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Chlorine Dioxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327506/efficacy-and-safety-evaluation-of-a-chlorine-dioxide-solution
#1
Jui-Wen Ma, Bin-Syuan Huang, Chu-Wei Hsu, Chun-Wei Peng, Ming-Long Cheng, Jung-Yie Kao, Tzong-Der Way, Hao-Chang Yin, Shan-Shue Wang
In this study, a chlorine dioxide solution (UC-1) composed of chlorine dioxide was produced using an electrolytic method and subsequently purified using a membrane. UC-1 was determined to contain 2000 ppm of gaseous chlorine dioxide in water. The efficacy and safety of UC-1 were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was more than 98.2% reduction when UC-1 concentrations were 5 and 20 ppm for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of H1N1, influenza virus B/TW/71718/04, and EV71 were 84...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319884/sodium-chlorate-induces-dna-damage-and-dna-protein-cross-linking-in-rat-intestine-a-dose-dependent-study
#2
Shaikh Nisar Ali, Fariheen Aisha Ansari, Hussain Arif, Riaz Mahmood
Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is widely used in paper and pulp industries and as a non-selective herbicide. It is also a major by-product generated upon disinfection of drinking water by chlorine dioxide. In this study, we have investigated the genotoxicity of NaClO3 on the small intestine of rats. Adult male rats were divided into 5 groups: one control and four NaClO3 treated groups. The NaClO3 treated groups were given a single acute oral dose of NaClO3 (100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight) and sacrificed 24 h later...
March 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304018/graphene-nanobubbles-on-tio2-for-in-operando-electron-spectroscopy-of-liquid-phase-chemistry
#3
S Nappini, A Matruglio, D Naumenko, S Dal Zilio, F Bondino, M Lazzarino, E Magnano
X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) provide unique knowledge on the electronic structure and chemical properties of materials. Unfortunately this information is scarce when investigating solid/liquid interfaces and chemical or photochemical reactions under ambient conditions because of the short electron inelastic mean free path (IMFP) that requires a vacuum environment, which poses serious limitation on the application of XPS and XAS to samples present in the atmosphere or in the presence of a solvent...
March 17, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301286/chlorine-dioxide-oxidation-of-escherichia-coli-in-water-a-study-of-the-disinfection-kinetics-and-mechanism
#4
Isaac Ofori, Suresh Maddila, Johnson Lin, Sreekantha B Jonnalagadda
This study investigated the kinetics and mechanism of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) inactivation of a Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (ATCC 35218) in oxidant demand free (ODF) water in detail as a function of disinfectant concentration (0.5-5.0 mg/L), water pH (6.5-8.5), temperature variations (4-37°C) and bacterial density (10(5)-10(7) cfu/mL). The effects of ClO2 on bacterial cell morphology, outer membrane permeability, cytoplasmic membrane disruption and intracellular enzymatic activity were also studied to elucidate the mechanism of action on the cells...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272919/in-situ-generation-of-chlorine-dioxide-for-surface-decontamination-of-produce
#5
Cheng-An Hwang, Lihan Huang, Vivian Chi-Hua Wu
Fresh fruits and vegetables are frequently contaminated with bacterial pathogens and implicated in foodborne illnesses. The objective of this study was to develop a unique surface decontamination method for produce using sodium chlorite and an acid in a sequential treatment. The surfaces of cantaloupe rinds, peels of cucumbers, stem scars of grape tomatoes, and leaves of baby spinach were inoculated with Salmonella or Listeria monocytogenes at 5 to 6 log CFU/g, submerged in 1.6 to 4% sodium chlorite solutions for 10 or 30 min, dried for 20 min, and then soaked in 6 mM hydrogen chloride (HCl) for 10 or 30 min and dried for 20 min...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242924/effect-of-alternatives-to-chlorine-washing-for-sanitizing-fresh-coriander
#6
Haiyan Gao, Xiangjun Fang, Yunlong Li, Hangjun Chen, Qi Fa Zhao, Tony Z Jin
Fresh coriander leaves are highly perishable in nature and their sensory quality and nutritional value decreases without proper processing or preservation. In the present study, three aqueous solutions of sodium hypochlorite (SH, 100 mg/L), chlorine dioxide (CD, 10 mg/L), and sodium butyl p-hydroxybenzoate (SBPH, 12 mg/L), and tap water, were used to treat fresh coriander for 15 min. The treated samples were packed in PVC boxes with ambient air under packaged under passive modified atmosphere packaging conditions and stored at 4 °C for 10 days...
January 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241955/clinical-issues-march-2017
#7
Sharon A Van Wicklin
Using one flexible endoscope for an upper and lower gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy procedure Key words: flexible endoscope, esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, enteroscope, risk assessment. Enhanced methods for processing flexible duodenoscopes Key words: flexible duodenoscopes, liquid chemical sterilization, ethylene oxide sterilization, low-temperature sterilization, risk assessment. Modification of the Spaulding classification Key words: Spaulding classification, critical items, semicritical items, mucous membranes, risk assessment...
March 2017: AORN Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241687/-six-patients-with-chlorine-dioxide-poisoning
#8
R J Liu, A N Ren
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221924/reductions-in-natural-microbial-flora-nonpathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-pathogenic-salmonella-on-jalapeno-peppers-processed-in-a-commercial-antimicrobial-cabinet-a-pilot-plant-trial
#9
Jeremy M Adler, Erin D Cain-Helfrich, Cangliang Shen
This experiment aimed to validate the use of antimicrobial solutions in a spray cabinet to inactivate natural microbial flora, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli , and Salmonella on jalapeno peppers. Jalapeno peppers, uninoculated or inoculated with a five-strain mixture of rifampin-resistant E. coli (3.9 log CFU/g) or novobiocin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella (4.2 log CFU/g), were passed through a commercial antimicrobial cabinet containing both a top and bottom bar spraying (1.38 bar and 2 liters/min) water, sodium hypochlorite (50 ppm), sodium hypochlorite with pH adjusted to 6...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111001/chlorine-dioxide-as-an-alternative-antifouling-biocide-for-cooling-water-systems-toxicity-to-larval-barnacle-amphibalanus-reticulatus-utinomi
#10
Srinivas Venkatnarayanan, P Sriyutha Murthy, Ramalingam Kirubagaran, Vayalam P Venugopalan
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is seen as an effective alternative to chlorine, which is widely used as an antifouling biocide. However, data on its efficacy against marine macrofoulants is scanty. In this study, acute toxicity of ClO2 to larval forms of the fouling barnacle Amphibalanus reticulatus was investigated. ClO2 treatment at 0.1mg/L for 20min elicited 45-63% reduction in naupliar metamorphosis, 70% inhibition of cyprid settlement and 80% inhibition of metamorphosis to juveniles. Increase in concentration to 0...
January 19, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064143/production-of-trihalomethanes-haloacetaldehydes-and-haloacetonitriles-during-chlorination-of-microcystin-lr-and-impacts-of-pre-oxidation-on-their-formation
#11
Wenhai Chu, Dechang Yao, Yang Deng, Minghao Sui, Naiyun Gao
Microcystins (MCs) in drinking water have gained much attention due to their adverse health effects. However, little is known about the impact of pre-oxidation in the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during the downstream chlorination of MCs. The present study examined the formation of both carbonaceous and nitrogenous DBPs from chlorination of MC-LR (the most abundant MC species) and evaluated the impact of permanganate (PM), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) pre-oxidation on the DBP formation in chlorination...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043267/-investigation-of-emergency-capacities-for-occupational-hazard-accidents-in-silicon-solar-cell-producing-enterprises
#12
D D Yang, J N Xu, B L Zhu
Objective: To investigate and analyze the influential factors of occupational hazard acci-dents, emergency facilities and emergency management in Silicon solar cell producing enterprises, then to pro-vide scientific strategies. Methods: The methods of occupationally healthy field investigating, inspecting of ven-tilation effectiveness, setup of emergency program and wearing chemical suit were used. Results: The mainly occupational hazard accidents factors in the process of Silicon solar cell producing included poisoning chemi-cals, high temperature, onizing radiation and some workplaces...
November 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035121/combined-treatment-with-low-concentrations-of-aqueous-and-gaseous-chlorine-dioxide-inactivates-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-and-salmonella-typhimurium-inoculated-on-paprika
#13
Hyun-Gyu Kim, Kyung Bin Song
Combined treatment with gaseous and aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) was performed to improve the microbiological safety and quality of paprika. A single treatment of 50 ppmv ClO₂ gas for 30 min decreased the populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium by 2.33 and 2.91 log CFU/g, respectively. In addition, a single treatment of aqueous ClO₂ (50 ppm) for 5 min decreased these populations by 1.86 and 1.37, respectively. The most dramatic effects were achieved by combined treatment of 50 ppm aqueous and gaseous ClO₂ for 30 min, which decreased populations of E...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27966089/correlation-of-conformational-changes-and-protein-degradation-with-loss-of-lysozyme-activity-due-to-chlorine-dioxide-treatment
#14
Beng Guat Ooi, Sharon Alyssa Branning
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a potent oxidizing agent used for the treatment of drinking water and decontamination of facilities and equipment. The purpose of this research is to elucidate the manner in which ClO2 destroys proteins by studying the effects of ClO2 on lysozyme. The degree of enzyme activity lost can be correlated to the treatment time and levels of the ClO2 used. Lysozyme activity was drastically reduced to 45.3% of original enzyme activity when exposed to 4.3 mM ClO2 in the sample after 3 h...
December 13, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964897/algal-toxicity-of-the-alternative-disinfectants-performic-acid-pfa-peracetic-acid-paa-chlorine-dioxide-clo2-and-their-by-products-hydrogen-peroxide-h2o2-and-chlorite-clo2
#15
Ravi Kumar Chhetri, Anders Baun, Henrik Rasmus Andersen
Environmental effect evaluation of disinfection of combined sewer overflow events with alternative chemical disinfectants requires that the environmental toxicity of the disinfectants and the main by-products of their use are known. Many disinfectants degrade quickly in water which should be included in the evaluation of both their toxicity as determined in standardized tests and their possible negative effect in the water environment. Here we evaluated according to the standardized ISO 8692 test the toxicity towards the green microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, of three disinfectants: performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as well as two by-products of their use: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920190/evaluation-of-chlorine-dioxide-based-product-as-a-hatchery-sanitizer
#16
P Maharjan, S Cox, U Gadde, F D Clark, K Bramwell, S E Watkins
Formaldehyde is commonly used to overcome contaminants introduced by hatching eggs or water supply in the hatcher cabinets. However, health risks associated with its use make economical alternatives important. This project evaluated a chlorine dioxide based product (CDBP) (0.3% concentrate) as a hatchery sanitizer in decontaminating microbial populations on the shell surface of hatching eggs (>18 d old), as well as its impact on hatchability and chick performance. Hatchers (0.20 m(2)) designed to hold approximately 50 eggs and equipped with circulation fans, heaters, and thermostats were used for the evaluation...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889149/inactivation-of-salmonella-enterica-in-chicken-feces-on-the-surface-of-eggshells-by-simultaneous-treatments-with-gaseous-chlorine-dioxide-and-mild-wet-heat
#17
Sunhyung Park, Larry R Beuchat, Hoikyung Kim, Jee-Hoon Ryu
The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal effects of simultaneous treatments with gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and mild wet heat (55 °C at 100% relative humidity [RH]) on Salmonella enterica in chicken feces on the surface of eggshells. Gaseous ClO2 production decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) as the RH (23, 43, 68, 85, and 100%) at 25 °C was increased. The lethality of gaseous ClO2 against S. enterica in feces on eggshells increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) as RH increased. For example, when treated with gaseous ClO2 at 85 and 100% RH at 25 °C, S...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865123/decontamination-of-bacillus-spores-adhered-to-iron-and-cement-mortar-drinking-water-infrastructure-in-a-model-system-using-disinfectants
#18
Jeffrey G Szabo, Greg Meiners, Lee Heckman, Eugene W Rice, John Hall
Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to common drinking water infrastructure surfaces was evaluated using a variety of disinfectants. Corroded iron and cement-mortar lined iron represented the infrastructure surfaces, and were conditioned in a 23 m long, 15 cm diameter (75 ft long, 6 in diameter) pilot-scale drinking water distribution pipe system. Decontamination was evaluated using increased water velocity (flushing) alone at 0.5 m s(-1) (1.7 ft s(-1)), as well as free chlorine (5 and 25 mg L(-1)), monochloramine (25 mg L(-1)), chlorine dioxide (5 and 25 mg L(-1)), ozone (2...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864634/reactions-of-aquacobalamin-and-cob-ii-alamin-with-chlorite-and-chlorine-dioxide
#19
Ilia A Dereven'kov, Nikita I Shpagilev, László Valkai, Denis S Salnikov, Attila K Horváth, Sergei V Makarov
Reactions of aquacobalamin (H2O-Cbl(III)) and its one-electron reduced form (cob(II)alamin, Cbl(II)) with chlorite (ClO2(-)) and chlorine dioxide (ClO 2(•) ) were studied by conventional and stopped-flow UV-Vis spectroscopies and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). ClO2(-) does not react with H2O-Cbl(III), but oxidizes Cbl(II) to H2O-Cbl(III) as a major product and corrin-modified species as minor products. The proposed mechanism of chlorite reduction involves formation of OCl(-) that modifies the corrin ring during the course of reaction with Cbl(II)...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806372/generation-and-measurement-of-chlorine-dioxide-gas-at-extremely-low-concentrations-in-a-living-room-implications-for-preventing-airborne-microbial-infectious-diseases
#20
Norio Ogata, Koushirou Sogawa, Yasuhiro Takigawa, Takashi Shibata
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Preventing respiratory diseases caused by airborne microbes in enclosed spaces is still not satisfactorily controlled. At extremely low concentrations (about 30 parts per billion), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas can inactivate airborne microbes and prevent respiratory disease. It has no toxic effect on animals at this level. However, controversies still remain regarding how to measure concentrations of ClO2 gas at such low levels. It is therefore necessary to prove that measured gas concentrations are accurate and reproducible...
2017: Pharmacology
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