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Chlorine Dioxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773971/synthesis-and-polymerization-of-1-2-diallylaminoethyl-pyrimidines
#1
Jomana Elaridi, Alaa Ezzeddine, Lara Abramian, Ali Koubeissi, Nikolay Vladimirov, Kamal H Bouhadir
We report the preparation and characterization of three pyrimidine-based monomers, specifically: 1-(2-diallylaminoethyl)uracil, 1-(2-diallylaminoethyl)thymine and 1-(2-diallylaminoethyl)cytosine. Monomer synthesis was initiated by reaction of the pyrimidine with ethylene carbonate to form the hydroxyethyl adduct which was subsequently chlorinated to afford the chloroethyl intermediate. Reaction of the chloroethyl derivatives with diallylamine resulted in the desired monomers. We demonstrated a two-fold increase in the overall yield of the three monomers in comparison to reported procedures...
2018: Designed Monomers and Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742188/chlorine-dioxide-complex-cleanser-a-new-agent-with-rapid-efficacy-for-keratosis-pilaris
#2
Matthew J Zirwas, Jill Fichtel
Chlorine dioxide complex™ is a new molecule to dermatology that is a unique, non-toxic, broad spectrum anti-microbial and keratolytic compound. Chlorine dioxide has been used as an antiseptic in industrial settings for decades, primarily in water treatment facilities for municipal water supplies and food preparation. The compound has exceptional antiseptic properties with no known potential for development of resistance. It is a true keratolytic and anti-inflammatory, but is non-toxic to human tissue due to its unique mechanism of action...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719930/effect-of-relative-humidity-on-chlorine-dioxide-gas-inactivation-of-foodborne-pathogens-and-its-residues-on-tomatoes
#3
Park Sang-Hyun, Woo-Ju Kim, Dong-Hyun Kang
The effect of relative humidity (RH) on the antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) gas against foodborne pathogens on tomatoes was evaluated. Also, levels of ClO2 residues on tomatoes after exposure to ClO2 gas under different RH conditions were measured to determine the quantity of solubilized ClO2 gas on tomato surfaces. Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes were inoculated onto tomatoes and exposed to ClO2 gas (5, 10, 20, and 30 ppmv) under different RH conditions (50, 70, and 90%)...
May 2, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710591/deactivation-of-wastewater-derived-n-nitrosodimethylamine-precursors-with-chlorine-dioxide-oxidation-and-the-effect-of-ph
#4
Habibullah Uzun, Daekyun Kim, Tanju Karanfil
In this study, the effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) oxidation on the deactivation of wastewater (WW)-derived N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) precursors was investigated under various conditions (i.e., ClO2 application pH, dose and contact time). At pH 6.0, decreases in NDMA formation potentials (FPs) or occurrences (under uniform formation conditions [UFC]) were relatively low (<25%) with ClO2 oxidation regardless of WW-impact. A negative removal was also observed after ClO2 oxidation in some of the non-impacted waters...
April 24, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710392/kinetics-of-ethylene-epoxidation-on-a-promoted-ag-%C3%AE-al2o3-catalyst-the-effects-of-product-and-chloride-co-feeds-on-rates-and-selectivity
#5
Cha-Jung Chen, James W Harris, Aditya Bhan
Overall chloriding effectiveness factor (Z*), defined as the ratio of ethyl chloride concentration in parts per million to the sum of ethylene and ethane concentration in mole percent multiplied by a weighting factor to account for their efficacy in removing chlorine-adatoms from the surface, was used as a parameter to account for the effects of chlorine on the kinetics of ethylene epoxidation on a highly promoted 35 wt% Ag/α-Al2O3 catalyst. An increase in O2 order (~0.7 to 1) and a decrease in C2H4 order (~0...
April 30, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706335/effectiveness-of-different-antimicrobial-washes-combined-with-freezing-against-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-salmonella-typhimurium-and-listeria-monocytogenes-inoculated-on-blueberries
#6
Shravani Tadepalli, David F Bridges, Randilyn Driver, Vivian C H Wu
To ensure the safety of produce, including blueberries, elimination of potential pathogens is critical. This study evaluated the efficacy of antimicrobial washes when coupled with frozen storage against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium and Listeria monocytogenes on wild blueberries. Inoculated blueberries were sprayed with antimicrobial solutions at different concentrations for various contact times (chlorine dioxide -2.5, 5, 10, and 15 ppm for 10 s, 1, 5, and 10 min; chlorine -100, 150, and 200 ppm for 10s, 1, 5, and 10 min; lactic acid 1 and 2% for 5, 10 and 20 min) and following treatment, stored at -12 °C for 1 week...
September 2018: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29701972/characterization-of-brominated-disinfection-byproducts-formed-during-the-chlorination-of-aquaculture-seawater
#7
Juan Wang, Zhineng Hao, Fengqiong Shi, Yongguang Yin, Dong Cao, Ziwei Yao, Jing-Fu Liu
Although brominated disinfection byproducts (Br-DBPs) have been reported to form from reactions between bromide, dissolved organic matter (DOM) and disinfectants, their formation during the disinfection of aquaculture seawater via chlorination has been rarely studied. Herein, after 5 days of disinfection of raw aquiculture seawater samples with sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDDC), trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCCA) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2), 181, 179 and 37 Br-DBPs were characterized by ultra-high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS)...
April 27, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668034/response-of-formed-biofilm-of-enterobacter-cloacae-klebsiella-oxytoca-and-citrobacter-freundii-to-chlorite-based-disinfectants
#8
Linlin Cai, Huawei Wang, Lijiao Liang, Guangyu Wang, Xinglian Xu, Huhu Wang
Bacterial biofilms formed on equipment surfaces are potential sources of cross-contamination and can be responsible for the spread of bacteria involved in food spoilage, such as some Enterobacteriaceae family members. In this study, the effect of chlorite-based disinfectants, including sodium hypochlorite (SH), chlorine dioxide (CD), strongly acidic electrolyzed water (StAEW), and neutral electrolyzed water (NEW), on inactivation of mono-biofilms of Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Citrobacter freundii was evaluated separately...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627661/effect-of-temperature-on-chlorine-dioxide-inactivation-of-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-salmonella-typhimurium-and-listeria-monocytogenes-on-spinach-tomatoes-stainless-steel-and-glass-surfaces
#9
Sang-Hyun Park, Dong-Hyun Kang
The objective of this study was to evaluate how treatment temperature influences the solubility of ClO2 gas and the antimicrobial effect of ClO2 gas against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Listeria monocytogenes on produce and food contact surfaces. Produce and food contact surfaces inoculated with a combined culture cocktail of three strains each of the three foodborne pathogens were processed in a treatment chamber with 20 ppmv ClO2 gas at 15 or 25 °C under the same conditions of absolute humidity (11...
March 22, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558681/evaluation-of-gaseous-chlorine-dioxide-for-the-inactivation-of-tulane-virus-on-blueberries
#10
David H Kingsley, Rafael E Pérez-Pérez, Brendan A Niemira, Xuetong Fan
To determine the effectiveness of gaseous chlorine dioxide (gClO2 ) against a human norovirus surrogate on produce, gClO2 was generated and applied to Tulane virus-coated blueberries in a 240 ml-treatment chamber. gClO2 was produced by an acidifying sodium chlorite solution. Initial assessments indicated that blueberries treated with gClO2 generated from ≤1 mg acidified sodium chlorite in the small chamber appeared unaffected while gClO2 generated from ≥10 mg of acidified sodium chlorite solution altered the appearance and quality of the blueberries...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556341/oxygen-generating-hybrid-polymeric-nanoparticles-with-encapsulated-doxorubicin-and-chlorin-e6-for-trimodal-imaging-guided-combined-chemo-photodynamic-therapy
#11
DanRong Hu, LiJuan Chen, Ying Qu, JinRong Peng, BingYang Chu, Kun Shi, Ying Hao, Lin Zhong, MengYao Wang, ZhiYong Qian
The combination of chemotherapy with photodynamic therapy (PDT) has attracted broad attention as it can overcome limitations of conventional chemo-treatment by using different modes of action. However, the efficacy of PDT to treat solid tumors is severely affected by hypoxia in tumors. Methods : In this study, we developed oxygen-generating theranostic nanoparticles (CDM NPs) by hierarchically assembling doxorubicin (DOX), chlorin e6 (Ce6) and colloidal manganese dioxide (MnO2 ) with poly (ε-caprolactone-co-lactide)-b-poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (ε-caprolactone-co-lactide) for treating breast cancer...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554524/a-mechanistic-study-on-the-potential-of-quinolinium-salts-as-photocatalysts-for-the-abatement-of-chlorinated-pollutants
#12
Rebeca Martinez-Haya, Consuelo Sabater, Maria-Ángeles Castillo, Miguel A Miranda, M Luisa Marin
Photocatalytic degradation of three highly chlorinated contaminants, namely 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP), 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenol (triclosan, TCS) has been investigated in the presence of N-methylquinolinium tetrafluoroborate (NMQ+ ), a photocatalyst able to act via Type I or Type II mechanism. Photodegradation of contaminants under aerobic conditions was achieved within hours; and it was accompanied by mineralization, as demonstrated by trapping of the evolved carbon dioxide as barium carbonate...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548581/effectiveness-of-disinfectant-treatments-for-inactivating-piscirickettsia-salmonis
#13
A Muniesa, J Escobar-Dodero, N Silva, P Henríquez, P Bustos, A M Perez, F O Mardones
This short communication investigated in vitro differences between commercial disinfectants types (n = 36), doses of application, and time of action in the elimination of Piscirickettsia salmonis, the most important bacterium affecting farmed salmon in Chile. Seven different treatments were examined, including active and inactive chlorine dioxides, glutaraldehyde, hypochlorite disinfectants and detergents, peracetic acid, peroxides and other miscellaneous methods A 3 replicate set of each of the sample groups was stored at 20 °C and 95% relative humidity and retested after 1, 5 and 30 min with varying doses (low, recommended and high doses)...
March 8, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516885/-in-vitro-activity-of-seven-hospital-biocides-against-mycobacterium-abscessus-implications-for-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#14
Steven Caskey, John E Moore, Jacqueline C Rendall
Background: Mycobacterium abscessus pulmonary infection has recently emerged as a significant pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and is associated with significant morbidity and accelerated pulmonary decline. There is a paucity of data describing the activity of hospital biocides against this organism. Methods: M. abscessus isolates (n = 13) were recovered from CF and non-CF respiratory specimens. Seven commonly employed hospital biocides with generic ingredients as follows: acetone, propan-2-ol, diethylene glycol, 5-chloro-2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one and 2-methyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one, chlorine dioxide, 4% chlorhexidine, alcohol, and disodium carbonate, compound with hydrogen peroxide, 10% sodium hypochlorite were assayed for their biocidal activity against M...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513104/evaluation-of-hot-water-gaseous-chlorine-dioxide-and-chlorine-treatments-in-combination-with-an-edible-coating-for-enhancing-safety-quality-and-shelf-life-of-fresh-cut-cantaloupes
#15
Cristina Alicea, Bassam A Annous, Daiza P Mendez, Angela Burke, Lynette E Orellana
Fresh-cut cantaloupes have been implicated in numerous foodborne outbreaks of salmonellosis. Commercial aqueous wash treatments are limited in their ability to inactivate Salmonella enterica. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of hot water, gaseous chlorine dioxide, and chlorine on enhancing microbial safety and sensory qualities of fresh-cut cantaloupes. Cantaloupes were inoculated with an S. enterica cocktail (serovars Michigan, Mbandaka, and Poona) and treated with chlorine (200 ppm of free chlorine) for 40 min, 5 mg/L gaseous chlorine dioxide for 4...
April 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501757/chlorine-disinfection-increases-both-intracellular-and-extracellular-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-a-full-scale-wastewater-treatment-plant
#16
Shan-Shan Liu, Hong-Mei Qu, Dong Yang, Hui Hu, Wei-Li Liu, Zhi-Gang Qiu, Ai-Ming Hou, Jianhua Guo, Jun-Wen Li, Zhi-Qiang Shen, Min Jin
The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance has posed a major threat to both human health and environmental ecosystem. Although the disinfection has been proved to be efficient to control the occurrence of pathogens, little effort is dedicated to revealing potential impacts of disinfection on transmission of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), particularly for free-living ARGs in final disinfected effluent of urban wastewater treatment plants (UWWTP). Here, we investigated the effects of chlorine disinfection on the occurrence and concentration of both extracellular ARGs (eARGs) and intracellular ARGs (iARGs) in a full-scale UWWTP over a year...
June 1, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499521/fe-ti-fe-ii-loading-on-ceramic-filter-materials-for-residual-chlorine-removal-from-drinking-water
#17
Kexin Man, Qi Zhu, Zheng Guo, Zipeng Xing
Ceramic filter material was prepared with silicon dioxide (SiO2 ), which was recovered from red mud and then modified with Fe (II) and Fe-Ti bimetal oxide. Ceramic filter material can be used to reduce the content of residual chlorine from drinking water. The results showed that after a two-step leaching process with 3 M hydrochloric acid (HCl) and 90% sulfuric acid (H2 SO4 ), the recovery of SiO2 exceeded 80%. Fe (II)/Fe-Ti bimetal oxide, with a high adsorption capacity of residual chlorine, was prepared using a 3:1 M ratio of Fe/Ti and a concentration of 0...
June 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471694/assessing-the-microbial-communities-inhabiting-drinking-water-networks-and-nitrifying-enrichments-with-special-respect-on-nitrifying-microorganisms
#18
Zsuzsanna Nagymáté, Katalin Nemes-Barnás, Gergely Krett, Károly Márialigeti
This study provides a comprehensive microbiological survey of three drinking water networks applying different water treatment processes. Variability of microbial communities was assessed by cultivation-based [nitrifying, denitrifying most probable number (MPN) heterotrophic plate count] and sequence-aided terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis. The effect of microbial community composition on nitrifying MPN values was revealed. The non-treated well water samples showed remarkable differences to their corresponding distribution systems regarding low plate count, nitrifying MPN, and the composition of microbial communities, which increased and changed, respectively, in distribution systems...
February 23, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466658/variability-in-disinfection-resistance-between-currently-circulating-enterovirus-b-serotypes-and-strains
#19
Simon Meister, Matthew E Verbyla, Marius Klinger, Tamar Kohn
The susceptibility of waterborne viruses to disinfection is known to vary between viruses and even between closely related strains, yet the extent of this variation is not known. Here, different enteroviruses (six strains of coxsackievirus B5, two strains of coxsackievirus B4 and one strain of coxackievirus B1) were isolated from wastewater and inactivated by UV254 , sunlight, free chlorine (FC), chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ), and heat. Inactivation kinetics of these isolates were compared with those of laboratory enterovirus strains (CVB5 Faulkner and echovirus 11 Gregory) and MS2 bacteriophage...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442508/chloroxyanion-residue-on-seeds-and-sprouts-after-chlorine-dioxide-sanitation-of-alfalfa-seed
#20
David J Smith, Grant R Herges
The effects of a 6-h chlorine dioxide sanitation of alfalfa seed (0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg seed) on total coliform bacteria, seed germination, and the presence of chlorate and perchlorate residues in seed rinse, seed soak, and alfalfa sprouts was determined. Chlorate residues in 20,000 mg/L calcium hypochlorite, commonly used to disinfect seed, were quantified. Chlorine dioxide treatment reduced (P < 0.05) total coliforms on seeds with no effect (P > 0.05) on germination. Dose-dependent sodium chlorate residues were present in seed rinse (4...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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