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Chlorine Dioxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642746/virucidal-activity-of-fogged-chlorine-dioxide-and-hydrogen-peroxide-based-disinfectants-against-human-norovirus-and-its-surrogate-feline-calicivirus-on-hard-to-reach-surfaces
#1
Naim Montazeri, Clyde Manuel, Eric Moorman, Janak R Khatiwada, Leonard L Williams, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Norovirus is shed in high numbers in the feces and vomitous of infected individuals. Contact surfaces contaminated with bodily fluids harboring infectious virus particles serve as vehicles for pathogen transmission. Environmental stability of NoV and its resistance to many conventional disinfectants necessitate effective inactivation strategies to control the spread of virus. We investigated the efficacy of two commercial disinfectants, hydrogen peroxide (7...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631818/inactivation-of-bacillus-cereus-spores-on-red-chili-peppers-using-a-combined-treatment-of-aqueous-chlorine-dioxide-and-hot-air-drying
#2
Songyi Kim, Huyong Lee, Jee-Hoon Ryu, Hoikyung Kim
The effect of a combined treatment using aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) and hot-air drying to inactivate Bacillus cereus spores on red chili peppers was evaluated. Ten washed and dried pepper samples, each comprising half of a single pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), were inoculated with B. cereus spore suspension. The inoculated samples were washed with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; 50, 100, or 200 μg/mL) or ClO2 (50, 100, or 200 μg/mL) solution for 1 min and then air-dried (25 ± 1 °C, 47 ± 1% relative humidity), which was followed by drying with hot air at 55 °C for up to 48 h...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622629/bacterial-community-dynamics-in-a-cooling-tower-with-emphasis-on-pathogenic-bacteria-and-legionella-species-using-universal-and-genus-specific-deep-sequencing
#3
Rui P A Pereira, Jörg Peplies, Manfred G Höfle, Ingrid Brettar
Cooling towers are the major source of outbreaks of legionellosis in Europe and worldwide. These outbreaks are mostly associated with Legionella species, primarily L. pneumophila, and its surveillance in cooling tower environments is of high relevance to public health. In this study, a combined NGS-based approach was used to study the whole bacterial community, specific waterborne and water-based bacterial pathogens, especially Legionella species, targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This approach was applied to water from a cooling tower obtained by monthly sampling during two years...
June 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609731/degradation-of-sulfamethoxazole-using-ozone-and-chlorine-dioxide-compound-specific-stable-isotope-analysis-transformation-product-analysis-and-mechanistic-aspects
#4
Sarah Willach, Holger V Lutze, Kevin Eckey, Katja Löppenberg, Michelle Lüling, Jens Terhalle, Jens-Benjamin Wolbert, Maik A Jochmann, Uwe Karst, Torsten C Schmidt
The sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a widely detected micropollutant in surface and groundwaters. Oxidative treatment with e.g. ozone or chlorine dioxide is regularly applied for disinfection purposes at the same time exhibiting a high potential for removal of micropollutants. Especially for nitrogen containing compounds such as SMX, the related reaction mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we systematically investigated reaction stoichiometry, product formation and reaction mechanisms in reactions of SMX with ozone and chlorine dioxide...
June 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601522/comparative-toxicological-effects-of-two-antifouling-biocides-on-the-marine-diatom-chaetoceros-lorenzianus-damage-and-post-exposure-recovery
#5
Pooja Chavan, Rajesh Kumar, Ramalingam Kirubagaran, Vayalam P Venugopalan
Antifouling biocides are commonly used in coastal electric power stations to prevent biofouling in their condenser cooling systems. However, the environmental impact of the chemical biocides is less understood than the thermal stress effects caused by the condenser effluents. In this study, Chaetoceros lorenzianus, a representative marine diatom, was used to analyse the toxicity of two antifouling biocides, chlorine and chlorine dioxide. The diatom cells were subjected to a range of concentrations of the biocides (from 0...
June 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582734/characterization-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticle-removal-in-simulated-drinking-water-treatment-processes
#6
Hui-Hsien Chang, Tsun-Jen Cheng, Chin-Pao Huang, Gen-Shuh Wang
This study characterized the fate of nano-TiO2 in both powder (TiO2(P)) and suspension (TiO2(S)) forms in simulated drinking water treatments. Nano-TiO2 solutions of 0.1, 1.0, and 10mg/L were prepared with deionized water and raw waters from the Changxing and Fengshan Water Treatment Plants in Taiwan to assess the effects of water matrices on nano-TiO2 behavior during water treatment. After the laboratory simulated water treatment, including pre-chlorination, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration and post-chlorination, the residual Ti concentration ranged from 2...
June 2, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577109/phosgene-induced-acute-lung-injury-ali-differences-from-chlorine-induced-ali-and-attempts-to-translate-toxicology-to-clinical-medicine
#7
REVIEW
Wenli Li, Juergen Pauluhn
BACKGROUND: Phosgene (carbonyl dichloride) gas is an indispensable chemical inter-mediate used in numerous industrial processes. There is no clear consensus as to its time- and inhaled-dose-dependent etiopathologies and associated preventive or therapeutic treatment strategies. METHODS: Cardiopulmonary function was examined in rats exposed by inhalation to the alveolar irritant phosgene or to the airway irritant chlorine during and following exposure. Terminal measurements focused on hematology, protein extravasation in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), and increased lung weight...
December 2017: Clinical and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541794/natural-organic-matter-characterization-by-hpsec-and-its-contribution-to-trihalomethane-formation-in-athens-water-supply-network
#8
Stelios A Samios, Spyros K Golfinopoulos, Przemyslaw Andrzejewski, Joanna Świetlik
Samples from the two main watersheds that provide Athens Water Supply and Sewerage Company (AWSSC) with raw water were examined for Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) and for their molecular weight distribution (MWD). In addition, water samples from water treatment plants (WTPs) and from the water supply network were examined for trihalomethane (THMs) levels. The main purpose of this study was to reveal the molecular composition of natural organic matter (NOM) and identify the individual differences between NOM from the two main Athens watersheds...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508082/a-chlorine-free-protocol-for-processing-germanium
#9
Martin Glavinović, Michael Krause, Linju Yang, John A McLeod, Lijia Liu, Kim M Baines, Tomislav Friščić, Jean-Philip Lumb
Replacing molecular chlorine and hydrochloric acid with less energy- and risk-intensive reagents would markedly improve the environmental impact of metal manufacturing at a time when demand for metals is rapidly increasing. We describe a recyclable quinone/catechol redox platform that provides an innovative replacement for elemental chlorine and hydrochloric acid in the conversion of either germanium metal or germanium dioxide to a germanium tetrachloride substitute. Germanium is classified as a "critical" element based on its high dispersion in the environment, growing demand, and lack of suitable substitutes...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448049/controlled-release-of-chlorine-dioxide-in-a-perforated-packaging-system-to-extend-the-storage-life-and-improve-the-safety-of-grape-tomatoes
#10
Xiuxiu Sun, Elizabeth Baldwin, Anne Plotto, Jan Narciso, Christopher Ference, Mark Ritenour, Ken Harrison, Joseph Gangemi, Jinhe Bai
A controlled-release chlorine dioxide (ClO2) pouch was developed by sealing a slurry form of ClO2 into semipermeable polymer film; the release properties of the pouch were monitored in containers with or without fruit. The pouch was affixed to the inside of a perforated clamshell containing grape tomatoes, and the effect on microbial population, firmness, and weight loss was evaluated during a 14 day storage period at 20 °C. Within 3 days, the ClO2 concentration in the clamshells reached 3.5 ppm and remained constant until day 10...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445648/electron-radiolysis-of-ammonium-perchlorate-a-reflectron-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometric-study
#11
Sándor Góbi, Alexandre Bergantini, Andrew M Turner, Ralf I Kaiser
Thin films of ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4) were exposed to energetic electrons at 5.5 K to explore the radiolytic decomposition mechanisms. The effects of radiolysis were monitored on line and in situ via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) in the condensed phase along with electron impact ionization quadrupole mass spectrometry (EI-QMS) and single-photon photoionization reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PI-ReTOF-MS) during the temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) phase to probe the subliming molecules...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441005/plasma-activated-copper-nanocube-catalysts-for-efficient-carbon-dioxide-electroreduction-to-hydrocarbons-and-alcohols
#12
Dunfeng Gao, Ioannis Zegkinoglou, Nuria J Divins, Fabian Scholten, Ilya Sinev, Philipp Grosse, Beatriz Roldan Cuenya
Carbon dioxide electroreduction to chemicals and fuels powered by renewable energy sources is considered a promising path to address climate change and energy storage needs. We have developed highly active and selective copper (Cu) nanocube catalysts with tunable Cu(100) facet and oxygen/chlorine ion content by low-pressure plasma pretreatments. These catalysts display lower overpotentials and higher ethylene, ethanol, and n-propanol selectivity, resulting in a maximum Faradaic efficiency (FE) of ∼73% for C2 and C3 products...
May 1, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418706/radiation-driven-formation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-oxychlorine-containing-mars-surface-analogues
#13
Christos D Georgiou, Dimitrios Zisimopoulos, Electra Kalaitzopoulou, Richard C Quinn
The present study demonstrates that γ-radiolyzed perchlorate-containing Mars soil salt analogues (in a CO2 atmosphere) generate upon H2O wetting the reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide radical (O2(•-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radicals ((•)OH). This study also validates that analogue radiolysis forms oxychlorine species that, in turn, can UV-photolyze to (•)OH upon UV photolysis. This investigation was made possible by the development of a new assay for inorganic-origin O2(•-) and H2O2 determination and by the modification of a previous assay for soil (•)OH...
April 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409922/generation-of-gaseous-clo2-from-thin-films-of-solid-naclo2-by-sequential-exposure-to-ultraviolet-light-and-moisture
#14
Rishabh Jain, Reza Abbasi, Kevin Nelson, David Busche, David M Lynn, Nicholas L Abbott
We report that thin films of solid sodium chlorite (NaClO2) can be photochemically activated by irradiation with ultraviolet (UV) light to generate gaseous chlorine dioxide (ClO2) upon subsequent exposure to moisture. The limiting role of water in the reaction is evidenced by an increase in yield of ClO2 with relative humidity of the gas stream passed over the UV-activated salt. The UV-activated state of the NaClO2 was found to possess a half-life of 48 h, revealing the presence of long-lived UV activated species that subsequently react with water to produce gaseous ClO2...
May 3, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404372/enantioseparation-of-novel-chiral-sulfoxides-on-chlorinated-polysaccharide-stationary-phases-in-supercritical-fluid-chromatography
#15
Caroline West, Mari-Luiza Konjaria, Natia Shashviashvili, Elise Lemasson, Pascal Bonnet, Rusudan Kakava, Alessandro Volonterio, Bezhan Chankvetadze
Asymmetric sulfoxides is a particular case of chirality that may be found in natural as well as synthetic products. Twenty-four original molecules containing a sulfur atom as a centre of chirality were analyzed in supercritical fluid chromatography on seven polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases (CSP) with carbon dioxide - methanol mobile phases. While all the tested CSP provided enantioseparation for a large part of the racemates, chlorinated cellulosic phases proved to be both highly retentive and highly enantioselective towards these species...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367867/kinetics-of-the-inactivation-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-in-weakly-acidic-sodium-chlorite-solution
#16
Kazuhiro Takahashi, Reiji Tanaka, Satoshi Fukuzaki
 The kinetics of the inactivation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in sodium chlorite (NaClO2) solution was studied in the weakly acidic pH range of 4.0 to 6.5 and at various temperatures. The logarithmic reduction of the survival ratio depended on the concentration-time product, and all the inactivation curves showed a linear reduction phase. The first-order inactivation rate constant (k) increased by approximately twice for every 0.44 unit fall in pH. During the inactivation experiments, no formation of chlorine dioxide occurred...
2017: Biocontrol Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345631/structure-of-the-cyanuric-acid-hydrolase-trzd-reveals-product-exit-channel
#17
Asim K Bera, Kelly G Aukema, Mikael Elias, Lawrence P Wackett
Cyanuric acid hydrolases are of industrial importance because of their use in aquatic recreational facilities to remove cyanuric acid, a stabilizer for the chlorine. Degradation of excess cyanuric acid is necessary to maintain chlorine disinfection in the waters. Cyanuric acid hydrolase opens the cyanuric acid ring hydrolytically and subsequent decarboxylation produces carbon dioxide and biuret. In the present study, we report the X-ray structure of TrzD, a cyanuric acid hydrolase from Acidovorax citrulli. The crystal structure at 2...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327506/efficacy-and-safety-evaluation-of-a-chlorine-dioxide-solution
#18
Jui-Wen Ma, Bin-Syuan Huang, Chu-Wei Hsu, Chun-Wei Peng, Ming-Long Cheng, Jung-Yie Kao, Tzong-Der Way, Hao-Chang Yin, Shan-Shue Wang
In this study, a chlorine dioxide solution (UC-1) composed of chlorine dioxide was produced using an electrolytic method and subsequently purified using a membrane. UC-1 was determined to contain 2000 ppm of gaseous chlorine dioxide in water. The efficacy and safety of UC-1 were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity was more than 98.2% reduction when UC-1 concentrations were 5 and 20 ppm for bacteria and fungi, respectively. The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of H1N1, influenza virus B/TW/71718/04, and EV71 were 84...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319884/sodium-chlorate-induces-dna-damage-and-dna-protein-cross-linking-in-rat-intestine-a-dose-dependent-study
#19
Shaikh Nisar Ali, Fariheen Aisha Ansari, Hussain Arif, Riaz Mahmood
Sodium chlorate (NaClO3) is widely used in paper and pulp industries and as a non-selective herbicide. It is also a major by-product generated upon disinfection of drinking water by chlorine dioxide. In this study, we have investigated the genotoxicity of NaClO3 on the small intestine of rats. Adult male rats were divided into 5 groups: one control and four NaClO3 treated groups. The NaClO3 treated groups were given a single acute oral dose of NaClO3 (100, 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight) and sacrificed 24 h later...
June 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304018/graphene-nanobubbles-on-tio2-for-in-operando-electron-spectroscopy-of-liquid-phase-chemistry
#20
S Nappini, A Matruglio, D Naumenko, S Dal Zilio, F Bondino, M Lazzarino, E Magnano
X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) provide unique knowledge on the electronic structure and chemical properties of materials. Unfortunately this information is scarce when investigating solid/liquid interfaces and chemical or photochemical reactions under ambient conditions because of the short electron inelastic mean free path (IMFP) that requires a vacuum environment, which poses serious limitation on the application of XPS and XAS to samples present in the atmosphere or in the presence of a solvent...
March 17, 2017: Nanoscale
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