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Chlorine Dioxide

P Maharjan, S Cox, U Gadde, F D Clark, K Bramwell, S E Watkins
Formaldehyde is commonly used to overcome contaminants introduced by hatching eggs or water supply in the hatcher cabinets. However, health risks associated with its use make economical alternatives important. This project evaluated a chlorine dioxide based product (CDBP) (0.3% concentrate) as a hatchery sanitizer in decontaminating microbial populations on the shell surface of hatching eggs (>18 d old), as well as its impact on hatchability and chick performance. Hatchers (0.20 m(2)) designed to hold approximately 50 eggs and equipped with circulation fans, heaters, and thermostats were used for the evaluation...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
Sunhyung Park, Larry R Beuchat, Hoikyung Kim, Jee-Hoon Ryu
The aim of this study was to investigate the lethal effects of simultaneous treatments with gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and mild wet heat (55 °C at 100% relative humidity [RH]) on Salmonella enterica in chicken feces on the surface of eggshells. Gaseous ClO2 production decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) as the RH (23, 43, 68, 85, and 100%) at 25 °C was increased. The lethality of gaseous ClO2 against S. enterica in feces on eggshells increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) as RH increased. For example, when treated with gaseous ClO2 at 85 and 100% RH at 25 °C, S...
April 2017: Food Microbiology
Jeffrey G Szabo, Greg Meiners, Lee Heckman, Eugene W Rice, John Hall
Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to common drinking water infrastructure surfaces was evaluated using a variety of disinfectants. Corroded iron and cement-mortar lined iron represented the infrastructure surfaces, and were conditioned in a 23 m long, 15 cm diameter (75 ft long, 6 in diameter) pilot-scale drinking water distribution pipe system. Decontamination was evaluated using increased water velocity (flushing) alone at 0.5 m s(-1) (1.7 ft s(-1)), as well as free chlorine (5 and 25 mg L(-1)), monochloramine (25 mg L(-1)), chlorine dioxide (5 and 25 mg L(-1)), ozone (2...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Ilia A Dereven'kov, Nikita I Shpagilev, László Valkai, Denis S Salnikov, Attila K Horváth, Sergei V Makarov
Reactions of aquacobalamin (H2O-Cbl(III)) and its one-electron reduced form (cob(II)alamin, Cbl(II)) with chlorite (ClO2(-)) and chlorine dioxide (ClO 2(•) ) were studied by conventional and stopped-flow UV-Vis spectroscopies and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). ClO2(-) does not react with H2O-Cbl(III), but oxidizes Cbl(II) to H2O-Cbl(III) as a major product and corrin-modified species as minor products. The proposed mechanism of chlorite reduction involves formation of OCl(-) that modifies the corrin ring during the course of reaction with Cbl(II)...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Norio Ogata, Koushirou Sogawa, Yasuhiro Takigawa, Takashi Shibata
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Preventing respiratory diseases caused by airborne microbes in enclosed spaces is still not satisfactorily controlled. At extremely low concentrations (about 30 parts per billion), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas can inactivate airborne microbes and prevent respiratory disease. It has no toxic effect on animals at this level. However, controversies still remain regarding how to measure concentrations of ClO2 gas at such low levels. It is therefore necessary to prove that measured gas concentrations are accurate and reproducible...
November 2, 2016: Pharmacology
Shaikh Nisar Ali, Mir Kaisar Ahmad, Riaz Mahmood
Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is a widely used non-selective herbicide. It is also generated as a byproduct during disinfection of drinking water by chlorine dioxide. In the present work, the effects of NaClO3 on human erythrocytes were studied under in vitro conditions. Incubation of erythrocytes with different concentrations of NaClO3 at 37 °C for 90 min resulted in significant hemolysis. Cell lysates were prepared from NaClO3-treated and untreated (control) erythrocytes and assayed for various biochemical parameters...
October 31, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
David J Smith, J Michael Giddings, Grant R Herges, William Ernst
When ready-to-eat salami was treated in a closed system with (36)Cl-labeled ClO2 (5.5 mg/100 g of salami), essentially all radioactivity was deposited onto the salami. Administered (36)ClO2 was converted to (36)Cl-chloride ion (>97%), trace levels of chlorate (<2%), and detectable levels of chlorite. In residue studies conducted with nonlabeled ClO2, sodium perchlorate residues (LOQ, 4 ng/g) were not formed when reactions were protected from light. Sodium chlorate residues were present in control (39...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ji Hoon Kang, Kyung Bin Song
An aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) treatment combined with highly activated calcium oxide (CaO) and mild heat inactivated naturally existing bacteria and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated on fresh-cut kale. Kale samples were treated with different concentrations of ClO₂ (10, 30, and 50 ppm), CaO (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.2%), and mild heat (25, 45, 55, and 65°C) as well with combinations of 30 or 50 ppm ClO₂ and 0.2% CaO at 55°C for 3 min. An increasing concentration of ClO₂ and CaO significantly reduced the microbial population compared to the control...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jingting Zhu, Aibin Huang, Haibin Ma, Yining Ma, Kun Tong, Shidong Ji, Shanhu Bao, Xun Cao, Ping Jin
Vanadium dioxide (VO2), as a typical thermochromic material used in smart windows, is always limited by its weaker solar regulation efficiency (ΔTsol) and lower luminous transmittance (Tlum). Except for common approaches such as doping, coating and special structure, compositing is another effective method. The macroscopic thermochromic (from colorless to blue) ionic liquid-nickel-chlorine (IL-Ni-Cl) complexes are selected in this paper to be combined with VO2 nanoparticles forming a composite film. This novel scheme demonstrates outstanding optical properties: ΔTsol=26...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Céline M Vidal, Nicole Métrich, Jean-Christophe Komorowski, Indyo Pratomo, Agnès Michel, Nugraha Kartadinata, Vincent Robert, Franck Lavigne
Large explosive eruptions inject volcanic gases and fine ash to stratospheric altitudes, contributing to global cooling at the Earth's surface and occasionally to ozone depletion. The modelling of the climate response to these strong injections of volatiles commonly relies on ice-core records of volcanic sulphate aerosols. Here we use an independent geochemical approach which demonstrates that the great 1257 eruption of Samalas (Lombok, Indonesia) released enough sulphur and halogen gases into the stratosphere to produce the reported global cooling during the second half of the 13th century, as well as potential substantial ozone destruction...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Thanh-Loc Thi Dang, Tsuyoshi Imai, Tuan Van Le, Diem-Mai Kim Nguyen, Takaya Higuchi, Ariyo Kanno, Koichi Yamamoto, Masahiko Sekine
This study investigated the effect of combined treatments using pressurized carbon dioxide (PCD) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the inactivation of Enterococcus sp. in artificial seawater. Bacterial inactivation was conducted in a liquid-film-forming apparatus with various pressure conditions, CO2 supply rates, and chlorine dosages. Combined PCD/chlorine treatments resulted in greater disinfection efficiency than those for the two individual treatments. Synergy values were correlated with pressure and CO2 concentrations (p < 0...
October 3, 2016: Water Research
Diana Henao, Walter José Peláez, Gustavo Alejandro Argüello, Fabio Ernesto Malanca
The rate constant for the reaction of di-tert-butyl malonate (DTBM) with chlorine atoms in gas-phase was measured using cyclohexane and pentane as references. The measurements lead to a value of (1.5  0.1) x 10-10 cm3 molecule-1 s-1. The subsequent photo-oxidation mechanism of DTBM in the absence and presence of nitrogen dioxide was investigated. The main carbonated products identified in the first case were acetone, formic acid, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The addition of nitrogen dioxide lead besides to the formation of (CH3)3CC(O)OONO2 and (CH3)3CONO2...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Qingxia Zhong, Anna Carratala, Sergey Nazarov, Ricardo C Guerrero-Ferreira, Laura Piccinini, Virginie Bachmann, Petr G Leiman, Tamar Kohn
Common water disinfectants like chlorine have been reported to select for resistant viruses, yet little attention has been devoted to characterizing disinfection resistance. Here, we investigated the resistance of MS2 coliphage to inactivation by chlorine dioxide (ClO2). ClO2 inactivates MS2 by degrading its structural proteins, thereby disrupting the ability of MS2 to attach to and infect its host. ClO2-resistant virus populations emerged after repeated cycles of ClO2 disinfection followed by regrowth, but also after dilution-regrowth cycles in the absence of ClO2...
October 6, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Prasenjit Barman, Abayomi S Faponle, Anil Kumar Vardhaman, Davide Angelone, Anna-Maria Löhr, Wesley R Browne, Peter Comba, Chivukula V Sastri, Sam P de Visser
Reaction bifurcation processes are often encountered in the oxidation of substrates by enzymes and generally lead to a mixture of products. One particular bifurcation process that is common in biology relates to electron transfer versus oxygen atom transfer by high-valent iron(IV)-oxo complexes, which nature uses for the oxidation of metabolites and drugs. In biomimicry and bioremediation, an important reaction relates to the detoxification of ClOx(-) in water, which can lead to a mixture of products through bifurcated reactions...
October 5, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Lin Li, Wei Ma, Xiaoli Cheng, Xuehong Ren, Zhiwei Xie, Jie Liang
As one of the most powerful biocides, N-halamine based antimicrobial materials have attracted much interest due to their non-toxicity, rechargeability, and rapid inactivation against a broad range of microorganisms. In this study, novel titanium dioxide-ADMH core-shell nanoparticles [TiO2@poly (ADMH-co-MMA) NPs] were prepared via miniemulsion polymerization using 3-allyl-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (ADMH) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) with nano-TiO2. The produced nanoparticles were characterized by FT-IR, TEM, TGA, and XPS...
September 22, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Rafael Herruzo, Maria Jose Vizcaino, Irene Herruzo, Manuel Sanchez
Assessment methods of surface disinfection based on international standards (Environmental Protection Agency, European Norms, etc) do not correspond to hospital reality. New evaluation methods of surfaces disinfection are proposed to choose the most suitable disinfectant to act against clinically relevant microorganisms detected on the surfaces of burn units. 1) "Immediate effect": 6 products were compared using a glass germ-carrier and 20 recently isolated microorganisms from different patients in the intensive care units...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Chun-Wei Chiang, Ding-Quan Ng, Yi-Pin Lin, Pei-Jen Chen
Nanoscale lead dioxide (nPbO2(s)) is a corrosion product formed from the chlorination of lead-containing plumbing materials. This metal oxide nanoparticle (NP) plays a key role in determining lead pollution in drinking water and receiving water bodies. This study uses nPbO2(s) and medaka fish (Oryzias latipes) as surrogates to investigate the aqueous fate and toxicological risk of metal oxide NPs associated with water matrices. The larvae of medaka were treated with solutions containing nPbO2(s) or Pb(II)aq in different water matrices for 7-14 days to investigate the in vivo toxic effects of NPs...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Fatima Al-Otoum, Mohammad A Al-Ghouti, Talaat A Ahmed, Mohammed Abu-Dieyeh, Mohammed Ali
The occurrence of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water, namely, chlorite, chlorate, and trihalomethanes (THMs), was investigated. Two-hundred-ninety-four drinking water samples were collected from seven desalination plants (DPs), four reservoirs (R), and eight mosques (M) distributed within various locations in southern and northern Qatar. The ClO2 concentration levels ranged from 0.38 to <0.02 mg L(-1), with mean values of 0.17, 0.12, and 0.04 mg L(-1) for the DPs, Rs, and Ms, respectively...
December 2016: Chemosphere
Jihyun Bang, Moonhak Choi, Hyeri Son, Larry R Beuchat, Yoonsook Kim, Hoikyung Kim, Jee-Hoon Ryu
Sanitizing radish seeds intended for edible sprout production was achieved by applying simultaneous treatments with gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2), high relative humidity (RH, 100%), and mild heat (55°C). Gaseous ClO2 was produced from aqueous ClO2 (0.66ml) by mixing sulfuric acid (5% w/v) with sodium chlorite (10 mg/mL) in a sealed container (1.8L). Greater amounts of gaseous ClO2 were measured at 23% RH (144ppm after 6h) than at 100% RH (66ppm after 6h); however, the lethal activity of gaseous ClO2 against naturally occurring mesophilic aerobic bacteria (MAB) on radish seeds was significantly enhanced at 100% RH...
November 21, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Daljeet Kaur, Nishi Kant Bhardwaj, Rajesh Kumar Lohchab
Pulp and paper mills are indispensable for any nation as far as the growth of the nation is concerned. Due to fast growth in population, urbanization and industrialization, the demand and consumption of paper has increased tremendously. These put high load on our natural resources and force the industry to look for alternative raw material. Rice straw is a lignocellulosic material abundantly available in wood short countries like China, India, Bangladesh, etc. and can be used as raw material for this industry...
August 16, 2016: Waste Management
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