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Chlorine Dioxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139579/topical-adjuvants-incompletely-remove-adherent-staphylococcus-aureus-from-implant-materials
#1
Emily P Ernest, Anthony S Machi, Brock A Karolcik, P Rocco LaSala, Matthew J Dietz
Adjuvant treatments including Betadine, Dakin's solution (sodium hypochlorite), or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) have been attempted to eradicate prosthetic joint infection caused by biofilm or intracellular bacteria. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro abilities of chemical adjuvants to decrease Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) biofilm presence on orthopaedic implant grade materials, including titanium, stainless steel, and cobalt chrome. S. aureus biofilms were grown for 48 hours and evaluated for baseline colony forming units/centimeter squared (CFU/cm(2) ) and compared to treatments with Betadine, Dakin's solution, H2 O2 , or 1% chlorine dioxide (ClO2 )...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107875/the-henry-s-constant-of-monochloramine
#2
Miguel A Garcia, Michael A Anderson
Monochloramine is a secondary disinfectant used in drinking water and is also formed in chlorinated wastewater. While known to hydrolyze over time and react with dissolved organic matter, its partitioning between the aqueous and gas phase has not been extensively studied. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that monochloramine concentrations in solutions open to the atmosphere or actively aerated decreased more rapidly than in sealed solutions, indicating significant losses to the atmosphere. For example, a monochloramine solution open to the atmosphere yielded a loss rate constant of 0...
October 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092443/chlorine-dioxide-induced-and-congo-red-inhibited-marangoni-effect-on-the-chlorite-trithionate-reaction-front
#3
Yang Liu, Xingfeng Ren, Changwei Pan, Ting Zheng, Ling Yuan, Juhua Zheng, Qingyu Gao
Hydrodynamic flows can exert multiple effects on an exothermal autocatalytic reaction, such as buoyancy and the Marangoni convection, which can change the structure and velocity of chemical waves. Here we report that in the chlorite-trithionate reaction, the production and consumption of chlorine dioxide can induce and inhibit Marangoni flow, respectively, leading to different chemo-hydrodynamic patterns. The horizontal propagation of a reaction-diffusion-convection front was investigated with the upper surface open to the air...
October 2017: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046672/cross-resistance-of-uv-or-chlorine-dioxide-resistant-echovirus-11-to-other-disinfectants
#4
Qingxia Zhong, Anna Carratalà, Rachele Ossola, Virginie Bachmann, Tamar Kohn
The emergence of waterborne viruses with resistance to disinfection has been demonstrated in the laboratory and in the environment. Yet, the implications of such resistance for virus control remain obscure. In this study we investigate if viruses with resistance to a given disinfection method exhibit cross-resistance to other disinfectants. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2)- or UV-resistant populations of echovirus 11 were exposed to five inactivating treatments (free chlorine, ClO2, UV radiation, sunlight, and heat), and the extent of cross-resistance was determined...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045934/a-comparison-of-genotoxicity-change-in-reclaimed-wastewater-from-different-disinfection-processes
#5
Qiwan Chai, Allen Hu, Yukun Qian, Xiuwei Ao, Wenjun Liu, Hongwei Yang, Yuefeng F Xie
Effluents before disinfection from four wastewater reclamation plants were treated with chlorine (Cl2), ozone (O3), chlorine dioxide (ClO2), medium-pressure ultraviolet (MPUV) and four different combinations of the above, to evaluate the effect of disinfection processes on the genotoxicity removal by the SOS/umu test. Results showed that the genotoxicity increased after MPUV irradiation (10-100 mJ/cm(2)), but declined when adopting other disinfection processes. The effectiveness of genotoxicity reduction by five chemical disinfectants was identified as: O3 > pre-ozonation with Cl2 ≈ ClO2 > combination of ClO2 and Cl2 > Cl2...
October 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035101/biofilm-formation-antimicrobial-resistance-and-sanitizer-tolerance-of-salmonella-enterica-strains-isolated-from-beef-trim
#6
Rong Wang, John W Schmidt, Dayna M Harhay, Joseph M Bosilevac, David A King, Terrance M Arthur
In the beef industry, product contamination by Salmonella enterica is a serious public health concern, which may result in human infection and cause significant financial loss due to product recalls. Currently, the precise mechanism and pathogen source responsible for Salmonella contamination in commercial establishments are not well understood. We characterized 89 S. enterica strains isolated from beef trim with respect to their biofilm-forming ability, antimicrobial resistance, and biofilm cell survival/recovery growth after sanitizer exposure...
October 16, 2017: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032209/customizing-the-spent-coffee-for-trichoderma-reesei-cellulase-immobilization-by-modification-with-activating-agents
#7
Aneta Buntić, Marija Pavlović, Dušan Antonović, Vladimir Pavlović, Dragana Vrućinić, Slavica Šiler-Marinković, Suzana Dimitrijević-Branković
This study has explored the possibility to reuse the waste, spent coffee material for the cellulase enzyme immobilization. By the coffee surface modification with different activating agents, it was attempted to develop the convenient method for creation of a capable porous carrier for this purpose. Among the most common activating agents, glutaraldehyde, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide provided the most acceptable choice for the coffee surface modification. The changes that occurred on the coffee surface due to agents' treatment exposure were recorded by using of the FTIR spectra and SEM micrographs...
October 12, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026068/hollow-mno2-as-a-tumor-microenvironment-responsive-biodegradable-nano-platform-for-combination-therapy-favoring-antitumor-immune-responses
#8
Guangbao Yang, Ligeng Xu, Yu Chao, Jun Xu, Xiaoqi Sun, Yifan Wu, Rui Peng, Zhuang Liu
Herein, an intelligent biodegradable hollow manganese dioxide (H-MnO2) nano-platform is developed for not only tumor microenvironment (TME)-specific imaging and on-demand drug release, but also modulation of hypoxic TME to enhance cancer therapy, resulting in comprehensive effects favoring anti-tumor immune responses. With hollow structures, H-MnO2 nanoshells post modification with polyethylene glycol (PEG) could be co-loaded with a photodynamic agent chlorine e6 (Ce6), and a chemotherapy drug doxorubicin (DOX)...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024715/proposal-of-a-flow-scheme-for-the-chemical-form-based-quantitative-analysis-of-chlorine-compounds-in-pulp-for-sanitary-products-and-verification-of-safety
#9
Takeharu Wada, Kei Iwasaki, Yasushi Minobe, Mitsuhiro Wada, Shigeo Imai, Satoko Ishii
To determine the amounts and chemical forms of chlorine compounds in elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleached pulp for sanitary products, a chemical-form-based quantitative analysis flow scheme was created. The scheme involves quantitative determination of compounds eluted in elution tests assuming dermal exposure. The results indicated that most of the chlorine compounds in pulp used for sanitary products were insoluble organically bound chlorine and water-soluble chlorides consisting of chloride ions. The total amount of chlorine obtained by analysis of the total chlorine in the pulp products was close to the sum of the amounts of water-soluble chlorides, residual chlorine, chloroacetic acids, and insoluble organically bound chlorine...
October 9, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989509/is-a-chlorine-dioxide-wiping-procedure-suitable-for-the-high-level-disinfection-of-nasendoscopes
#10
Noureddine Henoun Loukili, Nadine Lemaitre, Benoit Guery, Olivier Gaillot, Dominique Chevalier, Geoffrey Mortuaire
BACKGROUND: Nasendoscopes are widely used in the outpatient ENT setting. Their reprocessing requires high-level disinfection (HLD). Recently, a wiping procedure using chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has been proposed as an alternative to HLD traditional procedures. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of the HLD wiping procedure versus soaking procedure on a contaminated nasendoscope. METHOD: A nasendoscope was contaminated with four strains of bacteria and Bacillus subtilis spores...
March 2017: Journal of Infection Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926732/multifunctional-mesoporous-zro2-encapsulated-upconversion-nanoparticles-for-mild-nir-light-activated-synergistic-cancer-therapy
#11
Lili Feng, Shili Gai, Fei He, Yunlu Dai, Chongna Zhong, Piaoping Yang, Jun Lin
Desirable nanosystem that could not only deliver drugs safely and effectively into tumor sites, but also be expected to serve as photosensitizer to realize the photodynamic therapeutic function, would be of great significance in the synergistic cancer therapy. To perform this task, a multifunctional nanosystem has been developed for markedly enhanced cancer therapeutic efficacy by loading chemotherapy agent (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX) and photosensitive drug chlorin e6 (Ce6) into the channels of mesoporous zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) layer which coats on Nd(3+)-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)...
December 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917570/detection-of-viable-but-nonculturable-legionella-in-hospital-water-network-following-monochloramine-disinfection
#12
Beatrice Casini, Angelo Baggiani, Michele Totaro, Antonella Mansi, Anna Laura Costa, Francesco Aquino, Mario Miccoli, Paola Valentini, Fabrizio Bruschi, Pier Luigi Lopalco, Gaetano Privitera
BACKGROUND: Prevention of legionellosis still remains a critical issue in healthcare settings where monochloramine (MC) disinfection was recently introduced as a good alternative to chlorine dioxide in controlling Legionella spp. contamination of the hospital water network. Continuous treatments with low MC doses in some instances have induced a viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) of Legionella spp. AIM: We investigated the occurrence of such dormant cells during a long period of continuous MC treatment...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872854/kinetics-and-mechanism-of-the-chlorate-nitrous-acid-reaction
#13
Rafaela T P Sant'Anna, Roberto B Faria
The chlorate-nitrous acid reaction was investigated in acid media, using a high concentration of reagents. It was followed via ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) spectroscopy and presented a complex behavior. The order of reagents, and the products formed by this reaction, are dependent on the concentration of reagents. For the high concentration set we used, the reaction has shown a first-order behavior for H(+) and HNO2, and an order equal to 0.79 for chlorate. In this case, chlorine dioxide is formed. Moreover, chlorine dioxide starts to form only after all HNO2 has been consumed...
September 5, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843153/inactivation-of-three-genera-of-dominant-fungal-spores-in-groundwater-using-chlorine-dioxide-effectiveness-influencing-factors-and-mechanisms
#14
Gang Wen, Xiangqian Xu, Tinglin Huang, Hong Zhu, Jun Ma
Fungi in aquatic environments received more attention recently; therefore, the characteristics of inactivation of fungal spores by widely used disinfectants are quite important. Nonetheless, the inactivation efficacy of fungal spores by chlorine dioxide is poorly known. In this study, the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide at inactivation of three dominant genera of fungal spores isolated from drinking groundwater and the effects of pH, temperature, chlorine dioxide concentration, and humic acid were evaluated...
November 15, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841469/catalytic-oxidation-of-pcdd-f-on-a-v2o5-wo3-tio2-catalyst-effect-of-chlorinated-benzenes-and-chlorinated-phenols
#15
Longjie Ji, Xuan Cao, Shengyong Lu, Cuicui Du, Xiaodong Li, Tong Chen, Alfons Buekens, Jianhua Yan
Catalytic oxidation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) is a well-proven technique, applied in a rising number of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration plants, yet the simultaneous and possibly competitive co-oxidation of other compounds, such as chlorinated benzenes (CBz) or phenols (CP), is still poorly documented. In this study, a grinded commercial catalyst (vanadium-tungsten supported on titanium dioxide) was submitted to exploratory testing: the PCDD/F present in a gas test flow were catalytically oxidised (200°C, 10,000h(-1)), either as such or in the presence of benzene (Bz), monochlorobenzene (MCBz), and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCBz) and the effect of these additions on the catalytic destruction of PCDD/F was verified experimentally...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837336/resistance-of-echovirus-11-to-clo2-is-associated-with-enhanced-host-receptor-use-altered-entry-routes-and-high-fitness
#16
Qingxia Zhong, Anna Carratalà, Hyunjin Shim, Virginie Bachmann, Jeffrey D Jensen, Tamar Kohn
Waterborne viruses can exhibit resistance to common water disinfectants, yet the mechanisms that allow them to tolerate disinfection are poorly understood. Here, we generated echovirus 11 (E11) with resistance to chlorine dioxide (ClO2) by experimental evolution, and we assessed the associated genotypic and phenotypic traits. ClO2 resistance emerged after E11 populations were repeatedly reduced (either by ClO2-exposure or by dilution) and then regrown in cell culture. The resistance was linked to an improved capacity of E11 to bind to its host cells, which was further attributed to two potential causes: first, the resistant E11 populations possessed mutations that caused amino acid substitutions from ClO2-labile to ClO2-stable residues in the viral proteins, which likely increased the chemical stability of the capsid toward ClO2...
September 19, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830695/unintentional-contaminant-transfer-from-groundwater-to-the-vadose-zone-during-source-zone-remediation-of-volatile-organic-compounds
#17
Andrea D Chong, K Ulrich Mayer
Historical heavy use of chlorinated solvents in conjunction with improper disposal practices and accidental releases has resulted in widespread contamination of soils and groundwater in North America and worldwide. As a result, remediation of chlorinated solvents is required at many sites. For source zone treatment, common remediation strategies include in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using potassium or sodium permanganate, and the enhancement of biodegradation by primary substrate addition. It is well known that these remediation methods tend to generate gas (carbon dioxide (CO2) in the case of ISCO using permanganate, CO2 and methane (CH4) in the case of bioremediation)...
September 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821100/activation-of-tempo-by-clo2-for-oxidation-of-cellulose-by-hypochlorite-fundamental-and-practical-aspects-of-the-catalytic-system
#18
Timo Pääkkönen, Raili Pönni, Jinze Dou, Markus Nuopponen, Tapani Vuorinen
Bromide-free TEMPO-catalyzed oxidation of the primary alcohols by sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) does not proceed without a prior activation of the catalyst. Here were demonstrate an immediate in situ activation of the catalyst with an equimolar addition of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) relative to TEMPO. Sodium bromide (NaBr) had a similar role in activating the catalyst although NaBr was needed in excess and the activation took several minutes depending on the dosage of NaBr. The activation method, or the concentration of NaBr, did not affect the bulk oxidation rate...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815686/the-cost-of-being-clean-a-cost-analysis-of-nasopharyngoscope-reprocessing-techniques
#19
Leigh J Sowerby, Luke Rudmik
OBJECTIVE: Nasopharyngoscopes are an essential instrument to otolaryngologists; reprocessing them in a high-value manner is paramount. Although several different techniques for reprocessing exist, all methods yield similar effectiveness. Given equivalent effectiveness outcomes, a cost analysis of four nasopharyngoscope reprocessing techniques was performed. STUDY DESIGN: Cost-minimization analysis. METHODS: Four techniques were evaluated: 1) an automated reprocessor using peracetic acid (Steris System 1; Steris Canada Inc...
August 16, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806070/high-levels-of-daytime-molecular-chlorine-and-nitryl-chloride-at-a-rural-site-on-the-north-china-plain
#20
Xiaoxi Liu, Hang Qu, L Gregory Huey, Yuhang Wang, Steven Sjostedt, Limin Zeng, Keding Lu, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, Min Shao, Tong Zhu, Yuanhang Zhang
Molecular chlorine (Cl2) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) concentrations were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry at a rural site over the North China Plain during June 2014. High levels of daytime Cl2 up to ∼450 pptv were observed. The average diurnal Cl2 mixing ratios showed a maximum around noon at ∼100 pptv. ClNO2 exhibited a strong diurnal variation with early morning maxima reaching ppbv levels and afternoon minima sustained above 60 pptv. A moderate correlation (R(2) = 0.31) between Cl2 and sulfur dioxide was observed, perhaps indicating a role for power plant emissions in the generation of the observed chlorine...
August 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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