultaneous-inhibition-of-hedgehog-signaling-and-tumor-proliferation-remodels-stroma-and-enhances-pancreatic-cancer-therapy
#7
Jun Zhao, Huamin Wang, Cheng-Hui Hsiao, Diana S-L Chow, Eugene J Koay, Yaan Kang, Xiaoxia Wen, Qian Huang, Ying Ma, James A Bankson, Stephen E Ullrich, Willem Overwijk, Anirban Maitra, David Piwnica-Worms, Jason B Fleming, Chun Li
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers. It has an excessive desmoplastic stroma that can limit the intratumoral delivery of chemotherapy drugs, and protect tumor cells against radiotherapy. Therefore, both stromal and tumor compartments need to be addressed in order to effectively treat PDAC. We hereby co-deliver a sonic hedgehog inhibitor, cyclopamine (CPA), and a cytotoxic chemotherapy drug paclitaxel (PTX) with a polymeric micelle formulation (M-CPA/PTX). CPA can deplete the stroma-producing cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), while PTX can inhibit tumor proliferation...
January 9, 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325547/paracrine-and-epigenetic-control-of-caf-induced-metastasis-the-role-of-hotair-stimulated-by-tgf-%C3%A3-1-secretion
#8
Yu Ren, Huan-Huan Jia, Yi-Qi Xu, Xuan Zhou, Xiao-Hui Zhao, Yun-Fei Wang, Xin Song, Zhi-Yan Zhu, Ting Sun, Yan Dou, Wei-Ping Tian, Xiu-Lan Zhao, Chun-Sheng Kang, Mei Mei
BACKGROUND: The communication between carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and cancer cells facilitate tumor metastasis. In this study, we further underlying the epigenetic mechanisms of CAFs feed the cancer cells and the molecular mediators involved in these processes. METHODS: MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with CAFs culture conditioned medium, respectively. Cytokine antibody array, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blotting and immunofluorescence were used to identify the key chemokines...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324639/depopulation-of-caged-layer-hens-with-a-compressed-air-foam-system
#9
Shailesh Gurung, John Hoffman, Kendre Stringfellow, Daad Abi-Ghanem, Dan Zhao, David Caldwell, Jason Lee, Darrel Styles, Luc Berghman, James Byrd, Yuhua Farnell, Gregory Archer, Morgan Farnell
During the 2014-2015 US highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) outbreak, 50.4 million commercial layers and turkeys were affected, resulting in economic losses of $3.3 billion. Rapid depopulation of infected poultry is vital to contain and eradicate reportable diseases like HPAI. The hypothesis of the experiment was that a compressed air foam (CAF) system may be used as an alternative to carbon dioxide (CO₂) inhalation for depopulating caged layer hens. The objective of this study was to evaluate corticosterone (CORT) and time to cessation of movement (COM) of hens subjected to CAF, CO₂ inhalation, and negative control (NEG) treatments...
January 11, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322415/laser-microdissection-of-cellular-compartments-for-expression-analyses-in-cancer-models
#10
Tae-Su Han, Masanobu Oshima
Cancer tissues are composed of various cell types including cancer cells, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and endothelial cells. These surrounding stromal cells form the tumor microenvironment, partly through the inflammatory response, which plays an important role in the development and malignant progression of cancer. It is therefore important to examine the expression profiles and protein modifications of each cellular component independently to decipher the interaction between the tumor cells and the microenvironment...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320928/interaction-of-caffeine-and-sulfadiazine-with-lysozyme-adsorbed-at-colloidal-metal-nanoparticle-interface-influence-on-drug-transport-ability-and-antibacterial-activity
#11
Vikash K Sonu, Imocha Rajkumar, Kaushik Bhattacharjee, S R Joshi, Sivaprasad Mitra
The modulated bioactivity of proteins immobilized on nanoparticle (NP) interfaces is of tremendous interest towards designing better therapeutic and diagnostic tools. In this work, binding behavior and the antibacterial activity of free lysozyme (LYS) as well as its non-covalent assembly with silver (Ag) and gold (Au) colloidal NPs were compared in presence of two model drugs, viz. sulfadiazine (SDZ) and caffeine (CAF). Intrinsic protein fluorescence was found to quench due to the formation drug-protein complex in case of CAF resulting a linear Stern-Volmer (SV) plot with KSV = 1...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318551/analysis-of-invasive-activity-of-caf-spheroids-into-three-dimensional-3d-collagen-matrices
#12
María Ángeles Villaronga, Saúl Álvarez Teijeiro, Francisco Hermida-Prado, Marta Garzón-Arango, Victoria Sanz-Moreno, Juana María García-Pedrero
Tumor growth and progression is the result of a complex process controlled not only by malignant cancer cells but also by the surrounding tumor microenvironment (TME). Cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs), the most abundant cellular component of TME, play an active role in tumor invasion and metastasis by promoting cancer cell invasion through cell-cell interactions and secretion of pro-invasive factors such as extracellular matrix (ECM)-degrading proteases. Due to their tumor-promoting activities, there is an emerging interest in investigating CAFs biology and its potential as drug targets for cancer therapies...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317486/mutual-dependence-of-the-mrtf-srf-and-yap-tead-pathways-in-cancer-associated-fibroblasts-is-indirect-and-mediated-by-cytoskeletal-dynamics
#13
Charles T Foster, Francesco Gualdrini, Richard Treisman
Both the MRTF-SRF and the YAP-TEAD transcriptional regulatory networks respond to extracellular signals and mechanical stimuli. We show that the MRTF-SRF pathway is activated in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs). The MRTFs are required in addition to the YAP pathway for CAF contractile and proinvasive properties. We compared MRTF-SRF and YAP-TEAD target gene sets and identified genes directly regulated by one pathway, the other, or both. Nevertheless, the two pathways exhibit mutual dependence. In CAFs, expression of direct MRTF-SRF genomic targets is also dependent on YAP-TEAD activity, and, conversely, YAP-TEAD target gene expression is also dependent on MRTF-SRF signaling...
January 9, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306747/heterocellular-3d-scaffolds-as-biomimetic-to-recapitulate-the-tumor-microenvironment-of-peritoneal-metastases-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#14
Emiel De Jaeghere, Elly De Vlieghere, Jasper Van Hoorick, Sandra Van Vlierberghe, Glenn Wagemans, Leen Pieters, Elodie Melsens, Marleen Praet, Jo Van Dorpe, Matthieu N Boone, Rouba Ghobeira, Nathalie De Geyter, Marc Bracke, Christian Vanhove, Sara Neyt, Geert Berx, Bruno G De Geest, Peter Dubruel, Heidi Declercq, Wim Ceelen, Olivier De Wever
Peritoneal metastasis is a major cause of death and preclinical models are urgently needed to enhance therapeutic progress. This study reports on a hybrid hydrogel-polylactic acid (PLA) scaffold that mimics the architecture of peritoneal metastases at the qualitative, quantitative and spatial level. Porous PLA scaffolds with controllable pore size, geometry and surface properties are functionalized by type I collagen hydrogel. Co-seeding of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) increases cancer cell adhesion, recovery and exponential growth by in situ heterocellular spheroid formation...
December 23, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304289/risk-factors-clinical-presentations-and-functional-impairments-for-generalized-anxiety-disorder-in-military-personnel-and-the-general-population-in-canada
#15
Tamara L Taillieu, Tracie O Afifi, Sarah Turner, Kristene Cheung, Janique Fortier, Mark Zamorski, Jitender Sareen
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine differences in sociodemographic risk factors, comorbid mental conditions, clinical presentations, and functional impairments associated with past-year generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) between Canadian Armed Forces (CAF) Regular Force personnel and the Canadian general population (CGP). METHOD: Data were from 2 nationally representative surveys collected by Statistics Canada: 1) the Canadian Community Health Survey on Mental Health, collected in 2012 ( N = 25,113; response rate = 68...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303337/direct-observations-of-a-dynamically-driven-phase-transition-with-in%C3%A2-situ-x-ray-diffraction-in-a-simple-ionic-crystal
#16
Patricia Kalita, Paul Specht, Seth Root, Nicholas Sinclair, Adam Schuman, Melanie White, Andrew L Cornelius, Jesse Smith, Stanislav Sinogeikin
We report real-time observations of a phase transition in the ionic solid CaF_{2}, a model AB_{2} structure in high-pressure physics. Synchrotron x-ray diffraction coupled with dynamic loading to 27.7 GPa, and separately with static compression, follows, in situ, the fluorite to cotunnite structural phase transition, both on nanosecond and on minute time scales. Using Rietveld refinement techniques, we examine the kinetics and hysteresis of the transition. Our results give insight into the kinetic time scale of the fluorite-cotunnite phase transition under shock compression, which is relevant to a number of isomorphic compounds...
December 22, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301340/carbon-dioxide-and-nitrogen-infused-compressed-air-foam-for-depopulation-of-caged-laying-hens
#17
Shailesh Gurung, Dima White, Gregory Archer, Darrel Styles, Dan Zhao, Yuhua Farnell, James Byrd, Morgan Farnell
Depopulation of infected poultry flocks is a key strategy to control and contain reportable diseases. Water-based foam, carbon dioxide inhalation, and ventilation shutdown are depopulation methods available to the poultry industry. Unfortunately, these methods have limited usage in caged layer hen operations. Personnel safety and welfare of birds are equally important factors to consider during emergency depopulation procedures. We have previously reported that compressed air foam (CAF) is an alternative method for depopulation of caged layer hens...
January 3, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296064/transcatheter-closure-of-right-coronary-artery-fistula-to-the-right-ventricle
#18
A Abu Haweleh, Luna Baangood, J V DeGiovanni
Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is an uncommon anomaly that is usually congenital but can be acquired. Although most patients are asymptomatic, some may present with congestive heart failure, infective endocarditis, myocardial ischemia or rupture. In the past, surgical ligation was the only option in the management of CAF, but since 1983, transcatheter closure of CAF has been increasing as an alternative to surgery. We report a 3-year-old boy, presented in Queen Alia Heart Institute, who underwent successful transcatheter closure of a large fistula communicating the distal part of the right coronary artery to the right ventricle...
January 2018: Journal of the Saudi Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290975/gper-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-the-estrogen-metabolizing-cyp1b1-enzyme-in-breast-cancer
#19
Francesca Cirillo, Michele Pellegrino, Rocco Malivindi, Vittoria Rago, Silvia Avino, Luigina Muto, Vincenza Dolce, Adele Vivacqua, Damiano Cosimo Rigiracciolo, Paola De Marco, Anna Sebastiani, Sergio Abonante, Miki Nakajima, Rosamaria Lappano, Marcello Maggiolini
The cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) is a heme-thiolate monooxygenase involved in both estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism. For instance, CYP1B1 catalyzes the hydroxylation of E2 leading to the production of 4-hydroxyestradiol that may act as a potent carcinogenic agent. In addition, CYP1B1 is overexpressed in different tumors including breast cancer. In this scenario, it is worth mentioning that CYP1B1 expression is triggered by estrogens through the estrogen receptor (ER)α in breast cancer cells. In the present study, we evaluated whether the G protein estrogen receptor namely GPER may provide an alternate route toward the expression and function of CYP1B1 in ER-negative breast cancer cells, in main players of the tumor microenvironment as cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs) that were obtained from breast cancer patients, in CAFs derived from a cutaneous metastasis of an invasive mammary ductal carcinoma and in breast tumor xenografts...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290419/muscarinic-type-1-receptors-contribute-to-ik-ach-in-human-atrial-cardiomyocytes-and-are-upregulated-in-patients-with-chronic-atrial-fibrillation
#20
Jordi Heijman, Dorit Kirchner, Franziska Kunze, Eva Maria Chrétien, Martina B Michel-Reher, Niels Voigt, Michael Knaut, Martin C Michel, Ursula Ravens, Dobromir Dobrev
BACKGROUND: Basal and acetylcholine-gated inward-rectifier K+-currents (IK1 and IK,ACh, respectively) are altered in atrial fibrillation (AF). Gi-protein-coupled muscarinic (M) receptors type-2 are considered the predominant receptors activating IK,ACh. Although a role for Gq-coupled non-M2-receptor subtypes has been suggested, the precise regulation of IK,ACh by multiple M-receptor subtypes in the human atrium is unknown. Here, we investigated M1-receptor-mediated IK,ACh regulation and its remodeling in chronic AF (cAF)...
December 22, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
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