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Chlorine Dioxide

Jeremy M Adler, Erin D Cain-Helfrich, Cangliang Shen
This experiment aimed to validate the use of antimicrobial solutions in a spray cabinet to inactivate natural microbial flora, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli , and Salmonella on jalapeno peppers. Jalapeno peppers, uninoculated or inoculated with a five-strain mixture of rifampin-resistant E. coli (3.9 log CFU/g) or novobiocin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella (4.2 log CFU/g), were passed through a commercial antimicrobial cabinet containing both a top and bottom bar spraying (1.38 bar and 2 liters/min) water, sodium hypochlorite (50 ppm), sodium hypochlorite with pH adjusted to 6...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
Srinivas Venkatnarayanan, P Sriyutha Murthy, Ramalingam Kirubagaran, Vayalam P Venugopalan
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is seen as an effective alternative to chlorine, which is widely used as an antifouling biocide. However, data on its efficacy against marine macrofoulants is scanty. In this study, acute toxicity of ClO2 to larval forms of the fouling barnacle Amphibalanus reticulatus was investigated. ClO2 treatment at 0.1mg/L for 20min elicited 45-63% reduction in naupliar metamorphosis, 70% inhibition of cyprid settlement and 80% inhibition of metamorphosis to juveniles. Increase in concentration to 0...
January 19, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Wenhai Chu, Dechang Yao, Yang Deng, Minghao Sui, Naiyun Gao
Microcystins (MCs) in drinking water have gained much attention due to their adverse health effects. However, little is known about the impact of pre-oxidation in the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) during the downstream chlorination of MCs. The present study examined the formation of both carbonaceous and nitrogenous DBPs from chlorination of MC-LR (the most abundant MC species) and evaluated the impact of permanganate (PM), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) pre-oxidation on the DBP formation in chlorination...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
D D Yang, J N Xu, B L Zhu
Objective: To investigate and analyze the influential factors of occupational hazard acci-dents, emergency facilities and emergency management in Silicon solar cell producing enterprises, then to pro-vide scientific strategies. Methods: The methods of occupationally healthy field investigating, inspecting of ven-tilation effectiveness, setup of emergency program and wearing chemical suit were used. Results: The mainly occupational hazard accidents factors in the process of Silicon solar cell producing included poisoning chemi-cals, high temperature, onizing radiation and some workplaces...
November 20, 2016: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
Hyun-Gyu Kim, Kyung Bin Song
Combined treatment with gaseous and aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) was performed to improve the microbiological safety and quality of paprika. A single treatment of 50 ppmv ClO₂ gas for 30 min decreased the populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium by 2.33 and 2.91 log CFU/g, respectively. In addition, a single treatment of aqueous ClO₂ (50 ppm) for 5 min decreased these populations by 1.86 and 1.37, respectively. The most dramatic effects were achieved by combined treatment of 50 ppm aqueous and gaseous ClO₂ for 30 min, which decreased populations of E...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Beng Guat Ooi, Sharon Alyssa Branning
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a potent oxidizing agent used for the treatment of drinking water and decontamination of facilities and equipment. The purpose of this research is to elucidate the manner in which ClO2 destroys proteins by studying the effects of ClO2 on lysozyme. The degree of enzyme activity lost can be correlated to the treatment time and levels of the ClO2 used. Lysozyme activity was drastically reduced to 45.3% of original enzyme activity when exposed to 4.3 mM ClO2 in the sample after 3 h...
December 13, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Ravi Kumar Chhetri, Anders Baun, Henrik Rasmus Andersen
Environmental effect evaluation of disinfection of combined sewer overflow events with alternative chemical disinfectants requires that the environmental toxicity of the disinfectants and the main by-products of their use are known. Many disinfectants degrade quickly in water which should be included in the evaluation of both their toxicity as determined in standardized tests and their possible negative effect in the water environment. Here we evaluated according to the standardized ISO 8692 test the toxicity towards the green microalgae, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, of three disinfectants: performic acid (PFA), peracetic acid (PAA) and chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as well as two by-products of their use: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chlorite...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
P Maharjan, S Cox, U Gadde, F D Clark, K Bramwell, S E Watkins
Formaldehyde is commonly used to overcome contaminants introduced by hatching eggs or water supply in the hatcher cabinets. However, health risks associated with its use make economical alternatives important. This project evaluated a chlorine dioxide based product (CDBP) (0.3% concentrate) as a hatchery sanitizer in decontaminating microbial populations on the shell surface of hatching eggs (>18 d old), as well as its impact on hatchability and chick performance. Hatchers (0.20 m(2)) designed to hold approximately 50 eggs and equipped with circulation fans, heaters, and thermostats were used for the evaluation...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
Sunhyung Park, Larry R Beuchat, Hoikyung Kim, Jee-Hoon Ryu
The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal effects of simultaneous treatments with gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and mild wet heat (55 °C at 100% relative humidity [RH]) on Salmonella enterica in chicken feces on the surface of eggshells. Gaseous ClO2 production decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) as the RH (23, 43, 68, 85, and 100%) at 25 °C was increased. The lethality of gaseous ClO2 against S. enterica in feces on eggshells increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) as RH increased. For example, when treated with gaseous ClO2 at 85 and 100% RH at 25 °C, S...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
Jeffrey G Szabo, Greg Meiners, Lee Heckman, Eugene W Rice, John Hall
Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to common drinking water infrastructure surfaces was evaluated using a variety of disinfectants. Corroded iron and cement-mortar lined iron represented the infrastructure surfaces, and were conditioned in a 23 m long, 15 cm diameter (75 ft long, 6 in diameter) pilot-scale drinking water distribution pipe system. Decontamination was evaluated using increased water velocity (flushing) alone at 0.5 m s(-1) (1.7 ft s(-1)), as well as free chlorine (5 and 25 mg L(-1)), monochloramine (25 mg L(-1)), chlorine dioxide (5 and 25 mg L(-1)), ozone (2...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
Ilia A Dereven'kov, Nikita I Shpagilev, László Valkai, Denis S Salnikov, Attila K Horváth, Sergei V Makarov
Reactions of aquacobalamin (H2O-Cbl(III)) and its one-electron reduced form (cob(II)alamin, Cbl(II)) with chlorite (ClO2(-)) and chlorine dioxide (ClO 2(•) ) were studied by conventional and stopped-flow UV-Vis spectroscopies and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). ClO2(-) does not react with H2O-Cbl(III), but oxidizes Cbl(II) to H2O-Cbl(III) as a major product and corrin-modified species as minor products. The proposed mechanism of chlorite reduction involves formation of OCl(-) that modifies the corrin ring during the course of reaction with Cbl(II)...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Norio Ogata, Koushirou Sogawa, Yasuhiro Takigawa, Takashi Shibata
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Preventing respiratory diseases caused by airborne microbes in enclosed spaces is still not satisfactorily controlled. At extremely low concentrations (about 30 parts per billion), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas can inactivate airborne microbes and prevent respiratory disease. It has no toxic effect on animals at this level. However, controversies still remain regarding how to measure concentrations of ClO2 gas at such low levels. It is therefore necessary to prove that measured gas concentrations are accurate and reproducible...
November 2, 2016: Pharmacology
Shaikh Nisar Ali, Mir Kaisar Ahmad, Riaz Mahmood
Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is a widely used non-selective herbicide. It is also generated as a byproduct during disinfection of drinking water by chlorine dioxide. In the present work, the effects of NaClO3 on human erythrocytes were studied under in vitro conditions. Incubation of erythrocytes with different concentrations of NaClO3 at 37 °C for 90 min resulted in significant hemolysis. Cell lysates were prepared from NaClO3-treated and untreated (control) erythrocytes and assayed for various biochemical parameters...
October 31, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
David J Smith, J Michael Giddings, Grant R Herges, William Ernst
When ready-to-eat salami was treated in a closed system with (36)Cl-labeled ClO2 (5.5 mg/100 g of salami), essentially all radioactivity was deposited onto the salami. Administered (36)ClO2 was converted to (36)Cl-chloride ion (>97%), trace levels of chlorate (<2%), and detectable levels of chlorite. In residue studies conducted with nonlabeled ClO2, sodium perchlorate residues (LOQ, 4 ng/g) were not formed when reactions were protected from light. Sodium chlorate residues were present in control (39...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ji Hoon Kang, Kyung Bin Song
An aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) treatment combined with highly activated calcium oxide (CaO) and mild heat inactivated naturally existing bacteria and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated on fresh-cut kale. Kale samples were treated with different concentrations of ClO₂ (10, 30, and 50 ppm), CaO (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2%), and mild heat (25, 45, 55, and 65°C) as well with combinations of 30 or 50 ppm ClO₂ and 0.2% CaO at 55°C for 3 min. An increasing concentration of ClO₂ and CaO significantly reduced the microbial population compared to the control...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jingting Zhu, Aibin Huang, Haibin Ma, Yining Ma, Kun Tong, Shidong Ji, Shanhu Bao, Xun Cao, Ping Jin
Vanadium dioxide (VO2), as a typical thermochromic material used in smart windows, is always limited by its weaker solar regulation efficiency (ΔTsol) and lower luminous transmittance (Tlum). Except for common approaches such as doping, coating and special structure, compositing is another effective method. The macroscopic thermochromic (from colorless to blue) ionic liquid-nickel-chlorine (IL-Ni-Cl) complexes are selected in this paper to be combined with VO2 nanoparticles forming a composite film. This novel scheme demonstrates outstanding optical properties: ΔTsol=26...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Céline M Vidal, Nicole Métrich, Jean-Christophe Komorowski, Indyo Pratomo, Agnès Michel, Nugraha Kartadinata, Vincent Robert, Franck Lavigne
Large explosive eruptions inject volcanic gases and fine ash to stratospheric altitudes, contributing to global cooling at the Earth's surface and occasionally to ozone depletion. The modelling of the climate response to these strong injections of volatiles commonly relies on ice-core records of volcanic sulphate aerosols. Here we use an independent geochemical approach which demonstrates that the great 1257 eruption of Samalas (Lombok, Indonesia) released enough sulphur and halogen gases into the stratosphere to produce the reported global cooling during the second half of the 13th century, as well as potential substantial ozone destruction...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Thanh-Loc Thi Dang, Tsuyoshi Imai, Tuan Van Le, Diem-Mai Kim Nguyen, Takaya Higuchi, Ariyo Kanno, Koichi Yamamoto, Masahiko Sekine
This study investigated the effect of combined treatments using pressurized carbon dioxide (PCD) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the inactivation of Enterococcus sp. in artificial seawater. Bacterial inactivation was conducted in a liquid-film-forming apparatus with various pressure conditions, CO2 supply rates, and chlorine dosages. Combined PCD/chlorine treatments resulted in greater disinfection efficiency than those for the two individual treatments. Synergy values were correlated with pressure and CO2 concentrations (p < 0...
October 3, 2016: Water Research
Diana Henao, Walter José Peláez, Gustavo Alejandro Argüello, Fabio Ernesto Malanca
The rate constant for the reaction of di-tert-butyl malonate (DTBM) with chlorine atoms in gas-phase was measured using cyclohexane and pentane as references. The measurements lead to a value of (1.5  0.1) x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The subsequent photo-oxidation mechanism of DTBM in the absence and presence of nitrogen dioxide was investigated. The main carbonated products identified in the first case were acetone, formic acid, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The addition of nitrogen dioxide lead besides to the formation of (CH3)3CC(O)OONO2 and (CH3)3CONO2...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Qingxia Zhong, Anna Carratalà, Sergey Nazarov, Ricardo Cesar Guerrero-Ferreira, Laura Piccinini, Virginie Bachmann, Petr G Leiman, Tamar Kohn
Common water disinfectants like chlorine have been reported to select for resistant viruses, yet little attention has been devoted to characterizing disinfection resistance. Here, we investigated the resistance of MS2 coliphage to inactivation by chlorine dioxide (ClO2). ClO2 inactivates MS2 by degrading its structural proteins, thereby disrupting the ability of MS2 to attach to and infect its host. ClO2-resistant virus populations emerged not only after repeated cycles of ClO2 disinfection followed by regrowth but also after dilution-regrowth cycles in the absence of ClO2...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
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