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Air Way Management

Kamran Khan Sumalani, Nadeem Ahmed Rizvi, Asif Asghar
BACKGROUND: The treatment of early pleural empyema depends on the treatment of ongoing infection by antimicrobial therapy along with thoracocentesis. In complicated empyema this treatment does not work and lung will not expand until removal of adhesions. The objective of the current study is to analyze the experience of management of multiloculated, exudative and fibrinopurulent empyema through rigid medical thoracoscopy under local anaesthesia and to explore new ways to manage the entity...
November 29, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Cornetta L Mosley, Lauren M Langley, Adrian Davis, Catherine M McMahon, Kelly L Tremblay
BACKGROUND: The projected increase in the aging population raises concerns about how to manage the health-care needs in a cost-effective way. Within hearing health care, there are presently too few audiologists to meet the expected demand, and training more professionals may not be a feasible way of addressing this problem. For this reason, there is a need to develop different ways of assessing hearing sensitivity that can be conducted accurately and inexpensively when a certified audiologist and/or sound-attenuated booth is unavailable...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Jorge Loy-Benitez, Paulina Vilela, Qian Li, ChangKyoo Yoo
Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5 ) in indoor public spaces such as subway stations, has represented a major public health concern; however, forecasting future sequences of quantitative health risk is an effective method for protecting commuters' health, and an important tool for developing early warning systems. Despite the existence of several predicting methods, some tend to fail to forecast long-term dependencies in an effective way. This paper aims to implement a multiple sequences prediction of a comprehensive indoor air quality index (CIAI) traced by indoor PM2...
November 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Fay H Johnston, Farhad Salimi, Grant J Williamson, Sarah B Henderson, Jiayun Yao, Martine Dennekamp, Karen Smith, Michael J Abramson, Geoffrey G Morgan
BACKGROUND: Ambulance data provide a useful source of population-based and spatiotemporally resolved information for assessing health impacts of air pollution in nonhospital settings. We used the clinical records of paramedics to quantify associations between particulate matter (PM2.5) and diabetic, cardiovascular, and respiratory conditions commonly managed by those responding to calls for emergency ambulance services. METHODS: We evaluated 394,217 paramedic assessments from three states in Southeastern Australia (population 13...
January 2019: Epidemiology
Anja Silge, Thomas Bocklitz, Bjoern Becker, Walter Matheis, Juergen Popp, Isabelle Bekeredjian-Ding
Vaccines are complex biomedicines. Manufacturing is time consuming and requires a high level of quality control (QC) to guarantee consistent safety and potency. An increasing global demand has led to the need to reduce time and cost of manufacturing. The evolving concepts for QC and the upcoming threat of falsification of biomedicines define a new need for methods that allow the fast and reliable identification of vaccines. Raman spectroscopy is a non-destructive technology already established in QC of classical medicines...
2018: NPJ Vaccines
Gaosheng Hu, Manhuayun Zhai, Rong Niu, Xiaoqiang Xu, Qian Liu, Jingming Jia
Ganoderma lucidum , a famous medicinal mushroom used worldwide, is a rich source of triterpenoids which, together with polysaccharides, are believed to be the main effective constituents of G. lucidum . With the increase of market demand, the wild resource is facing serious limitations, and the quality of cultivated fruiting bodies can be seriously affected by the availability of wood resources and by cultivation management practices. In the present study, we aimed to develop an alternative way to produce useful triterpenoids from G...
October 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kaid Darwiche, Clemens Aigner
Following the evaluation of surgical lung volume reduction (LVR) in the National Emphysema Treatment (NETT) trial, different endoscopic LVR procedures have been developed for severe emphysema. Among those, endobronchial valve placement is the best evaluated method. All these therapies aim at reducing hyperinflation and at improving respiratory mechanics. It has been shown that these procedures can improve quality of life, lung function and exercise capacity in a significant and clinically meaningful way in suitable patients...
August 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Elson Silva Galvão, Jane Meri Santos, Ana Teresa Lima, Neyval Costa Reis, Richard Michael Stuetz, Marcos Tadeu D'Azeredo Orlando
Particulate matter driven health problems are strongly associated with its chemical composition. Despite the benefits of using source apportionment models for air quality management, limitations such as collinearity effects, restrict their application or compromise the accurate separation of sources, particularly for particulate matter with similar chemical profiles. Receptors models also depend on the operator expertise to appropriately classified sources, a subjective process that can lead to biased results...
December 2018: Chemosphere
David H Peters
Health policy and systems research (HPSR) has changed considerably over the last 20 years, but its main purpose remains to inform and influence health policies and systems. Whereas goals that underpin health systems have endured - such as a focus on health equity - contexts and priorities change, research methods progress, and health organisations continue to learn and adapt, in part by using HPSR. For HPSR to remain relevant, its practitioners need to re-think how health systems are conceptualised, to keep up with rapid changes in how we diagnose and manage disease and use information, and consider factors affecting people's health that go well beyond healthcare systems...
August 22, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Kelsey A Roelofs, Victoria Starks, Michael K Yoon
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to report a case of persistent and likely self-induced orbital emphysema (OE) following functional endoscopic sinus surgery with dislodgement of a previously placed orbital floor implant and to review the literature surrounding etiologies, pathophysiology, and management of OE. METHODS: Case report and review of the literature. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: While blunt trauma resulting in disruption of the medial orbital wall is the most common cause of OE, there are an additional 25 underlying etiologies reported in the current literature...
August 20, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Michael T Kuntz, Roman Dudaryk, Richard R McNeer
Injection ports used to administer medications and draw blood samples have inherent dead-volume. This volume can potentially lead to inadvertent drug administration, contribute to erroneous laboratory values by dilution of blood samples, and increase the risk of vascular air embolism. We sought to characterize provider practice in management of intravenous (IV) and arterial lines and measure dead-volumes of various injection ports. A survey was circulated to anesthesiology physicians and nurses to determine practice habits when administering medications and drawing blood samples...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Francesca S Cardwell, Susan J Elliott
Physical activity can reduce symptoms and improve wellbeing in people who have asthma, and organized sport is one way for children and youth with asthma to engage in exercise. While asthmatic youth may experience a number of barriers to sport participation, healthy physical and social sport environments supported by coaches can help asthmatic youth athletes maintain long-term engagement in activity. This paper reports results of an assessment of an online coach education tool related to air quality, physical activity, and allergic disease (e...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Nerea Calvillo
In Madrid, as in many European cities, air pollution is known about and made accountable through techno-scientific monitoring processes based on data, and the toxicity of the air is defined through epidemiological studies and made political through policy. In 2009, Madrid's City Council changed the location of its air quality monitoring stations without notice, reducing the average pollution of the city and therefore provoking a public scandal. This scandal challenged the monitoring process, as the data that used to be the evidence of pollution could not be relied on anymore...
June 2018: Social Studies of Science
Frank K Butler, John B Holcomb, Stacy Shackelford, Harold R Montgomery, Shawn Anderson, Jeffrey S Cain, Howard R Champion, Cord W Cunningham, Warren C Dorlac, Brendon Drew, Kurt Edwards, John V Gandy, Elon Glassberg, Jennifer Gurney, Theodore Harcke, Donald A Jenkins, Jay Johannigman, Bijan S Kheirabadi, Russ S Kotwal, Lanny F Littlejohn, Matthew Martin, Edward L Mazuchowski, Edward J Otten, Travis Polk, Peter Rhee, Jason M Seery, Zsolt Stockinger, Jeremy Torrisi, Avi Yitzak, Ken Zafren, Scott P Zietlow
This change to the Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) Guidelines that updates the recommendations for management of suspected tension pneumothorax for combat casualties in the prehospital setting does the following things: (1) Continues the aggressive approach to suspecting and treating tension pneumothorax based on mechanism of injury and respiratory distress that TCCC has advocated for in the past, as opposed to waiting until shock develops as a result of the tension pneumothorax before treating. The new wording does, however, emphasize that shock and cardiac arrest may ensue if the tension pneumothorax is not treated promptly...
December 0: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Muhammad Iftikhar Hussain, Abdullah J Al-Dakheel
Salinity is one of the major factors contributing in land degradation, disturbance of soil biology, a structure that leads to unproductive land with low crop yield potential especially in arid and semiarid regions of the world. Appropriate crops with sufficient stress tolerance capacity and non-conventional water resources should have to be managed in a sustainable way to bring these marginal lands under cultivation for future food security. The goal of the present study was to evaluate salinity tolerant potential (0, 7, and 14 dS m-1 ) of six safflower genotypes that can be adapted to the hyper arid climate of UAE and its marginal soil...
June 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Julie Kleber
With the largest body of employees in U.S. health care, the nursing profession is well positioned to tackle the challenges of waste reduction within hospital systems. The healthcare sector generates a massive amount of waste, contributing to environmental issues, such as air and water pollution. By unifying and engaging staff through shared governance models, nurses can reduce the overhead costs associated with waste management and help maintain fiscal integrity. Nurses have the ability to use their trusted skill sets and lead the way for sustainable, healthy communities and environments in which they serve...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing
A García Rellán, C Vázquez Brea, P M Bello Bugallo
Fishing is one of the most important marine activities. It contributes to both overfishing and marine pollution, the two main threats to the ocean environment. In this context, the aim of this work is to investigate and validate methodologies for the identification of more sustainable operating configurations for a tuna purse seiner. The proposed methodology is based on a previous one applied to secondary industrial systems, taking into account the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control focus, developed for the most potentially industrial polluting sources...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Fernán González Bernaldo de Quirós, Carlos Otero, Daniel Luna
Healthcare Information Systems should capture clinical data in a structured and preferably coded format. This is crucial for data exchange between health information systems, epidemiological analysis, quality and research, clinical decision support systems, administrative functions, among others. Structured data entry is an obstacle for the usability of electronic health record (EHR) applications and their acceptance by physicians who prefer to document patient EHRs using "free text". Natural language allows for rich expressiveness but at the same time is ambiguous; it has great dependence on context and uses jargon and acronyms...
August 2018: Yearbook of Medical Informatics
Zunaira Asif, Zhi Chen, Yi Han
Air quality in the mining sector is a serious environmental concern and associated with many health issues. Air quality management in mining regions has been facing many challenges due to lack of understanding of atmospheric factors and physical removal mechanisms. A modeling approach called the mining air dispersion model (MADM) is developed to predict air pollutants concentration in the mining region while considering the deposition effect. The model takes into account the planet's boundary conditions and assumes that the eddy diffusivity depends on the downwind distance...
September 2018: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Yuki Haga, Motoharu Suzuki, Chisato Matsumura, Toshihiro Okuno, Masahiro Tsurukawa, Kazuo Fujimori, Narayanan Kannan, Roland Weber, Takeshi Nakano
In this study, we analyzed hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in urine of both PCB transport workers and PCB researchers. A method to monitor OH-PCB in urine was developed. Urine was solid-phase extracted with 0.1% ammonia/ methanol (v/v) and glucuronic acid/sulfate conjugates and then decomposed using β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase. After alkaline digestion/derivatization, the concentration of OH-PCBs was determined by HRGC/HRMS-SIM. In the first sampling campaign, the worker's OH-PCB levels increased several fold after the PCB waste transportation work, indicating exposure to PCBs...
June 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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