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Chlorine Dioxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278810/asthma-prevalence-and-school-related-hazardous-air-pollutants-in-the-us-m%C3%A3-xico-border-area
#1
Genny Carrillo, Maria J Perez Patron, Natalie Johnson, Yan Zhong, Rose Lucio, Xiaohui Xu
BACKGROUND: Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children and has been linked to high levels of ambient air pollution and certain hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Outdoor pollutants such as benzene, released by car emissions, and organic chemicals found in diesel exhaust, as well as particles and irritant gases, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ozone (O3), contribute to an increased prevalence of respiratory diseases such as asthma. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to: 1) conduct a screening survey to identify high risk for asthma among school-age children in Hidalgo County, and, 2) study the potential health impact of school-related exposure to HAPs pertaining to asthma risk...
December 23, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276508/biofilm-surface-density-determines-biocide-effectiveness
#2
Sara Bas, Mateja Kramer, David Stopar
High resistance of biofilms for chemical challenges is a serious industrial and medical problem. In this work a gradient of surface covered with biofilm has been produced and correlated to the effectiveness of different commercially available oxidative biocides. The results for thin Escherichia coli biofilms grown in rich media supplemented with glucose or lactose on glass or poly methyl methacrylate surfaces indicate that the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide or chlorine dioxide and quaternary ammonium compounds is inversely proportional to the fraction of the surface covered with the biofilm...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251459/phosphate-buffer-stabilized-0-1-chlorine-dioxide-oral-rinse-for-managing-medication-related-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw
#3
REVIEW
Srinivas Rao Myneni Venkatasatya, Howard H Wang, Swetha Alluri, Sebastian G Ciancio
PURPOSE: This is a review of the literature on nonsurgical treatment of non-healing medication related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) utilizing a phosphate buffer-stabilized 0.1% chlorine dioxide mouthrinse. METHODS: A literature search in PubMed revealed only six case reports. MRONJ lesion site description, patient's medication history, the healing time, and the MRONJ treatment protocol followed by those authors were recorded. Additional literature review of the scientific mechanism, risks and benefits, safety and efficacy of the phosphate buffer-stabilized 0...
December 2017: American Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243408/genotoxicity-of-non-alcoholic-mouth-rinses-a-micronucleus-and-nuclear-abnormalities-study-with-fluorescent-microscopy
#4
Karteek Durbakula, Vishnudas Prabhu, Maji Jose
AIM: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of non-alcoholic mouth rinses on buccal epithelial cells using a micronucleus test. METHODS: A total of 105 patients were selected and randomly divided into five groups. Four different mouth rinses and normal saline were given for 2 weeks' duration, and cytological smears were collected before and after exposure. These smears were subjected to micronucleus (MN) and other nuclear abnormalities (ONA) tests using acridine orange stain, and their frequencies were obtained in 500 buccal epithelial cells...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227025/light-driven-c-h-oxygenation-of-methane-into-methanol-and-formic-acid-by-molecular-oxygen-using-perfluorinated-solvent
#5
Kei Ohkubo, Kensaku Hirose
Chlorine dioxide radical (ClO2*) was found to act as an efficient oxidizing agent in the aerobic oxygenation of methane to methanol and formic acid under photoirradiation. Photochemical oxygenation of methane occurred in a two-phase system comprising perfluorohexane and water under ambient conditions (298 K, 1 atm). The yields of methanol and formic acid were 14% and 85%, respectively, with a methane conversion of 99% without formation of the further oxygenated products such as CO2 and CO. Ethane was also photochemically converted into ethanol (19%) and acetic acid (78%)...
December 11, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195980/comparative-stability-and-efficacy-of-selected-chlorine-based-biocides-against-escherichia-coli-in-planktonic-and-biofilm-states
#6
Ana Meireles, Carla Ferreira, Luís Melo, Manuel Simões
Microbial contamination is an unavoidable problem in industrial processes. Sodium hypochlorite (SH) is the most common biocide used for industrial disinfection. However, in view of the current societal concerns on environmental and public health aspects, there is a trend to reduce the use of this biocide as it can lead to the formation of organochlorinated carcinogenic compounds. In this work the efficacy of SH was assessed against Escherichia coli in planktonic and biofilm states and compared with three alternative chlorine-based biocides: neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEOW), chlorine dioxide (CD) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC)...
December 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183610/chlorine-dioxide-enhances-lipid-peroxidation-through-inhibiting-calcium-independent-cellular-pla2-in-larvae-of-the-indianmeal-moth-plodia-interpunctella
#7
REVIEW
Gyung Deok Han, Jahyun Na, Yong Shik Chun, Sunil Kumar, Wook Kim, Yonggyun Kim
Polyunsaturated fatty acids usually undergo lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Calcium-independent cellular phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) can maintain fatty acid compositions in phospholipids depending on physiological conditions. An insect iPLA2 (Pi-iPLA2) was predicted from the transciptome of the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella. It encodes 835 amino acids. It possesses five ankyrin repeats in the N terminal and patatin lipase domain in the C terminal. Pi-iPLA2 was expressed in all developmental stages of the Indianmeal moth...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171860/demonstration-tests-of-irrigation-water-disinfection-with-chlorine-dioxide-in-open-field-cultivation-of-baby-spinach
#8
Francisco López-Gálvez, Maria I Gil, Ana Meireles, Pilar Truchado, Ana Allende
BACKGROUND: Treatments for the disinfection of irrigation water have to be evaluated by demonstration tests carried out under commercial settings taking into account not only their antimicrobial activity but also the potential phytotoxic effects on the crop. The consequences of the treatment of irrigation water with chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) used for sprinkler irrigation of baby spinach in two commercial agricultural fields was assessed. RESULTS: Residual ClO2 levels at the sprinklers in the treated field were always below 1 mg/L...
November 24, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139579/topical-adjuvants-incompletely-remove-adherent-staphylococcus-aureus-from-implant-materials
#9
Emily P Ernest, Anthony S Machi, Brock A Karolcik, P Rocco LaSala, Matthew J Dietz
Adjuvant treatments including Betadine, Dakin's solution (sodium hypochlorite), or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been attempted to eradicate prosthetic joint infection caused by biofilm or intracellular bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro abilities of chemical adjuvants to decrease Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilm presence on orthopaedic implant grade materials, including titanium, stainless steel, and cobalt chrome. S. aureus biofilms were grown for 48 hours and evaluated for baseline colony forming units/centimeter squared (CFU/cm(2) ) and compared to treatments with Betadine, Dakin's solution, H2 O2 , or 1% chlorine dioxide (ClO2 )...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107875/the-henry-s-constant-of-monochloramine
#10
Miguel A Garcia, Michael A Anderson
Monochloramine is a secondary disinfectant used in drinking water and is also formed in chlorinated wastewater. While known to hydrolyze over time and react with dissolved organic matter, its partitioning between the aqueous and gas phase has not been extensively studied. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that monochloramine concentrations in solutions open to the atmosphere or actively aerated decreased more rapidly than in sealed solutions, indicating significant losses to the atmosphere. For example, a monochloramine solution open to the atmosphere yielded a loss rate constant of 0...
October 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092443/chlorine-dioxide-induced-and-congo-red-inhibited-marangoni-effect-on-the-chlorite-trithionate-reaction-front
#11
Yang Liu, Xingfeng Ren, Changwei Pan, Ting Zheng, Ling Yuan, Juhua Zheng, Qingyu Gao
Hydrodynamic flows can exert multiple effects on an exothermal autocatalytic reaction, such as buoyancy and the Marangoni convection, which can change the structure and velocity of chemical waves. Here we report that in the chlorite-trithionate reaction, the production and consumption of chlorine dioxide can induce and inhibit Marangoni flow, respectively, leading to different chemo-hydrodynamic patterns. The horizontal propagation of a reaction-diffusion-convection front was investigated with the upper surface open to the air...
October 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046672/cross-resistance-of-uv-or-chlorine-dioxide-resistant-echovirus-11-to-other-disinfectants
#12
Qingxia Zhong, Anna Carratalà, Rachele Ossola, Virginie Bachmann, Tamar Kohn
The emergence of waterborne viruses with resistance to disinfection has been demonstrated in the laboratory and in the environment. Yet, the implications of such resistance for virus control remain obscure. In this study we investigate if viruses with resistance to a given disinfection method exhibit cross-resistance to other disinfectants. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2)- or UV-resistant populations of echovirus 11 were exposed to five inactivating treatments (free chlorine, ClO2, UV radiation, sunlight, and heat), and the extent of cross-resistance was determined...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045934/a-comparison-of-genotoxicity-change-in-reclaimed-wastewater-from-different-disinfection-processes
#13
Qiwan Chai, Allen Hu, Yukun Qian, Xiuwei Ao, Wenjun Liu, Hongwei Yang, Yuefeng F Xie
Effluents before disinfection from four wastewater reclamation plants were treated with chlorine (Cl2), ozone (O3), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), medium-pressure ultraviolet (MPUV) and four different combinations of the above, to evaluate the effect of disinfection processes on the genotoxicity removal by the SOS/umu test. Results showed that the genotoxicity increased after MPUV irradiation (10-100 mJ/cm(2)), but declined when adopting other disinfection processes. The effectiveness of genotoxicity reduction by five chemical disinfectants was identified as: O3 > pre-ozonation with Cl2 ≈ ClO2 > combination of ClO2 and Cl2 > Cl2...
October 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035101/biofilm-formation-antimicrobial-resistance-and-sanitizer-tolerance-of-salmonella-enterica-strains-isolated-from-beef-trim
#14
Rong Wang, John W Schmidt, Dayna M Harhay, Joseph M Bosilevac, David A King, Terrance M Arthur
In the beef industry, product contamination by Salmonella enterica is a serious public health concern, which may result in human infection and cause significant financial loss due to product recalls. Currently, the precise mechanism and pathogen source responsible for Salmonella contamination in commercial establishments are not well understood. We characterized 89 S. enterica strains isolated from beef trim with respect to their biofilm-forming ability, antimicrobial resistance, and biofilm cell survival/recovery growth after sanitizer exposure...
October 16, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032209/customizing-the-spent-coffee-for-trichoderma-reesei-cellulase-immobilization-by-modification-with-activating-agents
#15
Aneta Buntić, Marija Pavlović, Dušan Antonović, Vladimir Pavlović, Dragana Vrućinić, Slavica Šiler-Marinković, Suzana Dimitrijević-Branković
This study has explored the possibility to reuse the waste, spent coffee material for the cellulase enzyme immobilization. By the coffee surface modification with different activating agents, it was attempted to develop the convenient method for creation of a capable porous carrier for this purpose. Among the most common activating agents, glutaraldehyde, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide provided the most acceptable choice for the coffee surface modification. The changes that occurred on the coffee surface due to agents' treatment exposure were recorded by using of the FTIR spectra and SEM micrographs...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026068/hollow-mno2-as-a-tumor-microenvironment-responsive-biodegradable-nano-platform-for-combination-therapy-favoring-antitumor-immune-responses
#16
Guangbao Yang, Ligeng Xu, Yu Chao, Jun Xu, Xiaoqi Sun, Yifan Wu, Rui Peng, Zhuang Liu
Herein, an intelligent biodegradable hollow manganese dioxide (H-MnO2) nano-platform is developed for not only tumor microenvironment (TME)-specific imaging and on-demand drug release, but also modulation of hypoxic TME to enhance cancer therapy, resulting in comprehensive effects favoring anti-tumor immune responses. With hollow structures, H-MnO2 nanoshells post modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG) could be co-loaded with a photodynamic agent chlorine e6 (Ce6), and a chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX)...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024715/proposal-of-a-flow-scheme-for-the-chemical-form-based-quantitative-analysis-of-chlorine-compounds-in-pulp-for-sanitary-products-and-verification-of-safety
#17
Takeharu Wada, Kei Iwasaki, Yasushi Minobe, Mitsuhiro Wada, Shigeo Imai, Satoko Ishii
To determine the amounts and chemical forms of chlorine compounds in elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleached pulp for sanitary products, a chemical-form-based quantitative analysis flow scheme was created. The scheme involves quantitative determination of compounds eluted in elution tests assuming dermal exposure. The results indicated that most of the chlorine compounds in pulp used for sanitary products were insoluble organically bound chlorine and water-soluble chlorides consisting of chloride ions. The total amount of chlorine obtained by analysis of the total chlorine in the pulp products was close to the sum of the amounts of water-soluble chlorides, residual chlorine, chloroacetic acids, and insoluble organically bound chlorine...
October 9, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989509/is-a-chlorine-dioxide-wiping-procedure-suitable-for-the-high-level-disinfection-of-nasendoscopes
#18
Noureddine Henoun Loukili, Nadine Lemaitre, Benoit Guery, Olivier Gaillot, Dominique Chevalier, Geoffrey Mortuaire
BACKGROUND: Nasendoscopes are widely used in the outpatient ENT setting. Their reprocessing requires high-level disinfection (HLD). Recently, a wiping procedure using chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has been proposed as an alternative to HLD traditional procedures. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of the HLD wiping procedure versus soaking procedure on a contaminated nasendoscope. METHOD: A nasendoscope was contaminated with four strains of bacteria and Bacillus subtilis spores...
March 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926732/multifunctional-mesoporous-zro2-encapsulated-upconversion-nanoparticles-for-mild-nir-light-activated-synergistic-cancer-therapy
#19
Lili Feng, Shili Gai, Fei He, Yunlu Dai, Chongna Zhong, Piaoping Yang, Jun Lin
Desirable nanosystem that could not only deliver drugs safely and effectively into tumor sites, but also be expected to serve as photosensitizer to realize the photodynamic therapeutic function, would be of great significance in the synergistic cancer therapy. To perform this task, a multifunctional nanosystem has been developed for markedly enhanced cancer therapeutic efficacy by loading chemotherapy agent (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX) and photosensitive drug chlorin e6 (Ce6) into the channels of mesoporous zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) layer which coats on Nd(3+)-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)...
December 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917570/detection-of-viable-but-nonculturable-legionella-in-hospital-water-network-following-monochloramine-disinfection
#20
Beatrice Casini, Angelo Baggiani, Michele Totaro, Antonella Mansi, Anna Laura Costa, Francesco Aquino, Mario Miccoli, Paola Valentini, Fabrizio Bruschi, Pier Luigi Lopalco, Gaetano Privitera
BACKGROUND: Prevention of legionellosis still remains a critical issue in healthcare settings where monochloramine (MC) disinfection was recently introduced as a good alternative to chlorine dioxide in controlling Legionella spp. contamination of the hospital water network. Continuous treatments with low MC doses in some instances have induced a viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) of Legionella spp. AIM: We investigated the occurrence of such dormant cells during a long period of continuous MC treatment...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
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