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Chlorine Dioxide

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926732/multifunctional-mesoporous-zro2-encapsulated-upconversion-nanoparticles-for-mild-nir-light-activated-synergistic-cancer-therapy
#1
Lili Feng, Shili Gai, Fei He, Yunlu Dai, Chongna Zhong, Piaoping Yang, Jun Lin
Desirable nanosystem that could not only deliver drugs safely and effectively into tumor sites, but also be expected to serve as photosensitizer to realize the photodynamic therapeutic function, would be of great significance in the synergistic cancer therapy. To perform this task, a multifunctional nanosystem has been developed for markedly enhanced cancer therapeutic efficacy by loading chemotherapy agent (doxorubicin hydrochloride, DOX) and photosensitive drug chlorin e6 (Ce6) into the channels of mesoporous zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) layer which coats on Nd(3+)-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs)...
September 13, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917570/detection-of-viable-but-nonculturable-legionella-in-hospital-water-network-following-monochloramine-disinfection
#2
Beatrice Casini, Angelo Baggiani, Michele Totaro, Antonella Mansi, Anna Laura Costa, Francesco Aquino, Mario Miccoli, Paola Valentini, Fabrizio Bruschi, Pier Luigi Lopalco, Gaetano Privitera
BACKGROUND: Prevention of legionellosis still remains a critical issue in healthcare settings where monochloramine (MC) disinfection was recently introduced as a good alternative to chlorine dioxide in controlling Legionella spp. contamination of the hospital water network. Continuous treatments with low MC doses in some instances have induced a viable but non-culturable state (VBNC) of Legionella spp. AIM: We investigated the occurrence of such dormant cells during a long period of continuous MC treatment...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872854/kinetics-and-mechanism-of-the-chlorate-nitrous-acid-reaction
#3
Rafaela T P Sant'Anna, Roberto B Faria
The chlorate-nitrous acid reaction was investigated in acid media, using a high concentration of reagents. It was followed via ultraviolet-visible light (UV-vis) spectroscopy and presented a complex behavior. The order of reagents, and the products formed by this reaction, are dependent on the concentration of reagents. For the high concentration set we used, the reaction has shown a first-order behavior for H(+) and HNO2, and an order equal to 0.79 for chlorate. In this case, chlorine dioxide is formed. Moreover, chlorine dioxide starts to form only after all HNO2 has been consumed...
September 5, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843153/inactivation-of-three-genera-of-dominant-fungal-spores-in-groundwater-using-chlorine-dioxide-effectiveness-influencing-factors-and-mechanisms
#4
Gang Wen, Xiangqian Xu, Tinglin Huang, Hong Zhu, Jun Ma
Fungi in aquatic environments received more attention recently; therefore, the characteristics of inactivation of fungal spores by widely used disinfectants are quite important. Nonetheless, the inactivation efficacy of fungal spores by chlorine dioxide is poorly known. In this study, the effectiveness of chlorine dioxide at inactivation of three dominant genera of fungal spores isolated from drinking groundwater and the effects of pH, temperature, chlorine dioxide concentration, and humic acid were evaluated...
August 18, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841469/catalytic-oxidation-of-pcdd-f-on-a-v2o5-wo3-tio2-catalyst-effect-of-chlorinated-benzenes-and-chlorinated-phenols
#5
Longjie Ji, Xuan Cao, Shengyong Lu, Cuicui Du, Xiaodong Li, Tong Chen, Alfons Buekens, Jianhua Yan
Catalytic oxidation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) is a well-proven technique, applied in a rising number of Municipal Solid Waste Incineration plants, yet the simultaneous and possibly competitive co-oxidation of other compounds, such as chlorinated benzenes (CBz) or phenols (CP), is still poorly documented. In this study, a grinded commercial catalyst (vanadium-tungsten supported on titanium dioxide) was submitted to exploratory testing: the PCDD/F present in a gas test flow were catalytically oxidised (200°C, 10,000h(-1)), either as such or in the presence of benzene (Bz), monochlorobenzene (MCBz), and 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCBz) and the effect of these additions on the catalytic destruction of PCDD/F was verified experimentally...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837336/resistance-of-echovirus-11-to-clo2-is-associated-with-enhanced-host-receptor-use-altered-entry-routes-and-high-fitness
#6
Qingxia Zhong, Anna Carratalà, Hyunjin Shim, Virginie Bachmann, Jeffrey D Jensen, Tamar Kohn
Waterborne viruses can exhibit resistance to common water disinfectants, yet the mechanisms that allow them to tolerate disinfection are poorly understood. Here, we generated echovirus 11 (E11) with resistance to chlorine dioxide (ClO2) by experimental evolution, and we assessed the associated genotypic and phenotypic traits. ClO2 resistance emerged after E11 populations were repeatedly reduced (either by ClO2-exposure or by dilution) and then regrown in cell culture. The resistance was linked to an improved capacity of E11 to bind to its host cells, which was further attributed to two potential causes: first, the resistant E11 populations possessed mutations that caused amino acid substitutions from ClO2-labile to ClO2-stable residues in the viral proteins, which likely increased the chemical stability of the capsid toward ClO2...
September 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830695/unintentional-contaminant-transfer-from-groundwater-to-the-vadose-zone-during-source-zone-remediation-of-volatile-organic-compounds
#7
Andrea D Chong, K Ulrich Mayer
Historical heavy use of chlorinated solvents in conjunction with improper disposal practices and accidental releases has resulted in widespread contamination of soils and groundwater in North America and worldwide. As a result, remediation of chlorinated solvents is required at many sites. For source zone treatment, common remediation strategies include in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) using potassium or sodium permanganate, and the enhancement of biodegradation by primary substrate addition. It is well known that these remediation methods tend to generate gas (carbon dioxide (CO2) in the case of ISCO using permanganate, CO2 and methane (CH4) in the case of bioremediation)...
September 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821100/activation-of-tempo-by-clo2-for-oxidation-of-cellulose-by-hypochlorite-fundamental-and-practical-aspects-of-the-catalytic-system
#8
Timo Pääkkönen, Raili Pönni, Jinze Dou, Markus Nuopponen, Tapani Vuorinen
Bromide-free TEMPO-catalyzed oxidation of the primary alcohols by sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) does not proceed without a prior activation of the catalyst. Here were demonstrate an immediate in situ activation of the catalyst with an equimolar addition of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) relative to TEMPO. Sodium bromide (NaBr) had a similar role in activating the catalyst although NaBr was needed in excess and the activation took several minutes depending on the dosage of NaBr. The activation method, or the concentration of NaBr, did not affect the bulk oxidation rate...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815686/the-cost-of-being-clean-a-cost-analysis-of-nasopharyngoscope-reprocessing-techniques
#9
Leigh J Sowerby, Luke Rudmik
OBJECTIVE: Nasopharyngoscopes are an essential instrument to otolaryngologists; reprocessing them in a high-value manner is paramount. Although several different techniques for reprocessing exist, all methods yield similar effectiveness. Given equivalent effectiveness outcomes, a cost analysis of four nasopharyngoscope reprocessing techniques was performed. STUDY DESIGN: Cost-minimization analysis. METHODS: Four techniques were evaluated: 1) an automated reprocessor using peracetic acid (Steris System 1; Steris Canada Inc...
August 16, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806070/high-levels-of-daytime-molecular-chlorine-and-nitryl-chloride-at-a-rural-site-on-the-north-china-plain
#10
Xiaoxi Liu, Hang Qu, L Gregory Huey, Yuhang Wang, Steven Sjostedt, Limin Zeng, Keding Lu, Yusheng Wu, Min Hu, Min Shao, Tong Zhu, Yuanhang Zhang
Molecular chlorine (Cl2) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) concentrations were measured using chemical ionization mass spectrometry at a rural site over the North China Plain during June 2014. High levels of daytime Cl2 up to ∼450 pptv were observed. The average diurnal Cl2 mixing ratios showed a maximum around noon at ∼100 pptv. ClNO2 exhibited a strong diurnal variation with early morning maxima reaching ppbv levels and afternoon minima sustained above 60 pptv. A moderate correlation (R(2) = 0.31) between Cl2 and sulfur dioxide was observed, perhaps indicating a role for power plant emissions in the generation of the observed chlorine...
August 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774629/characterization-of-halogenated-dbps-and-identification-of-new-dbps-trihalomethanols-in-chlorine-dioxide-treated-drinking-water-with-multiple-extractions
#11
Jiarui Han, Xiangru Zhang, Jiaqi Liu, Xiaohu Zhu, Tingting Gong
Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a widely used alternative disinfectant due to its high biocidal efficiency and low-level formation of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. A major portion of total organic halogen (TOX), a collective parameter for all halogenated DBPs, formed in ClO2-treated drinking water is still unknown. A commonly used pretreatment method for analyzing halogenated DBPs in drinking water is one-time liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which may lead to a substantial loss of DBPs prior to analysis...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774604/impact-of-combining-chlorine-dioxide-and-chlorine-on-dbp-formation-in-simulated-indoor-swimming-pools
#12
Daekyun Kim, Nuray Ates, Sehnaz Sule Kaplan Bekaroglu, Meric Selbes, Tanju Karanfil
The main objective of this study was to assess the combined use of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and chlorine (Cl2) on the speciation and kinetics of disinfection by-product (DBP) formation in swimming pools using synthetic pool waters prepared with a body fluid analog (BFA) and/or fresh natural water. At 1:25 (mass ratio) of ClO2 to Cl2, there was no significant reduction in the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) for both BFA solution and natural water compared to the application of Cl2 alone...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704664/a-primary-estimation-of-pcdd-fs-release-reduction-from-non-wood-pulp-and-paper-industry-in-china-based-on-the-investigation-of-pulp-bleaching-with-chlorine-converting-to-chlorine-dioxide
#13
Qingcong Xiao, Xiaoqian Song, Wenchao Li, Yuanna Zhang, Hongchen Wang
Chlorine bleaching technology (C process, CEH process, H process and theirs combination), which was identified as a primary formation source of PCDD/Fs, is still widely used by the vast majority of Chinese non-wood pulp and paper mills (non-wood PMs). The purpose of this study was to provide information and data support for further eliminating dioxin for non-wood PMs in China, and especially to evaluate the PCDD/Fs release reduction for those mills converting their pulp bleaching processes from CEH to ECF. The PCDD/Fs concentrations of the bleached pulp and bleaching wastewater with ECF bleaching were in the ranges of 0...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666531/the-influence-of-ocean-halogen-and-sulfur-emissions-in-the-air-quality-of-a-coastal-megacity-the-case-of-los-angeles
#14
Maria Muñiz-Unamunzaga, Rafael Borge, Golam Sarwar, Brett Gantt, David de la Paz, Carlos A Cuevas, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez
The oceans are the main source of natural halogen and sulfur compounds, which have a significant influence on the oxidizing capacity of the marine atmosphere; however, their impact on the air quality of coastal cities is currently unknown. We explore the effect of marine halogens (Cl, Br and I) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) on the air quality of a large coastal city through a set of high-resolution (4-km) air quality simulations for the urban area of Los Angeles, US, using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ model)...
June 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659553/microbial-fouling-in-a-water-treatment-plant-and-its-control-using-biocides
#15
T S Rao, Rajesh Kumar, P Balamurugan, G K Vithal
 Water treatment plants (WTP) are vital in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical process industries. This investigation describes the dense microbial fouling by microbes and organic compounds in a WTP of a heavy water producing industrial unit. On-site observations showed severe algal and bacterial growth in the various units of the WTP which are open to the atmosphere and very dense fungal fouling in the closed vacuum degasser unit. Digital and microscopic images showed that the microbial fouling problem was primarily due to a fungus...
2017: Biocontrol Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658907/effect-of-5-chlorine-dioxide-irrigant-on-micro-push-out-bond-strength-of-resin-sealer-to-radicular-dentin-an-in-vitro-study
#16
Rejitha R Kamalasanan, Swapna V Devarasanahalli, Ranjini M Aswathanarayana, K Rashmi, Yashwanth Gowda, Roopa R Nadig
INTRODUCTION: Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) has been recently investigated as a possible root canal irrigant due to its broad spectrum of antimicrobial action, tissue dissolution and smear layer removal properties. Literature is scarce on the effect of chlorine dioxide irrigation on the resin sealer dentin bond strength. AIM: To compare 5% chlorine dioxide (ClO2) with or without Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic acid (EDTA) with 3% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and EDTA combination as endodontic irrigants on the adhesion of AH Plus sealer to radicular dentin using micro- Push out Bond Strength (µPBS) test...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642746/virucidal-activity-of-fogged-chlorine-dioxide-and-hydrogen-peroxide-based-disinfectants-against-human-norovirus-and-its-surrogate-feline-calicivirus-on-hard-to-reach-surfaces
#17
Naim Montazeri, Clyde Manuel, Eric Moorman, Janak R Khatiwada, Leonard L Williams, Lee-Ann Jaykus
Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of foodborne illnesses in the United States. Norovirus is shed in high numbers in the feces and vomitous of infected individuals. Contact surfaces contaminated with bodily fluids harboring infectious virus particles serve as vehicles for pathogen transmission. Environmental stability of NoV and its resistance to many conventional disinfectants necessitate effective inactivation strategies to control the spread of virus. We investigated the efficacy of two commercial disinfectants, hydrogen peroxide (7...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631818/inactivation-of-bacillus-cereus-spores-on-red-chili-peppers-using-a-combined-treatment-of-aqueous-chlorine-dioxide-and-hot-air-drying
#18
Songyi Kim, Huyong Lee, Jee-Hoon Ryu, Hoikyung Kim
The effect of a combined treatment using aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) and hot-air drying to inactivate Bacillus cereus spores on red chili peppers was evaluated. Ten washed and dried pepper samples, each comprising half of a single pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), were inoculated with B. cereus spore suspension. The inoculated samples were washed with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; 50, 100, or 200 μg/mL) or ClO2 (50, 100, or 200 μg/mL) solution for 1 min and then air-dried (25 ± 1 °C, 47 ± 1% relative humidity), which was followed by drying with hot air at 55 °C for up to 48 h...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622629/bacterial-community-dynamics-in-a-cooling-tower-with-emphasis-on-pathogenic-bacteria-and-legionella-species-using-universal-and-genus-specific-deep-sequencing
#19
Rui P A Pereira, Jörg Peplies, Manfred G Höfle, Ingrid Brettar
Cooling towers are the major source of outbreaks of legionellosis in Europe and worldwide. These outbreaks are mostly associated with Legionella species, primarily L. pneumophila, and its surveillance in cooling tower environments is of high relevance to public health. In this study, a combined NGS-based approach was used to study the whole bacterial community, specific waterborne and water-based bacterial pathogens, especially Legionella species, targeting the 16S rRNA gene. This approach was applied to water from a cooling tower obtained by monthly sampling during two years...
June 6, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609731/degradation-of-sulfamethoxazole-using-ozone-and-chlorine-dioxide-compound-specific-stable-isotope-analysis-transformation-product-analysis-and-mechanistic-aspects
#20
Sarah Willach, Holger V Lutze, Kevin Eckey, Katja Löppenberg, Michelle Lüling, Jens Terhalle, Jens-Benjamin Wolbert, Maik A Jochmann, Uwe Karst, Torsten C Schmidt
The sulfonamide antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is a widely detected micropollutant in surface and groundwaters. Oxidative treatment with e.g. ozone or chlorine dioxide is regularly applied for disinfection purposes at the same time exhibiting a high potential for removal of micropollutants. Especially for nitrogen containing compounds such as SMX, the related reaction mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we systematically investigated reaction stoichiometry, product formation and reaction mechanisms in reactions of SMX with ozone and chlorine dioxide...
June 3, 2017: Water Research
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